Flos Caryophylli, Caryophyllus.
Part Used: Dried unexpanded flower buds
of Eugenia aromatica (Syzygium
aromaticum =Caryophyllus aromaticus)
❖ Clove contains not more than 5% of its
stalks and not more than 1% of foreign
organic matter and yields not less than
15% v/w of volatile oil.
❑ The flower bud is bright reddish-brown to dark brown in
❑ It bears at the apex four thick, triangular sepals.
❑ The corolla consists of four fragile, unexpanded
membranous petals alternated with the sepals.
❑ Stamens: tetradelphous.
❑ The gynaecium consists bicarbellary inferior ovary with
numerous ovules attached to an axile placenta.
❑ The hypanthium is wrinkled externally and when
indented by the fingernail exudes volatile oil.
❑ Internally, the hypanthium shows the inferior ovary in
its upper portion surrounded by a large outer zone
containing numerous oil glands near the periphery and
numerous vascular bundles near the ovary.
❑ Below the ovary, the hypanthium shows a central
zone called columella surrounded by a dark lacunous
layer in addition to the same outer zone as that
surrounding the ovary.
A transverse section in the hypanthium shows the following layers:
➢The Epidermis: It is formed of small, thick-walled cells with thick
cuticle and showing anomocytic stomata.
➢The Parenchymatous layer: It contains numerous large oval
schizolysogenous oil glands arranged in two or three intermixed
➢The Collenchymatous layer: It contains cluster crystals of calcium
oxalate and traversed by a ring of 20-50 vascular bundles. Each
vascular bundle consists of xylem formed of delicate vessels,
cellulosic phloem and pericycle showing lignified, fusiform, thick-
walled pericyclic fibers.
➢The Lacunous layer: It is formed of thin-walled parenchyma.
➢The Columella: It is formed of parenchyma with numerous
cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and surrounded by about 15
closely arranged small vascular bundles.
➢ In the region of the ovary, there is no lacunous layer or
columella but instead there is a bilocular ovary.
Microscopical Identification powder:
Brown in color, with a strong characteristic aromatic odor and a
pungent spicy taste, followed by slight numbness.
Microscopically: it is characterized by
1.Fragments of epidermis with thick straight anticlinal walls and few
2.Parenchymatous tissue showing entire or broken oil glands.
3.Parenchyma and collenchyma with cluster crystals of calcium
4.Vascular strands showing delicate spiral vessels and lignified thick-
walled fusiform isolated fibers.
5.Numerous pollen grains, either as an equilateral triangle with
truncate apices or oval in outline.
6.Fragments of the fibrous layer of the anther.
7.Fragments of the filament showing oil glands, calcium oxalate
clusters and central vascular strand.
8.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate, but no prisms.
❖Volatile oil (15-20%), which contains about 80 to 90% eugenol and
❖Gallotannic acid (13%).
❖A white, odorless crystalline substance (Caryophyllin).
1. Aromatic stimulant.
2. Antiseptic, antiparasitic, and as digestive aid.
3. As spice.
4. Carminative and antispasmodic.
5. Diluted volatile oil is applied topically for relief of toothaches.
6. Eugenol is a starting material for synthetic vanillin.
• Liver: No true adverse effects following correct
usage, But in overdoses has been suggested that
eugenol-induced hepatotoxicity is similar to that
seen with paracetamol poisoning.
• Mucus membranes: If the essential oil has
prolonged contact with gum tissue the herb can be
• Use caution when applying essential oil internally.
1. Test for Eugenol: With Alcoholic 5% KOH, needle-
shaped crystals of potassium eugenate are formed.
2. Test for Tannin: Mix a little of powdered cloves with a
few drops of FeCl3 solution; a deep blue color is
produced in all elements except fibers.
Other Clove Products and Adulteration:
1. Clove stalk:
❑ The main axis of the inflorescence shows opposite decussate branching
and is called clove stalk.
❑ It is brownish, rough and irregularly wrinkled longitudinally, with less
pleasant odor and yields about 5% volatile oil.
❑ It can be detected in powdered cloves by:
o Presence of isodiametric thick-walled sclereids from the cortex.
o Presence of prisms of calcium oxalate from the cortex and pith.
2. Mother Clove:
❑ It is the ripe fruits of clove; ovoid, brown and unilocular containing a
single seed (only one ovule of the numerous ovules present in the
bilocular ovary develops into a seed). It contains much less volatile oil.
❑ It can be detected in powdered cloves by presence of abundant starch,
which is absent in clove.
3. Exhausted Clove:
❑ It is clove free from all or most of the oil, which has been removed by
steam distillation. It can be detected by being darker, much shrunken and
floats in H2O.
