TO THE READER
This manual is written for an experienced technician
to provide technical information needed to maintain
and repair this machine.
Be sure to thoroughly read this manual for cor-
rect product information and service proce-
If you have any questions or comments, or if
you found any errors regarding the contents of
this manual, please contact us using the
“PLEASE TELL US” form. The form follows this
Please refer to the materials listed below in addition
to this manual:
Operation Manual of the Engine
This manual consists of two portions; the Technical
Manual (operational principle) and the Workshop
The Technical Manual contains the information
necessary for delivery and redelivery, operation,
and activation of all devices and systems.
The Workshop Manual contains the information
necessary for maintenance and repair of the
machine, tools and devices necessary for main-
tenance and repair, and removal/installation
and disassembly/assembly procedures.
The Technical Manual and the Workshop Manual
have the page number located on the center lower
part of the page, as well as, additional numbers on
the page to help the technician locate specific in-
Located in the upper right corner (on odd-
numbered pages) or the upper left corner (on
even-numbered pages). This number identifies
the function group to which that particular com-
ponent belongs. Refer to illustration.
Form SM Number:
Located in the bottom right corner of the page.
This number identifies the service manual (SM)
information for that particular component. Refer
SAFETY ALERT SYMBOL AND HEAD-
In this manual, the following safety alert symbol and
signal words are used to alert the reader to the
potential for personal injury or machine damage.
This is the safety alert symbol. When you see
this symbol, be alert to the potential for personal
injury. Never fail to follow the safety instructions
prescribed along with the safety alert symbol.
The safety alert symbol is also used to draw atten-
tion to component/part weights.
To avoid injury and damage, be sure to use appro-
priate lifting techniques and equipment when lifting
WARNING: Indicates a potentially hazardous
situation that could, if not avoided, result in
personal injury or death.
NOTE: Indicates supplementary technical in-
formation or know-how.
SI system units and English units are used in this
manual. English units are in parentheses behind SI
Example: 24.5 MPa (3560 psi)
A table for conversion from SI units to other system
units is shown below for reference purposes.
From Into Multiply by Quantity
From Into Multiply by
mm in 0.03937 MPa kgf/cm² 10.197
mm ft 0.003281
MPa psi 145.0
L US gal 0.2642 kW PS 1.360
L US qt 1.057
kW HP 1.341
m³ yd³ 1.308 Temperature C F C 1.8 32
Weight kg lb 2.205 Velocity km/h mph 0.6214
N kgf 0.10197 L/min US gpm 0.2642
N lbf 0.2248
mL/rev cc/rev 1.0
N m kgf m 1.0197
N m lbf ft 0.7375
RECOGNIZE SAFETY INFORMATION
SAFETY ALERT SYMBOL
• This symbol, which will appear at various points in
the manual and on the machine together with a
warning statement, means: “Warning, be alert!
Your safety is involved!” Carefully read the
message that follows. It is the obligation of the
operator to make sure that all warning decals
are in place on the machine and that they are
readable. Accidents may otherwise occur.
• Follow recommended precautions and safe
• Every country (State) has its own safety
regulations. It is the obligation of the operator to
know and follow these. This also applies to local
regulations covering different types of work. Should
the recommendations in this manual deviate from
those of your country (State), your local safety
regulations should be followed.
UNDERSTAND SIGNAL WORDS
On the machine safety signs, signal words
designating the degree or level of hazard –
DANGER, WARNING, or CAUTION – are used with
the safety alert symbol.
• DANGER indicates an imminently hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
• WARNING indicates a potential hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, could result in death
or serious injury.
• CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor
or moderate injury.
• DANGER or WARNING safety signs are located
near specific hazards. General precautions are
listed on CAUTION safety signs.
These signal words also call attention to safety
messages in this manual.
To avoid confusing machine protection with personal
safety messages, a signal word IMPORTANT
indicates a situation which, if not avoided, could
result in damage to the machine.
NOTE: indicates an additional explanation for an
element of information.
Only trained personnel should operate the machine.
Operator should be of legal machine operating age
according to country (State) regulations and familiar
with the operation and maintenance of the machine.
