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ppt.-chapter-18 MANAGING CHANGE & STRESS.pptx

  2. Learning Objectives:  Discuss the external and internal forces that create the need for organizational change.  Describe Lewin’s change model and the systems model of change.  Discuss Kotter’s eight steps for leading organizational change  Define organization development (OD) and demonstrate your familiarity with its four identifying characteristics.  Summarize the 10 reasons employees resist change.
  3. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FORCES THAT CREATE THE NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE EXTERNAL FORCES INTERNAL FORCES  Demographic Characteristics  Technological Advancements  Customer and Market Changes  Social and Political Pressures  Human Resource Problems/Prospects  Managerial Behavior/Decisions
  4. Kurt Lewin’s Three Stages of Change Unfreezing – Change efforts to overcome the pressure of both individual resistance and group conformity Changing- Referred to as transition or the stage of actual implementation of change. It involves acceptance of the new ways of doing things. Refreezing - Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces
  5. A Systems Model of Change Inputs Strategic Plans Target Elements of Change Outputs
  6. 1. Failure to establish a sense of urgency about the need for change. 2. Failure to create a powerful-enough guiding coalition that is responsible for leading and managing the change process. 3. Failure to establish a vision that guides the change process. 4. Failure to effectively communicate the new vision. 5. Failure to remove obstacles that impede the accomplishment of the new vision. 6. Failure to systematically plan for and create short-term wins. 7. Declaration of victory too soon. 8. Failure to anchor the changes into the organization’s culture. :Some Errors:
  7. Kotter’s Eight Steps to Leading Organizational Change Step Description 1. Establish a sense of urgency Unfreeze the organization by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed 2. Create the guiding coalition Create a cross-functional, cross-level group of people with enough power to lead the change 3. Develop a vision and strategy Create a vision and strategic plan to guide the change process 4. Communicate the change vision Create and implement a communication strategy that consistently communicates the new vision and strategic plan 5. Empower broad-based action Eliminate barriers to change and use target elements of change to transform the organization. Encourage risk-taking and creative problem solving. 6. Generate short-term wins Plan for and create short-term “wins” or improvements. Recognize and reward people who contribute to the wins. 7. Consolidate gains and produce more change The guiding coalition uses credibility from short-term wins to create more change. Additional people are brought into the change process as change cascades throughout the organization. 8. Anchor new approaches in the culture Reinforce the changes by highlighting connections between new behaviors and processes and organizational success. Develop methods to ensure leadership development and succession.
  8. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (OD) • A set of techniques or tools used to implement planned organizational change. It consists of planned efforts to help people work and live together more effectively over time in their organizations. These goals are achieved by applying behavioral science principles, methods, and theories adapted from the fields of psychology, sociology, education and management.
  9. FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF OD •OD involves Profound Change •OD is Value-Loaded •OD is a Diagnosis/Prescription Cycle •OD is Process-Oriented
  10. TEN OF THE LEADING REASONS WHY EMPLOYEES RESISTS CHANGE IN THE FIRST PLACE: 1. An individual’s predisposition toward change. 2. Surprise and fear of unknown 3. Climate of mistrust. 4. Fear of Failure 5. Loss of status or job security 6. Peer Pressure
  11. TEN OF THE LEADING REASONS WHY EMPLOYEES RESISTS CHANGE IN THE FIRST PLACE: 7. Disruption of cultural traditions or group relationships 8. Personality conflicts 9. Lack of tact or poor timing 10. Non-reinforcing reward system
  12. Thank you!!!