13. Which of the following is a gaseous envelope
that surrounds the Earth?
14. Which of the following is a gaseous envelope that surrounds the
Geosphere: comprises the solid Earth and includes both Earth’s surface and
the various layers of the Earth's interior.
Atmosphere: gaseous envelope that surrounds the Earth
Hydrosphere: includes all water on Earth (including surface water and
Biosphere: the life zone of the Earth and includes all living organisms, and all
organic matter that has not yet decomposed.
15. 1. The Atmosphere
The Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air,
which we call the atmosphere.
• The atmosphere consists of four unique layers
(the troposphere, the stratosphere, the
mesosphere, thermosphere, and the
• The atmosphere reaches over 560 kilometers
(348 miles) up from the surface of the Earth.
16. 1. The Atmosphere
Inner membrane of air around the
planet, 11 miles thick
Lower portion contains ozone to filter
out most of the sun’s harmful UV
17. This is the life zone of the Earth and includes all
living organisms, and all organic matter that
has not yet decomposed.
18. 2. The Biosphere
The biosphere is the “life
zone” of the Earth, and includes
all living organisms (including
humans), and all organic matter
that has not yet decomposed.
• The biosphere is structured into
a hierarchy known as the food
19. This includes all water on Earth (including surface
water and groundwater).
The hydrosphere contains all the
water found on our planet.
• Water found on the surface of our planet
includes the ocean as well as water from
lakes and rivers, streams, and creeks.
• Water found under the surface of our
planet includes water trapped in the soil
21. This comprises the solid Earth and includes both
Earth’s surface and the various layers of the
The geosphere is the solid Earth that
includes the continental and ocean crust as
well the various layers of Earth’s interior.
• 94% of the Earth is composed of the
elements oxygen, silicon, and magnesium.
•Mineral resources are mined from the
24. CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE STUDY OF EARTH
1. Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt
-He considered the universe as one interacting entity.
2. The term "biosphere" was popularized by Vladimir
Vernadsky (1863-1945), a Russian - Ukranian scientist who
hypothesized that life is a geological force that shapes the
25. CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE STUDY OF EARTH
3. Gaia Hypothesis(1970) was jointly developed by James
Lovelock, an English scientist/naturalist, and Lynn Margulis, an
‘‘the biosphere is a self-regulating system that is capable of
controlling its physical and chemical environment”
4. In 1983, NASA (Earth Systems Science Committee)
-Moustafa Chahine, Chairman
-scientist were able to demonstrate how the many systems
26. 1. The Earth system is essentially a closed system. It receives
energy from the sun and returns some of this energy to the
space. This happens in the four sub-systems interrelated to each
other. What are these subsystems?
2. The thin gaseous layer that envelopes the lithosphere.
3. These includes the rocks of the crust and mantle, the metallic
liquid outer core, and the solid metallic inner core.
4. The atmosphere is composed of gases necessary to sustain
life like oxygen, nitrogen, argon and other trace of gases. The
most abundant element in the atmosphere is ____.
27. 5. About 70% of the Earth is covered with liquid water and much of it is in
the form of ocean water.
Only 3% of Earth's water is fresh: two-thirds are in the form of ice, and the
remaining one-third is present in streams, lakes, and groundwater.
What covers this subsystem?
6. This is the set of all life forms on Earth.
It covers all ecosystems—from the soil to the rainforest, from mangroves
to coral reefs,
and from the plankton-rich ocean surface to the deep sea.
7. photosynthesis/cellular respiration
8. Weathering of rocks
9. Formation of typhoon
10. Water cycle
28. A. The atmosphere is the thin gaseous layer that envelopes the
B. The present atmosphere is composed of 78% nitrogen (N),
21% oxygen (O2), 0.9%
argon, and trace amount of other gases.
C. One of the most important processes by which the heat on
the Earth's surface is
redistributed is through atmospheric circulation.
D. There is also a constant exchange of heat and moisture
between the atmosphere and the hydrosphere through the
39. What separates the crust from
- Mohorovicic or Moho
discontinuity by Andrija
42. Sub-layers of the mantle
- This is the “crunchy”
(brittle) layer of the
- It includes the crust
and the uppermost part
of the upper Mantle
44. Sub-layers of the mantle
- Soft – can bend like
plastic, layer in the upper
portion of the mantle
- located right below the
lithosphere floats on this
45. The movement of the
asthenosphere is the reason that
the plates of the Earth move.
46. Convection Currents
- The middle mantle "flows"
because of convection
currents. Convection currents
are caused by the very hot
material at the deepest part of
the mantle rising, then cooling
and sinking again --repeating
this cycle over and over.
48. THE CORE
• Made mostly of iron
• It makes up nearly one third the
mass of the earth
• Very hot
o 2,200 km-thick liquid outer core
o 1,250 km-thick solid inner core
49. What do you call the boundary
between the mantle and the
- Gutenberg discontinuity
discovered by Beno
Gutenberg, who made an
analysis of earth velocities