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Béhaviorisme

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Béhaviorisme

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Béhaviorisme

  1. 1. Le Béhaviorisme
  2. 2. Il existe 5 grands courants de la psychologie : ◦ 1 Le Behaviorisme ◦ 2 La psychologie cognitive ◦ 3 La psychanalyse ◦ 4 La psychologie clinique ◦ 5 la psychopathologie. Le Behaviorisme est donc l'un de ces courants. Il est basé sur le fait que «Tout comportement est le résultat d’un apprentissage»
  3. 3. Le précurseur de ce mouvement est Pavlov (1849-1936), médecin et physiologiste Russe. Il menait des travaux sur le digestion et les réflexes. Le béhaviorisme est né aux Etats-Unis au début du XX ème siècle. Il est d'abord fondé part J.B Watson en 1913, c'est d'ailleurs lui qui est l'auteur du manifeste béhavioriste « La psychologie telle qu'un béhavioriste la voit », ses travaux étaient centrés sur l'apprentissage et la psychologie de l'enfant. Le deuxième fondateur du béhaviorisme est B.F Skinner, psychologue très influent et philosophe américain il a aussi fait des travaux sur l'apprentissage. Watson (1878-1958) et Skinner (1904-1990)
  4. 4. Le concept central du Béhaviorisme est le conditionnement, c'est à dire faire apprendre . C'est une forme d'apprentissage qui se caractérise par une association entre un stimulus (quelque chose qui stimule le sujet) et un comportement. Pavlov a découvert ce phénomène par hasard en menant des recherches sur la salivation des chiens. Il a remarqué qu'un chien commençait a saliver avant qu'on lui introduise de la nourriture dans sa gueule. La simple odeur ou vue de la nourriture ou même de la personne qui lui donne habituellement à manger suffisait à faire saliver le chien. Pavlov appela ce phénomène le réflexe conditionnel (ou réponse conditionnelle) du fait que le réflexe dépend des conditions du milieu, il considéra ce réflexe comme la base de tout apprentissage chez les animaux mais également chez les êtres humains. Pavlov
  5. 5. Il existe deux types de conditionnements : Deux manières d'apprendre un comportement. - Le conditionnement classique (ou conditionnement pavlovien) . - Le conditionnement opérant.
  6. 6. Le conditionnement classique On produit un comportement répondant (involontaire) en réponse à un stimulus ce qui permet d'agir avant le comportement. Par exemple :
  7. 7. Le conditionnement opérant On produit un comportement volontaire,c'est à dire, on agit après le comportement grâce à 4 variables de contrôle: - Renforcement positif - Renforcement négatif - Punition positive - Punition négative
  8. 8. par exemple :
  9. 9. Les notions clés du Béhaviorisme Il y a 2 notions: - L'observable - L'environnement Le Béhaviorisme n'étudie que ce qui est observable mais élimine de son champ d'investigation tout ce qui appartient à la pensée et aux émotions.
  10. 10. Le rapport avec L'Ecume des jours de Boris Vian Le Béhaviorisme repose sur le fait que «Tout comportement est le résultat d’un apprentissage», dans l'écume des jours on remarque qu'a aucun moments il est fait référence a un quelconque apprentissage, il n'y a donc aucune règles, aucune normes, aucune notion de bien ou de mal comme nous les connaissons. Cela explique donc le comportement des personnages qui est complètement surréaliste. Nous pouvons aussi remarquer qu'il n'y a pas que les personnages qui peuvent paraître irréelles mais aussi l'environnement, sa perception et donc irréelle aussi,ce qui donne des personnages avec des relations totalement différentes du monde que nous connaissons.

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