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SIGGRAPH 2006

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Maria C. R. Harrington, Ph.D.SIGGRAPH 2006 Educators Program. This was one of my first academic presentations, and here I presented my literature review findings for my dissertation. Many important insights were presented, and I am pleased to see that my dissertation did, indeed prove them to be on target and accurate. I still do not know what I should call this work, while my software can be displayed inside the hardware required for a true definition of Virtual Reality, VR implies full immersion with a headset or CAVE. Virtual Field Trips, while an accurate functional definition, represents a two-dimensional and linear web experience in the market. Fun, let us not forget the fun, but I want nothing to do with Edutainment, or Gamification. Serious Games implies some type of "win" or end-state where there is "victory" and my work is against that concept, exploring the opposite concept of intrinsic motivation. Simulations are very close to my work, and used in health care or aerospace because, yeah, we really do want doctors and pilots to crash and burn.. so yes, maybe Simulated Ecological Environments for Education (SEEE) is the best way to describe what I have done. Then tie in some intelligent tutoring systems, some analytics, and some feedback, and empower the learner to know more about how they learn, and what they don't yet know, and give them a path to find out.

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SIGGRAPH 2006

  1. 1. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  2. 2. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Situational Learning in Real and Virtual Space: Lessons Learned and Future Directions Maria C.R. Harrington School of Information Sciences Department of Information Science and Telecommunications University of Pittsburgh 135 North Bellefield Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA mharring@pitt.edu Human Computer Interaction Spatial Information Theory Knowledge Acquisition Systems
  3. 3. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Paradigm Shift “Can Simulated Ecological Environments of nature inspire independent exploration, an intrinsic desire to learn and acts of creation for the child?”
  4. 4. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED • Build Useable Educational Systems for Children – What has worked? • Ethnographic Study • Survey of Literature, Research and Market – What tools are available? • Platforms, Software SDKs, Distribution Channels Research Goals
  5. 5. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Start with Ethnographic Study • In Classroom – Traditional Approach – Materials – Standardized Tests – Generalized • Field Trips – In Context / Situational – Interactions / Explorations – Expert Guide – Personalized
  6. 6. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Ecology Education Human Computer Interaction Simulated Ecological Environments for Education Research Domains
  7. 7. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Real World Situated Learning • Situated Learning Theory – [Lave and Wenger 1990; McLellan 1995] • “Islands of Expertise” Informal Learning Theory – [Crowley and Jacobs 2002] • The Theory of Multiple Intelligences – [Gardner 1993] Education
  8. 8. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Literature Review • Explored over 400 sources of interest – Cut to 150 Core • Main Categories • Ubiquitous & Collaborative • Immersive Virtual Reality • Classroom Virtual Reality • Simulations & Artificial Life • Theaters, Museums & Science Centers • Desktop Virtual Reality • Augmented & Mixed Reality • Mobile & In the Field • Creative Elements for Children Ecology Education Human Computer Interaction
  9. 9. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Information Science Philosophy Psychology Economics Decision Support Real Time Systems Ecology Education Cognitive Science Human Computer Interaction Virtual Reality Data Visualization Augmented Reality Collaboration Interactive Educational Technology Intelligent Tudors Simulations Semantic Web Semantic VR Web Virtual Worlds and Artificial Intelligence And Artificial Life Situated Learning Plants Science Education Conceptual Map Simulated Ecological Environments for Education
  10. 10. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Ecology Education Human Computer Interaction Simulated Ecological Environments for Education Common Elements
  11. 11. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Simulated Ecological Environments for Education (SEEE) • SEEE Tripartite Model – User to Expert – Simulation and Virtual Environment – User Interface • A Useful Framework • Help to Frame the Problem, Approach • Solution
  12. 12. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Findings of Literature, Research and Market • Child’s Mental Model & Situation Learning – Novice to Expert transitions – How does declarative and procedural knowledge change in situational learning environments? • Virtual Environments of Nature – 3DCG modeled virtual environments – Parameters of 3DCG that impact realism? – VE = terrain, sky, water, plants and animals • User Interface – Human Computer User interface required to support the activity and tasks of a child engaged in situational learning? – Input and Output Devices – Soft UI = search, navigation, augmentation & annotation.
  13. 13. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Evaluation Criteria • Common Rubric to structure the Case Study Review • All projects reviewed by – Overview – Educational Objects – Technology Used – Subjects – Content – Methods and Results – HCI Evaluation
  14. 14. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Important Projects • MIT Kids Room • Project Science Space • GeorgiaTech Virtual Gorilla • EVL Field Work • MyField Study • Nerve Garden • Plant Simulations • Virtual Oceanarium • MUVEs • Equator Ambient Wood • MagicLenses • Digital EE • The Tent • Geist
  15. 15. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED MIT Kids Room KidsRoom Images of the KidsRoom (Bobick et al., 1999). Top row are photographs of the room. The bottom row is showing a wall transitioning from wall paper to a forest.
