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sci term 3 term.pdf

  1. Sci reviewer! By mahima Rithal
  4. The transmission of thermal energy (heat) by the bulk movement of materials is known as convection. In FLUIDS, convection occurs (liquids and gases). In both gases and liquids, convection causes CURRENTS. As particles migrate from one area to another, they carry thermal energy with them. CONVECTION
  5. Heat transfer from one particle of substance to another by direct particle-to-particle contact. Conduction occurs largely in solids due to the close packing of the particles. The particles themselves DO NOT CHANGE PLACE. The handle of a cooking utensil CONDUCTION
  6. Electromagnetic waves that are used to transport (thermal) energy. Radiation is energy that originates from a source and travels at the speed of light through space. Radiation must first be absorbed by a substance before it can be felt as heat. RADIATION
  7. Chemical energy is energy stored within the chemical bonds in matter. CHEMICAL ENERGY
  8. Kinetic energy is a form of energy that an object or a particle has by reason of its motion. Kinetic energy
  9. Potential energy is a type of energy an object has because of its position. As a function of its location, an item can store energy. When a demolition machine's heavy ball is held at an elevated position, for example, it stores energy. Potential energy is the name given to this stored positional energy. A drawn bow, likewise, can store energy as a function of its posture. Potential energy
  10. The total of an item's kinetic and potential energy; the energy of an object related to its motion or location. Mechanical energy is..
  11. Conduction – transfer of heat energy from one particle to another by direct contact. (Primarily in solids) Convection – transfer of heat energy in fluids-gases and liquids) through the bulk movement of matter from one place to another. (Produces currents) Radiation – transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves. (Matter is not required!) (Radiant & infrared radiation from the sun) Review
  12. Thermal energy always moves from warmer to cooler substances until both substances have the same temperature. Forms of energy include mechanical, chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, thermal, sound, and nuclear energy. Key points
  13. Renewable energy Renewable energy, often known as clean energy, is generated from naturally regenerated sources or processes. 01
  14. forms of energy Solar energy The sun’s light contains energy in the form of electromagnetic waves Hydroelectric Energy Hydroelectric plants use falling water from a dam to turn the turbine of a generator. Wind Energy 03 Wind turbines use the momentum of moving air to quietly turn large blades that are attached to the shaft of an efficient electric generator Geothermal Energy The steam is used to drive turbines of a generator and the generator produces electricity. 01 04 02 Biomass Energy Biomass is matter usually thought of as garbage. This matter includes things like leaves, tree branches, leftover crops, wood chips, and bark. It can even include animal manure and old tires. 05
  15. Non-renewable energy Nonrenewable energy is produced from resources that will decrease or will not be replaced for hundreds, if not millions, of years. 02
  16. forms of energy Coal Energy Coal is the product of millions of years of pressure on organic matter from plants buried underground. Natural Gas Energy Natural gas reserves often share space with underground oil reserves, so the two non-renewable resources are often extracted at the same time. Oil Energy Crude Oil is referred to as Liquid Petroleum. It is used for gasoline, heating oil, and diesel fuel. In addition, manufacturers utilize oil for such products as plastics and industrial chemicals. Nuclear Energy It is considered a nonrenewable form of energy because it takes real manipulation to split an atom. 01 04 02 03
  17. Light and sound energy
  18. light.. ● Light is a form of energy that travels in waves. ● Light waves can travel through empty space, without needing a solid, liquid, or gas medium. ● Light travels through space at the fastest speed matter and energy can possibly reach: about 300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles) per second. ● Transparent matter allows light to pass through with almost no disturbance ● When light rays strike matter that is translucent, some light passes through, and some is either blocked or bent in different directions ● Opaque matter reflects or absorbs all light ● Infrared light has lower energy than ultraviolet light. ● Shadow is formed when an opaque object blocks some particles of the light to past through. ● A shape of an object always determines the shape of its shadow. However, the size and shape of the shadow can change. These changes are caused by the position of the light source ● Shadow..
  19. Sound.. ● Wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from one point to another ● Must travel through a medium, or substance, in order to transfer energy. ● The movement of particles by a wave is called vibration ● Wavelength is the distance between wave crests or troughs.
  20. Vid but plss don’t cry!!
  21. CREDITS: This presentation template was created by Slidesgo, including icons by Flaticon, and infographics & images by Freepik Electricity
  22. ● Have neutrons, protons, and electrons. ● Protons are positively charged ● Electrons are negatively charged Atoms..
