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Umlando omfishane nemisebenzi ka nyembezi

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The history of Lincoln Sibusiso Nyembezi

Publicada em: Educação
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Umlando omfishane nemisebenzi ka nyembezi

  1. 1. Umlando kaLincoln Sibusiso Nyembenzi Sizozinquma amakhanda siziyeke. Singegeqe gula funa kuthiwe siyemuka. Nhlanhla Maseko 1
  2. 2. Ukuzalwa, ukukhula, ukufunda nokusebenza • USibusiso Nyembezi wazalwa ngonyaka we-1919 eBabanango, eNyakatho neKwaZulu-Natali. Ungowesibili kubafana abane kwabo. • Amabanga aphansi emfundo wawafunda ngakubo kwase kuthi amabanga aphezulu wawenza eMarianhill, ngasePinetown. • Waphothula iziqu zakhe zika-BA ngonyaka we-1946 e-Unisa emva kwalokho wayesenza i-BA Honours ngowe-1947 eWits. • Ukusuka ngowe-1948 kuya kowe-1953 (isikhathi sokuqala kobandlululo), uNyembezi wafundisa e-University of the Witwatersrdand isiZulu kanye nesiXhosa. • Ngowe-1954 uNyembezi wenza iziqu zakhe ze-MA ne- University of the Witwatersrand. 2
  3. 3. Umlando kaNyembezi (uyaqhutshwa) • Ngowe-1955 wathola isikhala sokufundisa e-University College of Fort Hare, eMpumalanga- Koloni (khumbula ukuthi lena yinyuvesi iningi labaholi bezombusazwe abafunde kuyo) • Ngowe-1959 wesula emsebenzini, washiya, ngenxa yemithetho ayengahambisani nayo eyayibekwe wuhulumeni wobandlululo phezu kwamanyuvesi wabantu abamnyama. • Ngemuva kwesikhathi eside engasebenzi, wagcina esethatha umsebenzi wokuhlela izincwadi enkampanini yabashicileli bakwa- Shuter and Shooter eMgungundlovu nokuyilapho agcine esebenza khona waze wathatha umhlalaphansi. • Wedlula emhlabeni ngonyaka we-2000 eneminyaka engama-81. 3
  4. 4. Imisebenzi kaNyembezi • Imisebenzi kaNyembezi ingaphezu kweshumi nambili kanti ifaka phakathi kokunye amanoveli, izinkondlo, ubuciko bomlomo, uhlelo lolimi, izichazamazwi kanye nocwaningo. • Kumanoveli wabhala lawa: Mntanami! Mntanami!, Ubudoda Abukhulelwa nethi Inkinsela YaseMgungundlovu. Wahumusha nencwadi yesiNgisi ka-Allan Paton ethi, Cry the Beloved Country, isihumusho sithi: Lafa Elihle Kakhulu. 4
  5. 5. Nayi imisebenzi kaNyembezi • 1950. Mntanami! Mntanami! Johannesburg: Bona-Pers. 1953. Ubudoda abukhulelwa. Johannesburg: Shuter and Shooter. • 1954. Zulu Proverbs. Johannesburg: Shuter and Shooter. 1956. Uhlelo lwesiZulu. Johannesburg: Shuter and Shooter. 1958. Learn Zulu. Johannesburg: Shuter and Shooter. • 1958. Cry, The Beloved Country, by Alan Paton, into Zulu as Lafa elihle kakhulu. Johannesburg: Shuter and Shooter. 1961. Inkinsela yaseMgungundlovu. (translated as The Rich Man of Pietermaritzburg, 2008). Johannesburg: Shuter and Shooter. 1963. Imisebe yelanga. Johannesburg: Educum Publishers. 1963. Amahlungu aluhlaza. Johannesburg: Shuter and Shooter. 1958. Izibongo zamakhosi. Johannesburg: Shuter and Shooter. 1966. Inqolobane yesizwe. (uyihlanganyele no-Otty Ezrom Mandla Nxumalo). Johannesburg: Shuter and Shooter 5
  6. 6. Okwenza Inkinsela ibe nedumela • Inoveli iyonke yenzeka ngesonto elilodwa ngokwesikhathi sendaba. Yinto engejwayelekile ukuthi inoveli ithathe isikhathi esifishane kangaka. (Kukhona omunye umbhali, uN.J. Makhaye, oke wazama ukubhala inoveli eyenzeka usuku olulodwa, inoveli ethi, Uze ungikhonzele, kodwa izinga layo kalikho phezulu) • Inoveli yakhe yakhombisa ukwehluka ngokwendikimba emanovelini amaningi esiZulu ayandulelayo: ubugebengu obuhleliwe obuhamba nokuzethemba. Okunye okwenza yehluke inoveli yakhe wukuthi njengoba iningi lamanoveli lalikhombisa ukusuka komuntu endaweni yasemakhaya eya edolobheni, kule noveli sithola umuntu osuka edolobheni ngenhloso yokuyoqola abantu emakhaya. 6
