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Apling ppt.pptx

  1. Research Perspectives on Non-Native English-Speaking and The Decline and Fall of the Native Speaker
  2. Within the ELT (English Language Teaching) field, the nation that the native speaker of English is the ideal teacher was a tenet formulated at the Commonwealth Conference in the teaching of English as a second language (Philipson 1992). Native English Speaker (NES) Non Native English Speaker (NNES) What Is
  3. The term of Native English Speaker (NES) is commonly used to refer to people who learned a language in a natural setting from childhood as first or sole language Kachru & Nelson 1996 Philipson 1992 He assumed that Native English Speaker (NES) teacher are: • Better linguistic model • Have the ability to use language more fluently and idiomatically • Are aware of the cultural connotations of the language • Can rely in intuition to make accurate linguistic judgments Canagarajah (1999) state that Non-native English speaker (NNES) teachers constitute up to 80% of English teacher around the world.
  4. Other researcher also question the validity of the NES construct, and by extension, challenge the notion that the native speaker is the ideal English teacher. Kramsch (1998a: 79-80) argues that the native english speaker construct is an abstraction based on arbitrarily selected features of pronunciation, grammar, lexicon, as well as on stereotypical features of appearance and act, and that the construct relies on the assumption that native English speaker are monolingual and monocultural, and speak only standard variety of the language.
  5. Native English Speaker (NES) Davies (1991, 1995, 2002, 2003) argues that the NES construct is a myth, but we need this myth as a model and a goal. Liu (1999) argues that research in this area is needed since it would help to explain the extent to which the labels affect not only Non Native English Speaker educators’ self-image but also their instructional practices and ultimately their students development
  6. Perceptions of Non-native English-speaking Educators Research on students perception about NNES educators has focused on two areas: 1. Teachers’ accentedness 2. Teachers’ pedagogical skills
  7. Studies that have explored how teacher accentedness in English affect students’ perception about teachers lead to three conclusions: 1. NNES teachers may play a more important role in the development of students’ attitude toward the teachers than does the teachers’ accentedness in English. 2. Students are capable of distinguishing between the accent of NES and NNES teachers with ‘a high degree of accuracy’ 3. Language learners do not necessarily perceive accentedness to be criterion for the ideal English teacher.
  8. Students’ perception of NNES teachers’ pedagogical skills 1. Both NES and NNES educators are perceived to be good teachers, each with their unique strengths. 2. There is some support for the idea that ESL and EFL students prefer to study listening, pronunciation, and speaking with NES rather than NNES teachers. 3. ESL and EFL learner perceive NES teacher as being more knowledgeable than their NNES counterparts in the area of target language(TL) culture. 4. ESL and EFL students favor NNES educators in the area of grammar teaching. 5. Students were aware that literacy skills and oral skills are different in nature and that regardless of language background, reading and writing skills require studying.
  9. Looking to the Future Considering the growth in research focusing on NNES educators, future studies need to take into account two factors, they are: 1. Future investigation would benefit from not treating NES and NNES educators as having absolute characteristic. 2. Future research should move beyond issues of self- perception of language proficiency.
  10. The Decline and Fall of The Native Speaker Non-Native Speakers refer to those teacher whose mother tongue is not the same as the language they are teaching (NNS) Native Speakers refer to those teacher whose mother tongue is the same as the language they are teaching (NS)
  11. Some Issues About NS-NNS  Exemplify the approach NNS were paired to or compared with NS  Theoretical foundation of distinction NS and NNS  Typically on perception native as positive and non native as negative feature  No purely linguistic properties could be exclusively associated to native speaker
  12. The views about NS and NNS  Davies (2003) : NS is acceptance as a significance portion of member of a speech community  Liu (1999) : A Continuum approach reflect the reality of several people who can not label them selves as either NS or NNS  Piller (2002) : An Advanced L2 users can temporary take a native speaker identity
  13. The reasons L2 users flip into NS • The particular type of communicative performance the speaker is involved in • The incorporation of local speech features in a way that coincides with stereotypes of audiences • The medium used for the communicative encounters (oral, written and electronic) ; and • The interlocuters
  14. Research on Non Native Speaking Teacher • In the past native teacher applied the method stressing on the important of foreign language because they were not available in a given context • However, When CLT appeared, native speakers were ideal for promoting natural and spontaneous communications. • Native teachers as the ideal teacher were equivalent to monolingual native speaker because of the good knowledge of L1 • Native teachers were worth more than non-native and only non-native with near native proficiency could enjoy a certain prestige in the language teaching profession. • The effects of being a non-native teacher on professional self esteem and discrimination by NS teacher, NNEST found typical preference for NS model and NS teacher.
  15. Is there anything wrong with NS teachers • A higher role and better appreciation of NNS condition does not carry down-grading of NS. • The quality of NNS may challenge to those NS who are convinced that their sole NS condition makes them good teacher • A great in pulse to increase assertiveness of NNS by many NS who have contributed with the work • Finally, NS and NNS are all teacher need pedagogical training and knowledge of the language being taught
  16. The advantages of vindicating the role of non native speaker in language teacher • They are a model for imitation • They can successfully teach strategies of language learning • They have high level of awareness of the language and can supply information about it • They can anticipate the difficulties along the learning process • They can be more empathetic to the need and problem of student • They often have the same mother tongue as their student and they can act as mediator between difference language and culture • They have familiarity of the local context
  17. Internal Diversity among Native and Non-Native Speaker • NNS have often been reduced to a single homogeneous group in many discussion and it makes a simple stereotype valid for all individual case • Native speakerism constitutes a manifestation of the more general phenomenon of culturalism and racism • Monolingual NS experience of language learning is in the babyhood is and the process of learning is not accesible for examination by the speakers
  18. Critical Approaches to Language Teaching : the decline and fall of NS • The teacher use the process and the methodology teaching such as Natural Approach, Audio Lingual Method and Communicative Language Teaching and It needs teacher’s fluency and capacity to use the language. It’s contradicted to the traditional grammar translation method which focuses on the appraisal of native speaker. • Non-native speaker may be as good teacher as native speaker and the good language teaching requires a good command of language of training ability to teach a language. • Native and non-native distinction are a one of the characteristic element of language teaching, there are no native speaker for physics and mathematics. • NNS have now finally gathered to voice their concern and claim their right to be heard in the language teaching and research community.