  23. ● Are located on the outer edges of atoms…they can be moved. ● A concentration of electrons in an atom creates a net negative charge. ● If electrons are stripped away, the atom becomes positively charged. Electrons…
  24. ● Movement of electrons ● Energy is measured in Joules (J) ● Volts (V) – measures how strongly electrons will move ELECTRICITY IS…
  25. Static electricity is a well-known electric activity that involves the transmission of charged particles from one body to another. The build up of an electric charge on the surface of an object. The charge builds up but does not flow. Static electricity is potential energy. It does not move. It is stored. For ex, when u rub a balloon STATIC ELECTRICITY
  26. Static… Everything abt static…
  27. Two oppositely charged objects will stick together Often happens when clothes rub together in a tumble dryer GROUNDING – occurs when a conductor shares its excess charge with a much larger conductor Static cling is…
  28. Static Discharge… Occurs when there is a loss of static electricity due to three possible things: Friction - rubbing Conduction – direct contact Induction – through an electrical field (not direct contact) In simple words, it’s a “shock” when u touch a door handle u might feel a “ shock” when u touch it, and that’s what u also call a “ Static Discharge ”
  29. Currents
  30. The passage of electrons over a wire is known as electric current. And The flow of electrons from one place to another. We can control currents by circuits ( a path for the flow of electrons.We use wires. ) CURRENT IS Types of currents Direct Current (DC) – Where electrons flow in the same direction in a wire. Alternating Current (AC) – electrons flow in different directions in a wire.
  31. Conductors vs. Insulators
  32. Insulators Conductors Material through which electric current flows easily. materials through which electric current cannot move.
  33. Insulators Conductors ● Metal ● Water ● Styrofoam ● Rubber ● Plastic ● Paper
  34. What is Resistance? ● The opposition to the flow of an electric current, producing heat. ● The greater the resistance, the less current gets through. ● Good conductors have low resistance. ● Measured in ohms. What Influences Resistance? ● Material of wire – aluminum and copper have low resistance ● Thickness – the thicker the wire the lower the resistance ● Length – shorter wire has lower resistance ● Temperature – lower temperature has lower resistance.
  35. Voltage
  36. What is voltage? ● The measure of energy given to the charge flowing in a circuit. ● The greater the voltage, the greater the force or “pressure” that drives the charge through the circuit.
  37. For ex ● Amps measure how much water comes out of a hose. ● Volts measure how hard the water comes out of a hose. Diff between these 2
  38. Resistance = Voltage / Current Ohms = Volts / Amps Ohm’s law “ / ”means “divide”
  39. Circuits
  40. Series Circuit: the components are lined up along one path. If the circuit is broken, all components turn off. Parallel Circuit : there are several branching paths to the components. If the circuit is broken at any one branch, only the components on that branch will turn off. Types of circuits
  41. Circuits Series Parallel
  42. Umm i forgot what u call it but it was in the mock test
  43. READ!!! om/file/d/1-xNtq8mK 1N4YsPuaSaoiPc0P kGA0zd4D/view
  44. Earth and space ^_^
  45. How was solar system formed ? The Solar System is about 4,600 million years old. It was formed from a nebula – an enormous cloud of dust and gas created when a dying star exploded. When shockwaves from other dying stars hit the nebula, it collapsed and formed a globule. Over millions of years, the temperature rose and the globule became more compressed, causing it to start spinning.
  46. How was solar system formed ? ● The force of the spinning shaped the globule into a central core surrounded by a disk of gas and dust. ● Eventually, the core became the Sun and the material in the disk formed the planets and asteroids of the Solar System.
  47. What makes up the Solar System? ● The sun ● The planets ● Moons ● Asteroids ● Comets
  48. The sun :0
  49. The sun ● ● The Sun is the star at the centre of the Solar System, about 150 million kilometres from Earth. ● The Sun mostly consists of hydrogen and helium. ● Its mass accounts for more than 99% of the total mass of the Solar System.
  50. The sun ● It is now known that nuclear fusion is the process that releases the Sun’s energy He + energy
  51. The planets
  52. The planets
  53. Asteroids
  54. The asteroids
  55. Comets
  56. What are comets? ● The planets travel around the Sun in near-circular orbits. Comets are celestial objects that also travel around the Sun, but in very elliptical orbits. ● The head of a comet is a lump of ice and dust, a few kilometres in diameter. ● For most of its orbit, a comet is a long way from the Sun. The tail of the comet only appears when the its orbit passes nearest the Sun. ● The tail consists of gas and dust that are released from the comet by the heat of the Sun.