  7. 7. Inkinsela (iyaqhutshwa) • Inoveli kaNyembezi yaguqulwa yaba wumdlalo womoya owaba nedumela ngemuva kokuthi seyashicilelwa. • Yaphinde yaguqulelwa noma yahlelelwa ukuthi idlale kumabonakude ngeminyaka yaw-1990. (Kukhona abathile ababephika uma bebuka umdlalo bethi akuyena uNdebenkulu lona okumabonakude sengathi bamazi ngamehlo) Nomdlalo kamabonakude waba nedumela ngangokuthi nanamuhla lokhu kukhona abafisa ukuthi ubuyiswe. • Inoveli yakhe yafundwa ezikoleni, hhayi eNingizimu Afrika kuphela kodwa ngisho naseZimbabwe imbala. Khumbula ukuthi amaNdebele aseZimbabwe ayazisebenzisa kakhulu izincwadi zesiZulu eziphuma ezweni lakithi. 7
  8. 8. Inkinsela (iyaqhutshwa) • Ngonyaka kwe-2010 le noveli iphinde yabuyiswa, yagaywa kabusha ngaphansi kohlelo lwe-Reprinting South African Classics nokuwuhlelo olugqugquzelwe lwaphinde lwaxhaswa wuMnyango woBuciko naMasiko kuZwelonke (National Department of Arts and Culture). • Ngonyaka odlule le noveli ihlelelwe ukuthi idlale njengomdlalo womoya ezweni laseZimbabwe. • Iphinde yaqokwa njengezinye zezincwadi eziyi-100 ezihamba phambili e-Africa. (Bheka nasi isixhumanisi https://www.indiana.edu/~libsalc/africa/scripts/awards1.php?award=3) • Le noveli ingenye yamanoveli esiZulu ambalwa ahunyushelwe esiNgisini (The Richman of Pietermaritzburg) kanye nasesiSuthwini (Kgabane ya Mokokotlofo), kanti izophinde ihunyushelwe kwezinye izilimi ngaphansi kwe-Reprinting South African Classics 8
  9. 9. Ukuhluza inoveli kafushane Indaba ngamafuphi: • Lena yinoveli yobugebengu obuhleliwe obenziwa ngumuntu onesibindi. Inoveli yenzeka ngesikhathi seminyaka yawo-1950 lapho uhulumeni owayephethe ngaleso sikhathi ayeshaye umthetho wokuthi abantu banciphise imfuyo ngoba iqeda amadlelo. • UNdebenkulu usuka eMgungundlovu uyoqola abanumzane abahlonishwayo eNyanyanyadu, bude buduze naseDandi. 9
  10. 10. Indaba ngamafuphi (iyaqhutshwa) • Indaba iqala lapho uMkhwanazi, omunye wabanumzane abahlonishwayo eNyanyadu, ethola incwadi evela kuCC Ndebenkulu. Kule ncwadi uNdebenkulu ubeka isifiso sokuvakashela eNyanyadu ngenhloso yokusiza abanumzane bendawo bakwazi ukuthengisa izinkomo zabo ngamanani abafanele. 10
  11. 11. Indaba ngamafuphi (iyaqhutshwa) • Ekufikeni kwakhe uNdebenkulu, uzibeka njengomuntu osezingeni eliphezulu nofundile • Uba nemihlangano nabanumzane bendawo – uyaphumelela ukukhohlisa uMkhwanazi ukuze amnike izinkomo zakhe ayomthengisela. • Ngosuku lokuhamba kwezinkomo uNdebenkulu (obuye aziwe ngelika-EE Mlomo) uyabanjwa akhalelwe amasongo kaSigonyela. 11
  12. 12. Izindikimba • Indikimba enkulu kule noveli yileyo yokuqolwa kwabantu basemakhaya yisigebengu esivela edolobheni. UNyembezi wenza okungavamile ukuthi asethulele umlingiswa ophuma edolobheni aye emakhaya kanti imibhalo eminingi yangaleso sikhathi ibiveza abalingiswa abasuka emakhaya baye emadolobheni bese bephenduka 12
  13. 13. Izindikimba (Ziyaqhutshwa) • UNdebenkulu usebenzisa ithuba ngoba enolwazi lokuthi abantu bakhathazekile ngendaba yokuncishiswa kwemfuyo (ngokomthetho owawusanda kushaywa) kanti uma bezithengisela bona izinkomo bathola imali encane. 13