Operator must be licensed if required by National
Rules and Regulations.
Before operating the machine this manual must be
read and understood. By reading and understanding
the manual the operator will become aware of and
observe how to avoid injury and damage.
Know the work area and the company rules and
Never operate the machine while under the influence
of alcohol, medicine or other drugs.
Inspect your machine carefully each day or shift by
walking around it before you start it to avoid personal
• Be sure to cover all points described under
“INSPECT MACHINE DAILY BEFORE STARTING”
found in the OPERATING THE ENGINE section in
this operator’s manual.
FOLLOW SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Carefully read and follow all safety signs on the
machine and all safety messages in this manual.
Safety signs should be installed, maintained and
replaced when necessary.
• If a safety sign or this manual is damaged or
missing, order a replacement from your authorized
dealer in the same way you order other
replacement parts (be sure to state machine model
and serial number when ordering).
Learn how to operate the machine and its controls
correctly and safely.
Allow only trained qualified, authorized personnel to
operate the machine.
Keep your machine in proper working condition.
• Unauthorized modifications of the machine may
impair its function and/or safety and affect machine
The safety messages in this SAFETY chapter are
intended to illustrate basic safety procedures of
machines. However it is impossible for these safety
messages to cover every hazardous situation you
may encounter. If you have any questions, you
should first consult your supervisor and/or your
authorized dealer before operating or performing
maintenance work on the machine.
PREPARE FOR EMERGENCIES
Be prepared if a fire starts or if an accident occurs.
• It is recommended that a first aid kit and fire
extinguisher be kept on hand.
• Thoroughly read and understand the label attached
on the fire extinguisher to use it properly.
• To ensure that a fire extinguisher can be always
used when necessary, check and service the fire
extinguisher at the recommended intervals as
specified in the fire-extinguisher manual.
• Establish emergency procedure guidelines to cope
with fires and accidents.
• Keep emergency numbers for doctors, ambulance
service, hospital, and fire department posted near
WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
Wear close fitting clothing and safety equipment
appropriate to the job.
You may need:
A hard hat
Safety glasses, goggles, or face shield
Wet weather gear
Respirator or filter mask.
Be sure to wear the correct equipment and clothing
for the job. Do not take any chances.
• Avoid wearing loose clothing, jewelry, or other
items that can catch on control levers or other parts
of the machine.
Operating equipment safely requires the full attention
of the operator. Do not wear radio or music
headphones while operating the machine.
PROTECT AGAINST NOISE
Prolonged exposure to loud noise can cause
impairment or loss of hearing.
• Wear a suitable hearing protective device such as
earmuffs or earplugs to protect against
objectionable or uncomfortably loud noises. May
be necessary when working outside of the cab,
during the Daily Walk Around Inspection, for
PROTECT AGAINST FLYING DEBRIS
If flying debris hit eyes or any other part of the body,
serious injury may result.
• Guard against injury from flying pieces of metal or
debris; wear goggles or safety glasses.
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS FOR CAB
• Before entering the cab, thoroughly remove all dirt
and/or oil from the soles of your work boots. If any
controls such as a pedal are operated while with
dirt and/or oil on the soles of the operator’s work
boots the operator’s foot may slip off the pedal,
possibly resulting in a personal accident.
• Don’t leave parts and/or tools lying around the
operator’s seat. Store them in their specified
• Avoid storing transparent bottles in the cab. Don’t
attach any transparent type window decorations on
the windowpanes as they may focus sunlight,
possibly starting a fire.
• Refrain from listening to a radio or music with
headphones or mobile telephones in the cab while
operating the machine.
• Keep all flammable objects and/or explosives away
from the machine.
• After using the ashtray, always cover it to
extinguish the match and/or tobacco.
• Don’t leave cigarette lighters in the cab. When the
temperature in the cab increases, the lighter may
• When operating the machine, both doors should be
closed at all times.
USE HANDHOLDS AND STEPS
Falling is one of the major causes of personal injury.
• When entering or leaving the machine, always use
the steps and the handrails.