  57. What are comets?
  58. Stars
  59. What powers a star? ● A star is ‘powered’ by nuclear fusion reactions taking place in its core. ● Nuclear fusion involves light atomic nuclei joining together (fusing) to form heavier ones. ● It would take 2,000 million nuclear power plants a whole year to produce the same amount of energy on Earth. ● In the Sun and most stars, hydrogen atoms fuse together to form helium. This provides the energy for life on Earth.
  61. WHat is the big bang theory ● The observation of red-shift is a key piece of evidence for the Big Bang theory about the origin of the Universe. ● This states that the Universe ‘began’ with a colossal explosion 13,700 million years ago and has been expanding ever since. ● The other key piece of evidence for the Big Bang theory is cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). ● CMB is radiation remaining from the Big Bang explosion and fills the whole of the universe.
  62. Big bang theory
  63. Summary ● black hole – An object whose gravitational pull is so strong that nothing can escape, not even light. It is formed after a really massive star collapses in a supernova. ● comet – A lump of rock and ice, which has a very elliptical orbit around the Sun. ● Doppler effect – The shift in frequency of a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave due to the relative movement of the source or observer. ● galaxy – A vast collection of millions of stars. ● nebula – A massive cloud of gas and dust in which a star is formed. ● neutron star – The very dense core that remains after a massive red giant collapses in a supernova.
  64. Summary ● nuclear fusion – The process in which lighter atomic nuclei join together to make heavier atomic nuclei and a massive amount of energy is released. ● red giant – The huge red star formed when a star expands and shines less brightly as it starts to die. ● red shift – A shift in the wavelength of light towards the red end of the spectrum. It occurs when the light source is moving away from the observer and is evidence for an expanding Universe. ● supernova – The huge explosion that occurs when a massive red giant is at the end of its life. ● white dwarf – The core that remains after the outer layers of a small red giant drift away.
  65. Ques and ans that might be in the exam 1. What two elements make up most of the Sun? hydrogen and helium A huge cloud of gas and dust from which a star is born. 2. What is a nebula? nuclear fusion 3. What process has allowed the Sun to emit light and heat energy over thousands of million of years? neutron star 4. Which is the most dense, a white dwarf or a neutron star?
  66. Seasons
  67. ● Most places on earth experience four seasons---winter, spring, summer and fall or autumn.the season always occur in order. Each season seasons always occur in this order. Each season has its own characteristics. ● As Earth revolves around the Sun, sunlight strikes different parts of Earth at different angles. These changes in the angle of the sunlight cause the seasons. Seasons
  68. Winter ● Winter is cold. The days are short and the nights are long. The sun does not rise very high in the sky. ● Winter south of the ecuador, summer north of equator. The suns shines directly on the Northern Hemisphere and indirectly in Southern Hemisphere
  69. Summer ● Summer is the opposite. The days are longer than the nights, and the sun is high in the sky. ● Summer south of the ecuador, winter north of equator. The suns shines directly on the Southern Hemisphere and indirectly in Northern Hemisphere
  70. Spring and fall ● On one day in spring and one day in fall, the amount of daytime and the amount of nighttime are equal. There is 12 hours of each. These days are called the spring equinox and the fall equinox. ● Spring south of the equator, fall north of the equator. The Sun shines equally on the Southern and Northern Hemisphere ● Fall south of the equator, spring north of the equator. The Sun shines equally on the Southern and Northern Hemisphere
  71. Summer Winter Spring Fall
  72. Tides
  73. ● This animation shows the tidal force in a view of Earth from the North Pole. As regions of Earth pass through the bulges, they can experiences a high tide.
  74. Tides ● Tides are a phenomenon on Earth that occurs in the pattern that can be predicted. ● It is the rising and falling of sea levels everyday. ● Tides are caused by the pull of gravity – mostly from the moon. The moon’s gravity pulls water away from the Earth’s surface. This causes the water to rise, forming a bulge of water in the oceans. ● On the opposite side of Earth (away from the moon), the water is also pulled away from Earth’s surface forming another bulge. These bulges form high tides. The part of Earth closest to the moon usually has the highest tides.
  75. Low Tides Low tides occur where the water has been pulled away. The Sun’s gravity also influences the tides, but the moon has a greater effect than the Sun because the moon is so much closer to the Earth.
  76. High tide High tides occur when the water reaches its highest level in a day
  77. Why does it happen The main cause of tides is the pull of the Moon’s gravity on Earth. The pull is greatest on whatever is closest to the Moon. Although the gravity pulls the land, only the water can move.
