2. HISTORY OF ERIK ERIKSON:
Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst who developed the theory of psychosocial
He was born on June 15, 1902 in Karlsruhe Germany.
His classic work "Childhood and Society" set forth his theory of the life cycle.
Young Man Luther, Identity: Youth and Crisis, and Gandhi's Truth are his other
He believed that the achievements and failures of earlier stages influence later
stages, whereas later stages modify and transform earlier ones.
Erikson's conceptualization of psychosocial development based its model the
epigenetic principle of organismic growth in utero.
Erikson views psychosocial growth occurs in phases.
3. RATIONALE OF THEORY AND ADOLESCENT
Erikson explains 8 developmental
stages in which physical, cognitive,
instinctual, and sexual changes
combine to trigger an internal crisis
whose resolution results in either
psychosocial regression or growth
and the development of specific
Erikson defined virtue as "inherent
This stage of theory is related to :
Gender-related identity disorders
Borderline psychotic episodes.
4. DEFINITION OF THEORY
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development,
as articulated by Erik Erikson, in collaboration
with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive
psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of
eight stages, in which a healthy developing
individual should pass through from infancy to
5. RELATIONSHIPS: peers, groups, influences
ISSUES: resolving identity and directions. Becoming a
BASIC VIRTUES: fidelity and devotion.
ADOLESCENT 12 TO 18
YEARS. IDENTIFY VS ROLE
6. ERIKSON’S THEORY --- ADOLESCENT
The Erikson’s theory is used based
on the fact that it has been defined
as well-equipped to resolve the crisis
of early adulthood, this can be
successfully reached once the crisis
of adolescence has been resolved.
At the age of adolescence kids are
no longer called kids, they become
independent and to get jobs and earn
their own income.
A controversial aspect refers to Erikson’s
work belief on identity formation.
Something that Erikson did not realize at
the time was that more attention should
have been paid to the adult lifetime.
Erikson’s work had a tendency to pay
more attention to infancy and childhood,
despite the so-called claim that his eight
stages are an entire-life span theory.
Adolescence may struggle in dealing with
social interaction and may face trouble
dealing with important decisions and
choices to be made.
Erikson’s theory has good face validity. Many people find that they can relate to his theories
about various stages of the life cycle through their own experiences.
However, Erikson is rather vague about the causes of development. What kinds of experiences
must people have to successfully resolve another? The theory does not have a universal
mechanism various psychosocial conflicts and move from one stage to for crisis resolution.
Indeed, Erikson (1964) acknowledges his theory is more a descriptive overview of human social
and emotional development that does not adequately explain how or why this development
occurs. For example, Erikson does not explicitly explain how the outcome of one psychosocial
stage influences personality at a later stage.
8. LIMITATIONS OF ADOLESCENT STAGE
unsuccessful resolution in
this stage may lead to
maladaptations which are
“repudiation.” Fanaticism is
manifested by being self-
important and extremist,
while repudiation is
characterized by being
socially disconnected and
cut off from others.
9. HOW THIS THEORY AND ADOLESCENT STAGE
APPLIED IN THE CLASSROOM
Teachers who apply psychosocial development in the class room create an
environment where a child feels appreciated and is comfortable with
learning new things and building relationships with peers without fear. (
Tamara 2010 , para 1).
Teaching Erikson’s theory at the different grade levels is important to ensure
that students will attain mastery of each stage in Erikson's theory without
conflict. There are specific classroom activities that teachers can
incorporate into their classroom during the three stages that include school
age children. The activities listed below are just a few suggested examples
that apply psychosocial development.
IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION
Provide a variety of positive role models for students. Adolescence is a time of discovering
one's own identity. A teenager who successfully navigates the crisis of identity vs. role
confusion will be able to answer the question, "Who am I?" with confidence. Provide a series of
role models to give students a potential identity model. Teach students about women and
minorities who succeeded at a variety of careers, so all students have a role model to whom
they can relate. Mention individuals who made lesser-known contributions to your academic
discipline. A budding poet may feel more kinship with Eavan Boland than Emily Dickinson.
10. HOW THE THEORY AND ADOLESCENCE APPLIED
OUTSIDE THE CLASS ROOM
Erikson’s Developmental Stage theory, is nothing too fancy or complicated. It’s
a simple view on eight stages we go through in our lives. According to Erikson,
we grow from infancy to late adulthood, and in each stage we must master a new
challenge. Once we master a challenge, we gain a certain set of skills. If we do
not master a certain challenge, there could be possible psychological
consequences. It is not a definitive list, but there are lessons we can learn from
his eight stages!
Using this as a guide, identify what you’ve accomplished, what you need to work
on, and what you should remember for your future stages.
The challenge: identity vs. role confusion
What it means: In this stage, we acquire a sense of our own identity or else become confused about
our role in life
What to take from it: Settle on an identity that you are comfortable with. Ask questions about
yourself. Show through your actions, appearance, and achievements what you want your role to be
Who exactly are you? Are you happy with it?