Part Used: Dried flowers of Lavendula
officinalis (Fam. Labiatae).
Lavender flower contains not more than 2
% of foreign organic matters and yeilds
not less than 0.5% v/w of volatile oil.
The flowers are nearly sessile. Lavender has a fragrant
aromatic odor and an aromatic bitter some what
The Calyx: is formed of 5 united sepals, tubular, hairy,
greyish-blue to bluish-violet in color.
The corolla: is bilabiate, hairy, dark blue in color; the
posterior lip is bilobed while the anterior is trilobed.
The stamens: are 4, epipetalous and didynamous.
The ovary: superior, bicarpellary and tetralocular.
The epidermial cells of the bract shows
❑ Calyx and corolla bear:
-Glandular hairs with very short unicellular
stalk and 4 to 8-celled head of labiaceous
type -- Characteristic branched unicellular
and multicellular non-glandular hairs
(candelabra hair) with pointed ends and
warty cuticle, or branched with smooth
❑ Corolla bears on the inner surface
The epidermis has central papillae.
Characteristic glandular hairs with unicellular
globular head and a bicellular stalk, its basal
cell being long and the other cell short and
❑ Anthers are covered with whip-shaped,
unicellular non-glandular hairs.
❑ Pollen grains are almost spherical or
hexagonal with 6 germ pores.
❑ Stigma is papillosed.
Volatile oil (0.8-2.8%), containing not less than 35% of the ester
linalyl acetate, alcohols as linalool and geraniol, limonene and a
1. In manufacture of perfumes.
2. As flavoring agent in pharmaceutical and cosmetic
3. Recommended for: burns, headaches, psoriasis, skin problems,
4. It is beneficial for the skin.
5. For fumigating clothes to keep them free from moths.
Synonyms: Karkadeh, Red Sorrel,
Dried calyx and epicalyx of the
flowers of Hibiscus subdariffa
❖Hibiscus has a characteristic
aromatic oduor and a warm,
slightly acidic mucilaginous taste.
❖The drug consists of dark
crimson red, 8-10 linear or oblong
villose epicalyx segments, and
purplish to crimson red, cup-
shaped, 5 united segments of
Epidermal cells showing anomocytic stomata. Non-glandular
Hairs, arising from ring-like cicatrix surrounded by epidermal
The outer (lower) epidermis consists of polygonal, tabular
cells, showing anomocytic stomata, and non-glandular hairs
of various types:
❖ Unicellular hairs as those of epicalyx.
❖ Alembic hairs near the veins.
❖ Cottony non-glandular hairs.
❖ Stellate cottony hair.
❖ Stellate hairs of large, straight, unicellular arms.
❖ Asperities of multicellular uniseriate structure, situated near
The inner (upper) epidermis consists of polygonal tabular
cells, larger than the lower, with straight, beaded anticlinal
walls, smooth cuticle and no hairs or stomata.
The mesophyll is parenchymatous, showing cluster crystals
of calcium oxalate.
1. Organic acids (15%), mainly citric, tartaric, malic and
2. Large amount of mucilage.
3. Coloring matter of anthocyanins (Hibiscin).
4. Flavonoids (hibiscetin).
- Emollient. - Sedative, slightly diaphoretic.
- Mild laxative. - Weight-reducing agent as hibiscin.
- Digestive. mild antihypertensive agent.
- Weight-reducing agent as hibiscin.
- A substitute for tea and coffee.
➢ Boil 100 g of powdered Hibiscus flower in 300 mL of 1%
HCl, filter; the filtrate is dark red.
➢ The filtrate + KOH → a blue color is produced.
➢ The filtrate + sodium acetate → a violet color appears.
➢ The filtrate + dilute NH4OH and 1-2 drops of FeCl3 →full
black color is produced.
➢ The filtrate + conc. NH4OH → a green color appears.
➢ The filtrate + 10% lead acetate solution → a blue
precipitate is deposited, due to the formation of a metal
Origin: The flower of Jasminum grandifolium L., J.
auriculatum L. and J. mesnyi L. Family: Oleaceae
The flower is white in color,
fragrant aromatic odour
and aromatic in taste.
The calyx epidermis of isodiametric, slightly
elongated cells with straight anticlinal walls, and
covered with smooth cuticle showing anomocytic
stomata, nonglandular, multicellular hairs biseriate at
the base, uniseriate at the top.
Corolla epidermis has no stomata and hairs.