• Do not use any controls as handholds.
• When you get on and off the machine, always face
the machine and maintain a three-point grip with
the steps and handrails. (i.e., Two hands and one
foot or one hand and two feet.)
• DO NOT JUMP on or off the machine. Never
mount or dismount a moving machine.
• Do not step or climb on surfaces, which are not
intended for walking. Step only on the areas
provided with the slip resistant surfaces.
• Be careful of slippery conditions on platforms,
steps, and handrails when leaving the machine.
• All steps, ladders, stairways, handholds, platforms,
walkways, and guardrails must be free of dirt,
snow, and ice.
• All steps, ladders, stairways, platforms, walkways,
and non-skid deck strips must be replaced if
• The use of a rope is recommended to bring up to
the deck or cab lunch box, tools, etc so as to
maintain a three-point grip when entering or
leaving the machine.
ADJUST THE OPERATOR’S SEAT
A poorly adjusted seat for either the operator or for
the work at hand may quickly fatigue the operator
leading to miss-operations.
• The seat should be adjusted whenever changing
the operator for the machine.
• The operator should be able to fully depress the
pedals and to correctly operate the control levers
with his back against the seat back.
• If not, move the seat forward or backward, and
FASTEN YOUR SEAT BELT
If the machine should overturn, the operator may
become injured and/or thrown from the cab.
Additionally the overturning machine may crush the
operator, resulting in serious injury or death.
• Prior to operating the machine, thoroughly examine
webbing, buckle and attaching hardware. If any
item is damaged or worn, replace the seat belt or
component immediately before operating the
• Be sure to remain seated with the seat belt
securely fastened at all times when the machine is
in operation to minimize the chance of injury from
• We recommend that the seat belt be replaced
every three years regardless of its apparent
HANDLE STARTING AIDS SAFELY
Starting fluid is highly flammable.
• Keep all sparks and flame away when using it.
• Keep starting fluid well away from batteries and
• Remove container from machine if engine does not
need starting fluid.
• To prevent accidental discharge when storing a
pressurized container, keep the cap on the
container, and store it in a cool, well-protected
• Do not incinerate or puncture a starting fluid
NOTE: Due to increased safety hazards and
potential for engine damage, the engine
manufacturer does NOT recommend the use
of starting fluid without metering equipment.
OPERATE ONLY FROM OPERATOR’S SEAT
Inappropriate engine starting procedures may cause
the machine to runaway, possibly resulting in serious
injury or death.
• Start the engine only from the operator’s seat.
• NEVER start the engine while standing on the
• Do not start engine by shorting across starter
• Before starting the engine, confirm that all control
levers are in neutral.
Battery gas can explode, resulting in serious injury.
• If the engine must be jump-started, be sure to
follow the instructions shown under Starting with
Auxiliary Batteries in the OPERATING
INSTRUCTIONS section of the Operator’s Manual.
• The operator must be in the operator’s seat so that
the machine will be under control when the engine
starts. Jump-starting is a two-person operation.
• Never use a frozen battery.
• Failure to follow correct jump starting procedures
could result in a battery explosion or a runaway
KEEP RIDERS OFF MACHINE
Riders on machine are subject to injury such as
being struck by foreign objects and being
thrown off the machine.
• Do not allow riders other than on the trainer's
seat. Riders must also have their seat belt
• Riders also obstruct the operator’s view,
resulting in the machine being operated in an
PROTECT AGAINST FALLING STONES
• Stay in your cab while your dumper is being
loaded. Stepping out of the cab could result in
• Do not place your head and/or arms outside of the
PROVIDE SIGNALS FOR JOBS INVOLVING
MULTIPLE NUMBERS OF MACHINES
For jobs involving multiple numbers of machines,
provide signals commonly known by all personnel
involved. Also, appoint a signal person to coordinate
the job site. Make sure that all personnel obey the
signal person’s directions.
OPERATE THE MACHINE SAFELY
When pulling out of the loading area, avoid hitting
debris, rocks and loading machine overflow that can
cause tire damage. Allow the clean-up dozer
sufficient time to clear the loading area.
