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Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Margaret R. Roller, MA
rmr@rollerresearch.com
www.rol...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A
...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
5
Total Quality Framework
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Discussion
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A ...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
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Credibility Analyzability
Strengths
Face-to-face M...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
25
Credibility Analyzability
Limitations
Face-to-face...
Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016
Roller, M. R., & Lavrakas, P. J. (2015). Applied Qual...
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Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Intrerview Method

A brief overview of the in-depth interview method followed by key considerations when applying the Total Quality Framework that allows researchers to maximize quality outcomes & the usefulness of an IDI study.

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Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Intrerview Method

  1. 1. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Margaret R. Roller, MA rmr@rollerresearch.com www.rollerresearch.com www.researchdesignreview.com Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method
  2. 2. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  3 Types  Structured  Semi-structured  Unstructured  9 Basic Steps  Define the research question(s)  Identify the appropriate interviewees  Select the appropriate mode(s)  Select an appropriate location for face-to-face IDIs  Determine how data will be captured/recorded  Develop interview guide  Conduct pilot interviews  Obtain consent from interviewees  Use good interviewing techniques/skills 1 In-depth Interviews Brief Overview
  3. 3. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  5 Key Interviewer Skills  Build rapport  Actively listen  Stay focused on objectives  Maintain sensitivity to verbal & nonverbal cues  Obtain accurate & complete interview records  Modes  Face-to-face  Telephone  Email  Mobile 2 In-depth Interviews Brief Overview (continued)
  4. 4. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Strengths  Interviewer-interviewee relationship.  Flexibility of the interview format.  Granularity in the IDI data.  Limitations  Interviewer-interviewee relationship. • Interviewer bias  “Power dynamics” & “a one-way dialogue” (Kvale, 2006) 3 In-depth Interviews Brief Overview (continued)
  5. 5. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015)
  6. 6. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 5 Total Quality Framework
  7. 7. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Number of interviews  Evaluate during the initial design phase & in the field.  In the design phase, consider: • Breadth & depth of the research topic/issue. • Heterogeneity or homogeneity of the target population. • Level of analysis & interpretation to meet objectives. • Practical matters, e.g., time, human & financial resources.  When in the field • “Saturation” is not sufficient. • Need to ask 10 questions to evaluate IDI completions. In-depth Interviews 6 Applying the TQF: CREDIBILITY- Scope
  8. 8. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller 7 In-depth Interviews
  9. 9. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller Applying the TQF: CREDIBILITY- Scope (continued) Gaining Cooperation  Explaining the purpose of the study.  Nonmaterial incentive, e.g., make things “better.”  Material incentive, e.g., cash, charitable contribution.  Effect of identifying the sponsor.  Nature of advance communication, e.g., personalized.  Tailoring the recruit to each individual rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.  Flexibility of location (for face-to-face mode).  Use of gatekeepers for hard-to-reach segments. 8 In-depth Interviews
  10. 10. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Interview content  Interviewer bias  Interviewer inconsistency  Participant effects 9 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: CREDIBILITY- Data Gathering
  11. 11. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Interview Content  4 basic steps to the interview guide • Build on past work on the topic. • Speak with colleagues & experts in the topic area. • Show a draft of the guide to clients for review & feedback. • Take a break from the guide & review again with a “fresh mind.”  Broad to narrow topic areas (“funnel” approach).  Pilot-test to ensure all constructs/objectives are covered. 10 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: CREDIBILITY- Data Gathering (continued)
  12. 12. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Interviewer Bias  Pretesting also helps identify the interviewer’s predispositions & fine-tune probing (follow-up) questions/techniques.  Review of IDI recordings by another researcher to identify possible ways the interviewer biased responses.  A reflexive journal aids in evaluating the interviewer’s impact on outcomes. 11 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: CREDIBILITY- Data Gathering (continued)
  13. 13. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller 12 In-depth Interviews
