3. What is Programming Language?
• A programming language is a notation for writing programs,
which are specifications of a computation or algorithm.
• Programming languages usually contain abstractions for defining
and manipulating data structures or controlling the flow of
• Thousands of different programming languages have been created,
and more are being created every year.
4. Levels of Programming Language
High-level program Low-level program Executable Machine code
Higher-order programming is a style of computer programming that uses software
components, like functions, modules or objects, as values.
A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no
abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture-commands or functions in the
language map closely to processor instructions.
In computer programming, machine code, consisting of machine language instructions, is
a low-level programming language used to directly control a computer's central processing
5. Types of Programming Language
First Generation Languages
Second Generation Languages
Third Generation Languages
Fourth Generation Languages
Fifth Generation Languages
6. First Generation Languages
Operation code – such as addition or subtraction.
Operands – that identify the data to be processed.
Machine language is machine dependent as it is the only language the computer
Very efficient code but very difficult to write.
7. Second Generation Languages
Symbolic operation codes replaced binary operation codes.
Assembly language programs needed to be “assembled” for execution by the
computer. Each assembly language instruction is translated into one machine
Very efficient code and easier to write.
8. Third Generation Languages
Closer to English but included simple mathematical notation.
Programs written in source code which must be translated into machine language
programs called object code.
The translation of source code to object code is accomplished by a machine language
system program called a compiler.
Alternative to compilation is interpretation which is accomplished by a system
program called an interpreter.
9. Fourth Generation Languages
A high level language (4GL) that requires fewer instructions to accomplish a task
than a third generation language.
Used with databases
• Query languages
• Report generators
• Forms designers
• Application generators
10. Fifth Generation Languages
Functional(?): Lisp, Scheme, SML
• Also called applicative
• Everything is a function
• Based on mathematical logic
• Rule- or Constraint-based
HTML is the standard markup language used to create web pages; it ensures proper
formatting of text and images (using tags) so that Internet browsers can display them in
the ways they were intended to look.
HTML was created by physicist Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 to allow scientists to share
documents online. Before then, all communication was sent using plain text. HTML
made “rich” text possible (i.e. text formatting and visual images).
HTML is used to create electronic documents (pages) displayed online. Visit any page
and you will see an example of HTML in action.
• Easy to use and learn the basics of HTML.
• Free and accessible.
• Multiple versions available.
C Language is a structure-oriented, middle-level programming language mostly used to
develop low-level applications.
The C Language was developed in 1972 at Bell Labs specifically for implementing the
C Language is used to develop systems applications that are integrated into operating
systems such as Windows, UNIX and Linux, as well as embedded software.
• Simple to learn; there are only 32 keywords to master.
• Easy to write systems programs such as compilers and interpreters.
• Foundational language for beginners.
C++ is a general purpose, object-oriented, middle-level programming language and is an
extension of C language, which makes it possible to code C++ in a “C style”.
Released in 1983 and often considered an object-oriented version of C language, C++
was created to compile lean, efficient code, while providing high-level abstractions to
better manage large development projects.
The C++ language is used to create computer programs and packaged software, such as
games, office applications, graphics and video editors and operating systems.
• Often the first programming language taught at college level.
• Quick processing and compilation mechanism.
• Robust standard library (STL).
C# is a multi-paradigm programming language that features strong typing, imperative,
declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented and component-oriented disciplines.
C# was developed in 2000 as part of Microsoft’s release of .NET framework; in 2003
it became an ISO standard.
C# helps developers create XML web services and Microsoft .NET-connected
applications for Windows operating systems and the internet.
• Similar to Java in capabilities.
• Ideal for beginners.
• The go-to for working on Microsoft apps.
Java is a general-purpose, object-oriented, high-level programming language with several
features that make it ideal for web-based development.
Originally known as Oak, Java was developed in 1990 at Sun Microsystems to add
capabilities to the C++ language. The language was introduced to the public in 1995 and is
now owned by Oracle.
Java is used to develop enterprise-level applications for video games and mobile apps, as
well as to create web-based applications with JSP (Java Server Pages). When used online,
Java allows applets to be downloaded and used through a browser, which can then perform
a function not normally available.
• Application portability.
• Robust and interpreted language.
• Extensive network library.
processes commands on a computer rather than a server. It is commonly placed into an
HTML or ASP file.
and make them more dynamic, including scrolling abilities, printing the time and date,
creating a calendar and other tasks not possible through plain HTML.
Basic features are easy to learn.
Python is an advanced programming language that is interpreted, object-oriented and
built on flexible and robust semantics.
Python was developed in the late 1980s at CWI in the Netherlands and first released
to the public in 1991.
Python lets you work quickly to integrate systems as a scripting or glue language. It’s
also suited for Rapid Application Develop (RAD).
• Simple to learn and easily read.
• Associated web frameworks for developing web-based applications.
• Free interpreter and standard library available in source or binary on major platforms.
20. PHP (Hypertext Pre-processor)
PHP is an open-source scripting language designed for creating dynamic web pages that
effectively work with databases. It is also used as a general-purpose programming
PHP was released in 1995 as a server-side scripting language, which is processed on a
server to become a website in plain HTML.
PHP is primarily used alongside dynamic data-heavy websites to collect form data. It’s
also used in app development to generate dynamic page content.
• Easy to learn (as simple as embedding code inside HTML).
• Free and opensource.
• Can be used on all major operating systems and web servers.
Ruby is an open-sourced, object-oriented scripting language that can be used
independently or as part of the Ruby on Rails web framework.
Designed in 1995, Ruby’s creator described it as “simple in appearance, but it is very
complex inside, just like our human body.”
Ruby is used for simulations, 3D modeling, and to manage and track information.
• Free to use, copy, modify and distribute.
• Intuitive and flexible language.
• Completely object-oriented (ability to use method chaining).
22. SQL (Structured Query Language)
SQL is a database query language (not a development language) that allows for adding,
accessing and managing content in a database.
SQL was developed at the IBM Research Center in 1974 and originally known as
SEQUEL. The first commercial version was introduced in 1979 by ORACLE.
SQL interacts with the backend database of web application. It is the “de facto
standard” database language, always used in conjunction with another programming
• Simple syntax.
• Free and easily accessible.
• Relational database management systems.
24. Criteria for good language
◦ Run-time performance
◦ Ease of designing, coding
25. Criteria for good language (cont.)
Every one need a language to tell an information
which is hidden, in such a way programming is a
language which is used for knowing the hidden
information of computer related programming.