Watch where you are going. Stay away from people,
the edge of cliffs; slide areas, other machines and
While traveling on the haul road, maintain a sufficient
distance behind the machine ahead (depending on
roads, speeds, and haul road conditions). This
practice should always be followed to allow sufficient
safe maneuvering and stopping room.
During all operations, the machine may vibrate or
shake to some extent. Therefore, operate the
machine in such a way that your body is exposed to
as little vibrations as possible.
Have the operator’s seat properly adjusted and
wear the seat belt.
Pick the smoothest path for the machine.
Adjust the speed of the machine to the terrain.
AVOID INJURY FROM RUNNING OVER,
FRONT AND BACK, AND FRONT WHEEL
If any person is present near the machine when
backing or moving forward, the machine may hit or
run over that person, resulting in serious injury or
death. If any person is present in the area between
the engine and the front wheel, the person could be
crushed when the front wheels are turned.
To avoid these situations:
• Always look around BEFORE YOU MOVE THE
MACHINE. BE SURE THAT ALL BYSTANDERS
• Keep the back-up alarm in working condition.
ALWAYS BE ALERT FOR BYSTANDERS MOVING
INTO THE WORK AREA. USE THE HORN OR
OTHER SIGNAL TO WARN BYSTANDERS
BEFORE MOVING MACHINE.
• USE A SIGNAL PERSON IF YOUR VIEW IS
OBSTRUCTED. ALWAYS KEEP THE SIGNAL
PERSON IN VIEW.
• No machine motions shall be made unless signals
are clearly understood by both signalman and
• Learn the meanings of all flags, signs, and
markings used on the job and confirm who has the
responsibility for signaling.
• Keep windows, mirrors, and lights clean and in
• Dust, heavy rain, fog, etc., can reduce visibility. As
visibility decreases, reduce speed and use proper
• Read and understand all operating instructions in
the operator’s manual.
Keep the machine a safe distance from the edge of
cliffs and slide areas. There is the danger of tipping or
rolling over the machine.
Avoid operating on the side of slopes.
Use the seat belt during operation.
When operating the machine, both doors should be
closed at all times.
The cab is for the protection of the operator and it
meets the requirements for rollover protection
structures (ROPS) according to the adopted standard
for this machine.
DO NOT ATTEMPT TO JUMP CLEAR OF A TIPPING
MACHINE --- SERIOUS OR FATAL CRUSHING
INJURIES WILL RESULT.
MACHINE WILL TIP OVER FASTER THAN YOU CAN
THEREFORE, HOLD FIRMLY ONTO THE STEERING
WHEEL IF THE MACHINE SHOULD TIP OR ROLL
OVER. DO NOT JUMP.
IMPORTANT Never make any unauthorized
modifications or alterations to the Rollover
Protective Structure (ROPS) such as;
welding on fire extinguisher brackets, CB
antenna brackets, or fire suppression
systems. Such unauthorized modifications
will affect the structural limits of the ROPS
and will void the certification and could
result in loss of protection to the operator.
The Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS) has been
certified to meet specified requirements according to SAE
J1040C, SAE J231, ISO 3471 and ISO 3449.
Any planned modification or change must be reviewed in
advance by our Engineering Department to determine if
the modification or change can be made within the limits of
the certified tests.
IMPORTANT Each person in your organization, including
management should be made aware of
these rules involving the Rollover Protective
Structure (ROPS). Whenever anyone sees
a machine’s ROPS with unauthorized
modifications or changes both the customer
and manufacturer should be notified in
AVOID INJURY FROM ROLLAWAY ACCI-
Death or serious injury may result if you attempt to
mount or stop a moving machine.
To avoid rollaways:
• Select level ground when possible to park machine.
• Do not park the machine on a grade.
• Reference: PARK MACHINE SAFELY in this section.
• Chock the wheels if you must park on a grade.
• Position the machine to prevent rolling.
• Park a reasonable distance from other machines.
NEVER TRAVEL WITH THE BODY OFF
• Make sure the body is resting on the frame prior
to moving the machine.
