Research is a scientific and systematic search for
relevant information on a specific topic.
It is a careful investigation or inquiry specially for
exploring ideas and searching new facts about any
kind of knowledge. It is in fact an art of investigation.
3. Research Methodology
It is a way to systematically solve a research
problem. It may be understood as a science of
studying how a research is scientifically done, how
we find out about things, and how knowledge is
gained. In it we study the various steps which are
generally adopted by the researchers while studying
a research problem along with logic behind them. In
other words, methodology is about the principles
that guide our research practices.
5. Research Method
Research methods refers to the behavior and
instruments used in selecting and constructing research
techniques. These might be, for example, surveys,
interviews, Photo voice, participant observations.
Collection of data.
Research methods may be understood as all those
methods/techniques that are used for conduction of
6. Research Techniques
Research techniques refers to the behavior and
instruments which we use in performing research
operations such as making observation, recording
data, techniques of processing data and like.
7. Objectives of Research
Each research study has its own specific objectives while some of the general
objectives of research are mentioned below
To gain familiarity and achieve a new insights towards a certain topic,
To portray an accurate characteristics of phenomena,
To verify and test important fact and hypothesis,
To analyze an event, process and phenomena,
To identify the cause and effect relationship,
To find solution to scientific, non-scientific and social problems,
To determine the frequency at something occurs.
9. Descriptive and analytical
Also known as statistical research.
The descriptive research involves the surveys
and fact findings enquiries of different kind.
The major purpose of the descriptive research
is the description of the sate of affair as it
exists at present.
• finding the most frequent disease that affects
the children of a town. The reader of the
research will know what to do to prevent that
disease thus, more people will live a healthy
The researcher has to use the facts or
information of already available, and analyze
these to make a critical evaluation of the
10. Applied and Fundamental
Aims to find the immediate solution for a
problem facing a society and industrial
For example, applied researchers may
investigate ways to:
Improve agricultural crop production
• Treat or cure a specific disease
• Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices,
or modes of transportation
Basic research is driven by a
scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific
Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake
not to invent something, is termed
For example, :
How did the universe begin?
• What are protons, neutrons, and electrons
• What is the specific genetic code of the fruit
11. Quantitative and Qualitative
This kind of research is used to
quantify the problem by way of
generating numerical data or data
that can be transformed into useable
Quantitative data collection methods
include various forms of
surveys, longitudinal studies, and
Qualitative research is used to gain
an understanding of underlying
reasons, opinions, and motivations.
The sample size is typically small, and
respondents are selected to fulfill a
Conceptual research focuses on the
concept or theory that explains or
describes the phenomenon being
What causes disease? How can we
describe the motions of the planets?
What are the building blocks of
14. Significance of Research
Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and promotes the
development of logical habit of thinking and organization.
Research plays a dynamic role in various fields, it has increased
significances in recent times, it can be related to the small business and
also with economy as a whole.
Most of Government regulations and policies are based on and are result
of intensive research.
Its significance lies on the solving various planning and operational
It aids in decisions making.
It study the cause and effect relationship between variables and also
identify the pattern, behavior and trend in certain variables.
15. Process of Research
It consists of logical sequence of actions and methods which
are necessary to effectively solve of research problem.
These processes are;
1. Defining or formulating research problem,
2. Extensive literature review
3. Formulating hypothesis,
4. Design research or determining the sample design,
5. Collecting data,
6. Analyzing data,
7. Interpreting and report.
16. Defining or formulating research
The researcher must choose the problem he wants to study
and decide the area of interest and subject matter he would
There are essentially two steps of formulating a research
1. Understanding the problem thoroughly
2. Rephrasing the same into the meaningful terms in an
analytical point of view.
17. Extensive literature review
After formulating the research problem, a brief summary should
be written down. At this point the researcher should undertake
the literature survey connected with literature. This summary or
literature survey should be based on two types of literature
1. the conceptual literature concerning the concepts and theories,
2. empirical literature consisting of studies made earlier which are
similar to the one proposed.
18. Formulating hypothesis,
A working hypothesis must be stated in clear terms.
Following are the approaches which are involved in
developing a working hypothesis.
1. By finding the origins of the problem and studying its
2. By discussing the problem to colleagues and experts,
3. By examining the past data and records,
4. By review the similar studies and similar problems.
19. Determining the sample design;
Sample design is a definite plan determined before any data
is actually collected for obtaining the sample from given
Samples can be either probability samples or non- probability
The researcher must carefully choose the sampling
procedure, sample size and look out for the sample errors.
20. Collecting Data
There is a need of reliable and accurate data to carry out an
affective research. Collection of data may be done by any of the
1. By observation (data collect in way by investigator’s own observation without interviewing
2. By personal interview (data is carried out in structured way, depends on the ability of
interviewer in large extent)
3. By telephonic interview (collecting information involves contraction of respondent on
4. By questionnaire (by mailed to the respondent with request to return same after completing)
5. By schedule (By filling of schedule by enumerators with the replies given by respondents)
21. Analyzing data or Hypothesis
After collecting data a researcher turn to the task of analyze
the data. Analyzing involves different techniques to classify
the raw data into meaningful and purposeful categories.
Coding ( transforming of data into symbols)
Editing ( improve the quality of data for coding)
Tabulation ( data is put in the form of tables).
After analyzing the data, the researcher tests the hypothesis
that he formulated earlier in his research
22. Interpretations and generalization
The result of hypothesis may be favorable or unfavorable. The
researcher reaches at the generalization based on the result
of testing hypothesis, i.e. to build a theory.
If the researcher had no hypothesis at his start, so he might
seek explain his findings on basis of some theory. It is known
as interpretation. In the process of interpretation often triggers
off new question which leads to more research.
23. Preparation of report
Finally the researcher has to prepare a report of what has been
done by him. The layout of the report should be as follows:
1. Preliminary pages ( The report must have a full title, foreword and
acknowledgment in the preliminary pages.)
2. Main text ( The main text of the report must have an introduction,
summary of findings, main report and conclusion.)
3. End of the report ( the end of report must have an appendices with
respect of all the terms and data used in report and end with the
24. Criteria of Good Research
The purpose of research should be clearly defined and common
The procedure of research should be well describe in detail to
permit the research.
The design should be yields to results that are objectives.
The researcher must be reported completely with frankness and
The analysis of data must be adequate and analysis procedure
must be appropriate.
The conclusion must be detailed to those justified with data and
limited to those for which data is not adequate.
The researcher must be experienced has a good reputation and
person of integrity.
25. Qualities of Good Research
It should be systematic.( the research must be structured with
specified steps in specified sequence and according to the
well defined set of rules.)
It should be logical.(the research must be based on logical
reasoning and logical process of induction and deduction.)
It should be empirical.( the research must be related in one or
more aspects of real life situations.)
It should be replicable.( people must be able to verify and
replicate the original report of research.)
26. WHAT'S A BIBLIOGRAPHY?
A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used
(whether referenced or not) in the process of researching your
work. In general, a bibliography should include:
the authors' names
the titles of the works
the names and locations of the companies that published
your copies of the sources
the dates your copies were published
the page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multi-