  14. 14. Izindikimba (Ziyaqhutshwa) • Imfundo: ngenye yezindikimba esizithola kule noveli. UNdebenkulu usebenzisa imfundo nolwazi lwakhe ukuqola abantu. Uthi wazana nabeLungu abaphezulu futhi uma bembhalela abakhohlwa ukubhala bathi uyisikwaya. • UThemba uyasikhombisa ukuthi abantu bendawo sebeqala ukuya nasezikhungweni zemfundo ephakeme. Imfundo yakhe imenza ayisole le ndaba kaNdebenkulu. 14
  15. 15. Izindikimba (Ziyaqhutshwa) • Ubandlululo: umthetho wokuncishiswa kwemfuyo yabantu abamnyama uyinkomba yobandlululo. Lapha siphinde sithole abantu bezicindezela noma bezibukela phansi bona ngokwabo. UmLungu uthathwa njengomuntu ophezulu (yikho uNdeb. ethi ubhalelana nabeLungu), idolobha liyindawo ephambili: umuntu ovela edolobheni uyahlonishwa (self-inferiority complex) 15
  16. 16. Izindikimba (Ziyaqhutshwa) • Impilo yasemakhaya isemuva kuneyasedolobheni: siyathola kuqhathaniswa impilo yalezi zindawo. UNdebenkulu uthi ngolunye usuku: ‘Nisesemuva, Mkhwanazi.’ ‘Nisagibela amakalishi? Ukuba bengazi ngabe ngize ngemoto.’ Umqondo obusa abantu ngowokuthi abasedolobheni kumele bakhanyisele/baphucule abasemakhaya. 16
  17. 17. Izindikimba (Ziyaqhutshwa) • Umnotho wasemakhaya: imfuyo nokulima. Abanumzane bendawo bafuyile futhi bayalima (isibonelo: uMkhwanazi). Lena yindlela yempilo emakhaya futhi iletha ukuhlonipheka kubanumzane. UNdebenkulu uyakwazi lokhu – yikho enquma ‘ukuyosiza’ ngokubathengisela izinkomo • Wena uthini? 17
  18. 18. Isizinda • Indawo: eNyanyadu, emakhaya aseduze nedolobha laseDandi. • Isikhathi: ngesakudala lapho uHulumeni wobandlululo ayeshaye umthetho wokuthi abantu abamnyama banciphise imfuyo • Isimo senhlalo: lapha sikhuluma ngokuthi abantu bangalesi sikhathi imfuyo bekuyigugu, ukulima kuyimpilo yemihla, umnotho kuyimfuyo 18
  19. 19. Abalingiswa • Sizokhumbula ukuthi ngabantu abasungulwa ngumlobi ukuze indaba yakhe ixoxeke. Abalingiswa bethulwa ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene: • 1. Ukugqoka • 2. Abakukhulumayo nokukhulunywa ngabo • 3. Ukuchaza kombhali • 4. Imicabango 19
  20. 20. Abalingiswa (Bayaqhutshwa) • UNdebenkulu: ugqoka izinto athi zibiza imali; ukhuluma ngokuzikhukhumeza; ukwenza kwakhe kukhombisa ukubukela abanye abantu phansi; abantu bacabanga izinto ezahlukene ngaye ngoba kukhona abasola ukuthi uyiqola kanti kukhona abamethembayo njengomuntu ohlala edolobheni futhi owazana nabeLungu abakhulu. Lo mlingiswa akakhuli…. 20
  21. 21. Abalingiswa (Bayaqhutshwa) • UMkhwanazi: ugqoka ngendlela ekhombisayo ukuthi ungumuntu ozisebenzela ngezandla; imfuyo uyikhonzile futhi angenza noma yini ukuze ayivikele (iyisithunzi sakhe njengendoda); abanye abantu bacabanga ukuthi uqotho futhi uhloniphekile (yingakho uNdebenkulu ebhalela yena esikhundleni sabanye abanumzane) 21
  22. 22. Abalingiswa (Bayaqhutshwa) • UMkhwanazi kukhomba ukuthi akayile esikoleni futhi usheshe akholwe kalula. • UMaNtuli: uchazwa wumlobi njengowesifazane okhuthele; unolaka; imicabango nezinkulumo aba nazo kanye nabanye abalingiswa kukhomba ukuthi uyishaya emuva ayishaye phambili 22
  23. 23. Abalingiswa (Bayaqhutshwa) • UThemba: indlela akhuluma ngayo nabantu abadala ikhombisa ukuthi ukhuliswe ngenhlonipho; indlela acabanga ngayo imveza ukuthi imfundo imenze wahlakanipha kangcono (ufunda ekolishi); siyathola ukuthi usegqoka amabhulukwe amade (ubude bebhulukwe bukhomba ukukhula koligqokayo, kanti ukukhula koligqokayo kusho ukuhluzeka) 23
  24. 24. Izincwadi ongazifunda • Ntuli, J H – The Conception and Evolution of Characterisation in the Zulu novel • Kunene, Daniel P – The Zulu novels of Sibusiso Nyembezi: A Critical Appraisal 24

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