Volatile oil contain benzyl acetate (65%), linalol
(15.5%), linalyl acetate (7.5%), benzyl alcohol
(6%), jasmone (3%), indole (2.5%), methyl
anthranilate (0.5%), farnesol, geraniol and nerol
Alkaloids as jasminine
Uses: In preparation of
Origin: Tilia is the dried inflorescence, with their
attached bracts of Tilia europea L., Tilia cordata
Mill., and Tilia platyphylla Scop. Family: Tiliaceae.
❖Tilia europaea is a large deciduous tree up to 15–
50 m tall with a trunk up to 2.5 m radius
❖Inflorescence: compound racemose inflorescence
❖The flower must be dried in the shade in thin
layers, if dried in the sun or artificially, the drug
loses completely its odour.
Glycosides, mucilage, tannins, bitter substances
volatile oil and saponin.
The infusion is used as:
3- Anodyne (relieving pain) in cough.
Stylus Maydis (Corn Silk)
Origin: The dried styles and stigma of Zea mays L.
1- Volatile oil as carvacrol and pyrocatedral.
2- Resin. 3- Volatile alkaloids.
4- Crystalline substances as maizinic acid.
5- Saponin. 6- Bitter glycosides.
1- Diuretic in renal tea.
3- Antitumour against Carcinoma.
Synonyms: Spanish Saffron, Za’faran, Crocus, Stigma
Part Used: Dried stigmas of Crocus sativa L. (Fam.
➢ The stigma is reddish brown
➢ Has a strong characteristic odor and bitter taste.
➢ The stigma is trifid attached at the
base to a short portion of the pale yellow style.
Two mole of
- Bitter taste
and one mole of crocin
- Yellow glycoside
- Water soluble
- One part of crocin
imparts yellow colour to
100,000 parts of water.
Upon treatment with cold dil
(yellow to reddish
By steam distillation
volatile oil product
1- The fresh drug contains protocrocin glycoside
❖Both crocin and crocetines (α,β ) give blue color with conc.
Protocrocin suffer pyrolysis during drying to give
2- Volatile oil and wax.
With 80% v/v H2SO4; a deep blue color is developed
which changes to violet and finally to wine red.
It imparts yellow color to H2O and saliva.
➢Non carcinogenic, natural coluoring agent.
Adultration of saffron:
Owing to its high price (100,000 flowers are required to give one
kg of the drug), saffron has always been subjected to substitution
and adultration. The substances used may be grouped in three
I. Substitution with other materials which have some external
resemblance to saffron e.g. styles of saffron, stamens and strips of
corolla of saffron. Corollas of florets of calendula officinalis,
safflower, stigmas of zea mays etc.
II. Exhausted saffron recolored by dyes e. g. log wood, brazil
wood and aniline dyes.
III. Substances added to saffron in order to increase its weight e.g.
minerals, vegetable oils and glycerin.
Substitution: Several cheaper substitutes are used.
Botanical origin: the dried flowers of Viola odorata Family:
Common Names: Blue Violet, Sweet Violet, Veilchen
- Saponins. - Methyl salicylate
- Alkaloids including violine, odoratine
- Essential oil. - Flavonoids including rutin.
Medicinal Action and Uses
- Anti-inflammatory. - Expectorant.
- Antineoplastic. - Diuretic.
Botanical origin: The flower heads of
Flavonoids including the isoflavone pratol
Phenolic acids including salicylic and
Volatile oil containing more than 40
Dermatological agent in case of childhood
eczema and has a value in other chronic skin
conditions such as psoriasis.
Botanical origin: The flower of Oenothera
biennis family Onagraceae.
Common names: Suncups, Common Evening
Primrose, Fever Plant, Field Primrose, King's
Cure all, Night Willow-herb, Primrose.
Fatty acids (FA): the gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and linolenic acid
(LA). Oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid.
Steroids: campesterol, β-sitosterol.
3-O-trans-Caffeoyl esters of triterpene acids (betulinic, morolic, and
Evening primrose also contains low in molecular weight phenolic
compounds that include catechin, epicatechin and gallic acid.
Female disorders associated with pelvic fullness
3.Relieves menstrual cramping
4.Symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS)
5.Reducing symptoms of a kind of skin disorder
called atopic dermatitis (eczema).
Botanical origin: The dried flowers of Sambucus nigra
Flavonoids and Phenolic acids.
Triterpenes mainly ursolic acid.
The flowers are rich in minerals especially potassium.
Elder Flowers are ideal for the treatment of colds and influenza.
They are indicated in any catarrhal inflammation of the upper
respiratory tract such as hay fever and sinusitis. It has: Diaphoretic,
anti-inflammatory and anticatarrhal actions.
Has diuretic effect.
Also have role in skin lightening preparation.