  14. 14. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Interviewer Inconsistency  Question wording should not vary for definitions, concept statements, etc.  Consistently ask follow-up questions to clarify similar areas of content.  Scale the IDI guide for other modes to maintain consistency in what & how topic areas are covered. • e.g., Switching from face-to-face to telephone. 13 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: CREDIBILITY- Data Gathering (continued)
  15. 15. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller 14 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: CREDIBILITY- Data Gathering (continued) What if a bank offered what I will call a “dedicated transition team”? This team would be available to you – to your company – to discuss the services that are offered, go over the switching process and the timeline, as well as provide contact information for everyone at the bank who is going to be involved in this process. This team might also be involved in setting up your online bill pay if you do that, of notifying suppliers and customers about the changes on your account, ordering new checks for you, things of that nature. Interviewer Inconsistency: Example of concept statement for switching banks:
  16. 16. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Participant Effects  Building rapport & trust – via appearance, open & personalized communication, ensuring confidentiality – to encourage “I don’t know” or “I am not comfortable telling you.” • Identify & respond to cues that participant is hesitating or uncomfortable, esp., telephone, online, email modes. • Add visual (e.g., via Skype) to telephone & online modes.  Use of indirect questions – Asking cancer patients about treatment via “How are things going at home with the family?”  Limiting the number of questions in the email mode so not to confuse or frustrate the participant. 15 Applying the TQF: CREDIBILITY- Data Gathering (continued) In-depth Interviews
  17. 17. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Credibility – Scope  Number of interviews should be evaluated during design & at the field stage via 10 questions about completions.  Gaining cooperation is impacted by various factors, e.g., incentives, advance communication, & gatekeepers.  Credibility – Data Gathering  Content in the interview guide is organized as a “funnel.”  Interviewer bias can be mitigated with pretesting & inter- researcher reviews.  Interviewer inconsistency should be addressed by maintaining question wording for some content, e.g., definitions, & consistent use of follow-up questions.  Lessen participant effects by building rapport & indirect questioning. 16 In-depth Interviews
  18. 18. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Transcriptionists & potential error  Misinterpreting the content.  Unfamiliarity with the terminology, certain words.  “Tidying up” or “correcting” content.  Typos or grammatical mistakes that change the intended meaning.  Unavoidable error due to the absence of visual cues. 17 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: ANALYZABILITY- Processing
  19. 19. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  6 necessary qualities of a transcriptionist  Knowledgeable about the subject category.  Trained/experienced on the specific research topic.  Sensitive to how people speak & will identify/insert the correct punctuation, pauses.  Accounts for the entire interview, including portions that are difficult to hear.  Understands the language & its regional variations, slang.  Can detect a complete thought & distinguish between the continuation of a thought and the beginning of another. 18 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: ANALYZABILITY- Processing (continued)
  20. 20. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Using alternative sources of information to enrich & verify IDI interpretations  Reflexive journal – Did pre-conceived notions about the participants bias the interviewer’s questioning?  Peer debriefing – Asking another researcher to provide their interpretations based on a review of the field notes, transcripts, & recordings.  Triangulation – [Data] How do IDIs with nurses compare to those with hospital administrators? [Method] How are IDI outcomes the same or different compared to a focus group study with the same type of participants?  Deviant or negative case analysis – Do the less-frequently mentioned attitudes/behavior support or refute interpretations of the data? 19 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: ANALYZABILITY- Verification
  21. 21. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  A “thick” description allowing other researchers to derive similar interpretations &/or apply the IDI research in other contexts  Researcher’s assumptions going into the IDI study.  Representativeness of the sampling frame.  Ad-hoc decisions made in the field, e.g., changing modes.  Reflexive journal excerpts & field notes.  Transcription process & coding procedures.  Verification procedures.  Must have: Interview guide & verbatims 20 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: TRANSPARENCY
  22. 22. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Ultimate usefulness of IDI research enables users to do something with the results.  Usefulness is derived from:  Representative coverage + reliable & valid data gathering (Credibility).  Thorough processing & verification of the data (Analyzability).  Full documentation of the “life” of the study, including decision making (Transparency).  Usefulness is assessed via follow-up reviews – Was the research applied to mitigate the research issue? How was it applied & was it effective? 21 In-depth Interviews Applying the TQF: Usefulness