  16. 16. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Project Science Space Project Science Space Images of Project Science (Salzman, Dede, Loftin & Chen, 1999). The image on the left is from NewtonWorld, and the image on the right is from MaxwellWorld.
  17. 17. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED GeorgiaTech Virtual Gorilla Virtual Gorilla Exhibit The Virtual Gorilla Exhibit (Allison, Wills, Bowman, et al., 1997) was an immersive virtual environment created at the Georgia Institute of Technology and pilot tested on location at the Atlanta Zoo. The image on the far left is representative of the habitat with a gorilla on a mound. The image in the center is that of an alpha silver back male. The image on the right is an image of the gorilla’s habitat shelter.
  18. 18. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED EVL Field Work & MyField The Field Images of children watching the Bee Dance in The Field (Johnson, Moher, Cho, Lin, Hass, et al., 2002). Educational objectives included the concepts of inter-species relationships of plants, insects and pollination, as well as observation skills.
  19. 19. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Empirical Findings • MaxwellWorld (Project Science Space) – Knowledge Gain has been reported in the experimental results as close to 20% (Dede et al., 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999; Salzman et al., 1996 & 1999) • MUVEs (River City) – Knowledge Gain has been reported in the experimental results as close to 35% (Dede et al., 2003, 2005). • Virtual Environment in Biology Teaching – Knowledge Gain has been reported in the experimental results as close to 50% (Markopoulos, 2003)
  20. 20. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Qualitative Findings • Most Common – Context • Influences all signals – Collaboration • Helps to Reduce Inhibition & Increase Exploration – Frames of Reference • Help Focus Attention
  21. 21. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Context as a Design Tool • Story(KidsRoom: Bobick et al., 1999; NICE: Roussou et al., 19997; MagicBook: Billinghurst et al., 2001; Looser, 2004; McKenzie, 2003; Geist: Braun, 2003; The Field (Johnson et al., 1999, 2000, 2001; Cho, 2003), MUVEs (Dede et al., 2003, 2005) • Role Usage (Johnson et al., 1999, 2000, 200; Cho, 2003) • Problems or a Goal Project Science Space (Dede et al., 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999; Salzman et al., 1996 & 1999), Global Change World (Jackson, 2000). The Round Earth Project (Johnson, et al., 1999), The Field (Johnson et al.,1999, 2000, 2001 and Cho, 2003), MUVEs (Dede et al., 2003 and Dede et al., 2005), Virtual Environment in Biology Teaching (Mikropoulos, 2003), the Virtual Field Station (Poland, 2003) and the subtle, delicate and elusive uses of the goals “to go and explore and reflect” suggested in The Ambient Wood Project (Weal, 2003 and Rogers, 2005) also showed encouraging results. • The Visual Space DigitalEE II (Okada, 2003) with the implementation of the collaborative construction of a shared frame of reference necessitated by co-wayfinding, co- attending to objects of interest, and communication between real and virtual travelers with the subtle goal to appreciate nature. The user interface facilitated those unique activities with the Shared Eye.
  22. 22. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Collaboration as a Design Tool • Real or Virtual Peers or guides was shown to reduce inhibitions and increases the desire, rate and amount of exploration (Bobick, 1999). • Guides are also context-agents, in that they can influence search and navigation strategies and provide hints or clues for problem solving. They also can be seen as mentors (Dede et al., 2003 and Dede et al., 2005). The research experiments tended to favor collaborative over individual experiences, with the majority of the studies in the category of paired or group work as contrasted to those designed for the individual. • The interactive art pieces were open to individual choice, and The Tent (Waterworth, 2001) as it was originally conceived was a solo, meditative experience. There is room to conduct future research on designing and building effective systems for the individual.
  23. 23. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Frames of Reference as a Design Tool • Providing Multiple Frames of Reference, The Project Science Space MaxwellWorld, (Dede et al., 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999; Salzman et al., 1996 & 1999), DigitalEE II (Okada, 2003), The Round Earth, (Johnson, et al., 1999), and the MUVEs (Dede, 2003 and Dede et al., 2005) • Virtual Environments are Constructs, the designer can intentionally select a visual frame of reference to increase the probability that the student will attend to the educationally important information in view. • Multiple Views, by providing a user interface with multiple views of the information, understanding can be improved. This is yet another area for future research.
  24. 24. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Critical Properties for Design • Frames of Reference & Different Views • Contextual & Perceptual • Collaboration in Roles / Avatars • Temporal Possibilities of Past, Present, Future Realities • Scale can be Microscopic to Galactic • Multi-Signal • Cause & Effect Relationships • Aesthetics & Natural Beauty • Emotional Reactions… …Awe & Wonder, a Need to Know, Share and Create…
  25. 25. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Open Questions • How to Replicate Real Experience? – CBTs (some times Drill and Practice is good) – Intelligent Tutors & Knowledge Acquisition Systems – Simulations & Virtual Environments • How to Distribute? – Interactive DVDs/CDs? – Internet / Web / P2P? – Cell phones / Handhelds?
  26. 26. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Spatial Cognitive Ecology
  27. 27. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Simulated Ecological Environments for Education
  28. 28. © Maria C.R. Harrington, 2006, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Demo & Questions • Simulated Ecological Environments for Education • http://www2.sis.pitt.edu/~mariah/phd/index.html

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