• If the raised body hits against an overhead
obstacle, both the machine and the overhead
obstacle will be damaged, and personal injury
may result as well. This includes overhead
wires, cables and power lines.
• Traveling with a raised body places greater
stress to the body pivot pins, hydraulic cylinders
and the frame.
• Never “jump dump” by bouncing the rear
wheels against a stop rail or by jerking the body
OPERATING WITH THE MACHINE NEAR
OVERHEAD WIRES OR CABLES
Before operating the machine, check with
employer/supervisor to find out if there are any
overhead cables or wires on the work site.
• The machine operator must be given clear
information about this. Make sure that all
relevant and practical measures to help detect
such lines are taken.
• Local authorities and/or communication and
power companies should be contacted for
guidance and advice.
• Overhead wires and cables must be protected
against damage in a suitable way. The
electricity should be turned off when practical.
OPERATING WITH THE MACHINE NEAR
HIGH VOLTAGE, OVERHEAD POWER
A power line is a single conductor suspended on
or from poles or other supports as well as
accessories such as insulators, hooks, and bars.
Serious injury or death can result if the machine is
not kept a safe distance from electric lines.
• When operating near an electric line, NEVER
move any part of the machine or load closer
than 3 m (10 ft.) plus twice the line insulator
• Never operate the machine with the dump body
in the raised position.
• Check and comply with any local regulations
that may apply.
• If the machine comes into contact with a high
voltage line, the operator must remain in the
operator’s seat and not leave the cab; if the line
is live and the operator tries to reach the ground
his or her life is in danger. Call for help by
signaling in some way, sounding the horn or
mobile telephone, so that the power can be
• Wet ground will expand the area that could
cause any person on it to be affected by electric
shock. Keep all bystanders or co-workers away
from the site.
• If the machine is used in potentially dangerous
environments, e.g. explosive atmosphere, areas
with dust including asbestos, special safety
regulations must be followed and the machine
shall be equipped for such operations.
PARK MACHINE SAFELY
• Park machine on a level surface.
• Lower the body to the frame.
• Move the shift controller lever to the N neutral
• Apply the parking brake and release the service
brakes to insure that the parking brake is
holding the machine.
• Let the engine run at idle for three to five
minutes for cool down.
• Make sure the body hoist control lever is in the
• Check that all switches and controls are in the
• Turn the Key Switch to the OFF position.
• Turn the Battery Disconnect Switch to the OFF
• Fill the fuel tank to minimize water condensation
in the tank.
NOTE: Running out of fuel with the engine
running, especially under load, is very
detrimental to engine life and requires a
time consuming restart procedure.
• Perform a walk around inspection and fill out
the required Preventative Maintenance form or
other required operator report forms. Be sure to
report any adjustments of service required to
those responsible for maintenance.
• When leaving the machine unattended, remove
the key. Lock the doors and any vandalism
guards to prevent theft or damage.
SAFE HANDLING OF OFF-ROAD TIRES
When doing any tire service, especially tire
inflation, NEVER stand in the TRAJECTORY
PATH. Serious injury or death can result if an
explosion should occur.
• Use a self-attaching air chuck with a hose long
enough to be out of the trajectory path when
filling a tire with air.
• Use an inflation cage, safety cables, or chains
when inflating tires.
• Never use air from a compressed air system, to
inflate a tire if alcohol has been used as
Inspect all rims, wheels and components.
• Replace any worn or damaged rims, wheels
Do not remove any wheel nuts; rim clamps or
dagger clamps until the tire is deflated.
• No personnel should be touching the rim, rim
clamp, or tire when dislodging the rim clamps or
dagger clamps on larger dumpers.
• Never stand in front of rim clamps or dagger
clamps during removal.
• Trained and certified personnel should only do
the dismounting and mounting of tires. It is
recommended that a certified tire repair service
be hired to perform the dismounting and
mounting of tires from rims.
Before removing and disassembling brake or
steering accumulators, they must be discharged to
prevent serious injury. Refer to the appropriate
Maintenance Manual section for BRAKE
ACCUMULATOR and STEERING