  23. 23. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Discussion
  24. 24. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Adapted from: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015) ©Margaret R. Roller  Differences across modes  Your experiences with IDIs across modes. • What mode do you use most often? • What are the strengths & limitations from a TQF perspective based on your experience? • What are the trade-offs? • How does this vary depending on topic or research issue? • How does this vary by population segment? 23 Discussion – In-depth Interviews
  25. 25. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 24 Credibility Analyzability Strengths Face-to-face Most similar to natural conversation, facilitates building rapport, better able to prevent interviewer inconsistency (v. mobile, email), share stimuli, more complete & in-depth IDI. Can audio &/or video record, visual cues add meaning, verification (triangulation) is more straightforward (v. mobile, email). Phone Scope (wide coverage, more IDIs), gaining cooperation (convenience in scheduling, participation), absence of visual cues that may bias, better able to prevent interviewer inconsistency (v. mobile, email). Can usually audio record, verification (triangulation) is more straightforward (v. mobile, email). Mobile (using smartphone technology) Gaining cooperation, esp., millennials (convenience in scheduling, participation), multiple ways to respond. Multiple forms of data (audio, video, images) to analyze giving greater context & meaning. Email Scope (coverage), gaining cooperation (convenience of scheduling, participation), detailed responses. Built-in transcripts, detailed content to analyze. Credibility: Number of interviews, gaining cooperation, interviewer bias (appearance, attitude), interviewer inconsistency (follow-up questions, concepts), participant effects (rapport, indirect questions). Analyzability: Transcriptions/transcriptionists, verification (peer debriefing, deviant case analysis). Discussion – In-depth Interviews
  26. 26. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 25 Credibility Analyzability Limitations Face-to-face Scope (coverage, fewer IDIs), gaining cooperation (convenience in scheduling, participation), interviewer bias & participant effects (physical presence may bias results). Not all participants may agree to audio &/or video recording. Phone Weakened ability to establish rapport, absence of visual cues that aid in interpretation, shorter IDI length/less in-depth. Not all participants may agree to audio recording, lack of visual cues to aid in interpretation. Mobile (using smartphone technology) Scope (coverage bias, e.g., certain demographic segments, people with limited literacy, smartphone savvy), weakened ability to establish rapport, interviewer inconsistency (limited follow-up), participant effects (participant controls content). Not all participants may have the capability or know-how to capture data in various forms, potentially biased data (participants control what they share). Email Scope (coverage bias, e.g., certain demographic segments, people with limited literacy, email access), weakened ability to establish rapport & keep IDI on track, text is primary form of communication. “The impressions that participants give through their text can negatively impact the quality of the analysis and interpretation of the data” (p. 67) Credibility: Number of interviews, gaining cooperation, interviewer bias (appearance, attitude), interviewer inconsistency (follow-up questions, concepts), participant effects (rapport, indirect questions). Analyzability: Transcriptions/transcriptionists, verification (peer debriefing, deviant case analysis). Discussion – In-depth Interviews
  27. 27. Applying a Quality Framework to the In-depth Interview Method ● 2016 Roller, M. R., & Lavrakas, P. J. (2015). Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach. New York: Guilford Publications. Roller, M. R. Research Design Review www.researchdesignreview.com Interview Guide Development: A 4-Stage “Funnel” Approach (June 28, 2015) https://researchdesignreview.com/2015/06/28/interview-guide-development-a-4-stage-funnel- approach/ Designing a Quality In-depth Interview Study: How Many Interviews Are Enough? (September 12, 2012) http://researchdesignreview.com/2012/09/12/designing-a-quality-in-depth-interview-study/ Interviewer Bias & Reflexivity in Qualitative Research (November 14, 2012) http://researchdesignreview.com/2012/11/14/interviewer-bias-reflexivity-in-qualitative-research/ West, R. (2012). Lather, rinse, repeat: Getting into the shower & other private places with mobile qualitative. In MRMW North America Conference. Cincinnati, OH. URL: http://vimeo.com/49323073 This is an 18-minute presentation by Rebecca West concerning Civicom’s mobile market research study for a beauty products manufacturer. This research studied the purchase and use of a body wash product among female “enthusiasts” by way of in-store visits and actual use in the shower. The presentation goes through the design considerations, the various ways participants communicated with the Civicom researchers at the store (i.e., voice, image, text, and video) and in the shower (i.e., voice), and research findings. 26 References & Further Resources In-depth Interviews

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