  78. As a result ● Water on the side of Earth facing the Moon is pulled hardest by the Moon’s gravity. This causes a bulge of water on that side of Earth. That bulge is a high tide. ● Earth itself is pulled harder by the Moon’s gravity than is the ocean on the side of Earth opposite the Moon. As a result, there is bulge of water on the opposite side of Earth. This creates another high tide. ● With water bulging on two sides of Earth, there’s less water left in between. This creates low tides on the other two sides of the planet.
  79. Spring tide ● occur during the new moon and full moon. The Sun and Moon must either be in a straight line on the same side of Earth, or they must be on opposite sides of Earth. Their gravitational pull combines to cause very high and very low tides.
  80. Neap tide ● occur during the first and third quarters of the Moon. The Moon and Sun are at right angles to each other. Their gravity pulls on the oceans in different directions so the highs and lows are not as great.
  81. Layers of the Earth and Rock & Soil
  82. The crust The crust is made of relatively light elements, especially silica, aluminum and oxygen.
  83. The mantel The upper part of the mantle nearest the crust is solid and rigid, or stiff. Together, the crust and the rigid part of the mantle makes up the lithosphere.
  84. Outer core The outer core is the molten, fluid part of the core that is about 2,400 km (1,500 mi) thick. The outer core is the third layer of the Earth. It is the only liquid layer, and is mainly made up of the metals iron and nickel, as well as small amounts of other substances. The outer core is responsible for Earth's magnetic fieldIt is mostly composed of liquid iron and nickel. .
  85. Inner core The inner core is solid. It is extremely dense, and is under a very high pressure. It is about three-quarters big that of the moon. Extremely dense, it’s made mostly of iron and nickel in solid form.The inner core spins a bit faster than the rest of the planet. It’s also intensely hot: Temperatures sizzle at 5,400° Celsius (9,800° Fahrenheit). That’s almost as hot as the surface of the sun.
  86. Rock and rock cycle eee
  87. Rocks Rocks are classified by how they are formed Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Rocks can change from one type to another over time Rocks are classified by: How they are formed Texture Grain size Mineral composition
  88. Igneous Rocks forms when molten rock (magma) cools and hardens Classified by: Where they form Crystal (grain) size Igneous rocks (from the Latin word for fire) form when hot, molten rock crystallizes and solidifies.
  89. • Sedimentary rock: Sedimentary rock: forms from the compaction and/or cementation of sediments This process is called lithification Sediments are: Rock pieces Mineral grains Shell fragments
  90. Sedimentary rocks ● Sediments form through the processes of weathering and erosion of rocks exposed at Earth’s surface. Sedimentary rock can also form from the chemical depositing of materials that were once dissolved in water ● When water evaporates, minerals are left behind and form rock
  91. Metamorphic Rock ● Metamorphic rock: forms when any rock type is changed into a different kind of rock ● Changes due to great heat and/or pressure
  92. Rocks are heated, squeezed, folded, or chemically changed by contact with hot fluids
  93. Rock cycle
  94. The earth recycle rock • The rock cycle is an ongoing series of processes inside Earth and on the surface • Slowly changes rocks from one kind to another • Any type of rock can change into another type
  95. Some pics
  96. Earthquake
  97. Earthquake is ● Earthquakes are the SHAKING, ROLLING or SUDDEN SHOCK of the earth’s surface. ● Earthquakes usually last less than one minute. ● They are the Earth’ natural means of releasing stress. What causes earthquakes? ● Movement of TECTONIC PLATES or by the movement of magma in VOLCANIC areas.
  98. Tectonic
  99. Alfred wegerer ● In Wegener’s time many people rejected the idea of continental drift. ● However, new evidence supporting Wegener's proposal came to light in 1950’s. it became the basis of Modern day tectonic theory.
  100. 3 types of plate tectonic boundaries ● Convergent boundaries ● Transform boundaries ● Divergent boundaries
  101. Convergent boundary a convergent boundary occurs when two tectonic plates push together.
  102. Divergent boundary occurs when two plates are spreading apart, as at seafloor ridges or continental rift. Molten rock rises from the Earth’s center to fill the gap.
  103. Transform boundary mark slip-sliding plates, such as California's San Andreas fault. The San Andreas fault marks the location where the North America and Pacific plates grind past each other in a horizontal motion.
  104. How do earthquake happen? One plate will dive under the other plate. This creates which we called subduction zones.
  105. Thank you! & Good luck!! <3