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Slave dynasty ppt

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SLAVE DYNASTY- 1200 A.D.-1246 A.D.

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Slave dynasty ppt

  1. 1. SLAVE DYNASTY AKANSHA AWASTHI ANURAG VERMA HIMANSHU VERMA MAHAK GUPTA SLAVE DYNASTY- 1200 A.D.-1246 A.D. • THE FIRST DYNASTY, KNOWN AS THE SLAVE KINGS OF DELHI. THIS NAME HAS BEEN GIVEN TO AS ITS MEMBERS WERE NOT OF ROYAL BLOOD, BUT BELONGED TO A SYSTEM OF SLAVERY • MOHAMMED GHAURI'S SLAVES, QUTB-UD~.AIBAK, WHOM.THAT EASTERN PERSIAN PRINCE APPOINTED AS GOVERNOR OF HIS POSSESSIONS IN INDIA IN A.D., 1191, WAS THE FIRST RULER OF THIS DYNASTY. • HE WAS EVENTUALLY CONFINED TO BEING A PURELY INDIAN SOVEREIGN. HE DIED IN 1210 AS A RESULT OF A POLO ACCIDENT, AND THE CROWN SHORTLY PASSED TO SHAMS-UD-DIN ILTUTMISH, HIS SON-IN-LAW. • AFTER THE DEATH OF ILTUTMISH, HIS ABLE DAUGHTER RAZIYYA SULTAN ATTEMPTED TO SERVE AS SULTAN BUT WAS DEFEATED BY OPPOSING TURKISH SLAVE NOBLES. AFTER 1246 THE SULTANATE WAS CONTROLLED BY GHIYĀS- UD-DĪN BALBAN, WHO WAS TO BE SULTAN HIMSELF FROM 1266 TO 1287. • THE SLAVE DYNASTY ENDED WHEN JALĀL AL-DĪN FĪRŪZ KHALJĪ STAGED A SUCCESSFUL COUP ON JUNE 13, 1290, AND BROUGHT THE KHALJĪS TO POWER. THE SLAVE KINGS OF DELHI IMPORTANT BUILDINGS BUILT DURING SLAVE DYNASTY • THE QUTUB COMPLEX • QUTUB MINAR • KUWAIT – UL- ISLAM MOSQUE • ADHAI DIN KA JHONPARA • TOMB OF ILLTUTMISH • TOMB OF NASIR- UD- DIN MOHAMMAD • TOMB OF BALBAN QUTUB MINAR KUWAIT –UL- ISLAM MOSQUE ADHAI DIN KA JHONPARATOMB OF ILLTUTMISHREGION OF RULE OF SLAVE DYNASTY
  2. 2. • BUILT ON A TERRACE LEVELLED OUT OF THE SANDSTONE HILL-SIDE, PROBABLY THE SITE OF AN OLD ESTABLISHED MELA OR FAIR GROUND, WHICH LASTED TWO-AND-A-HALF DAYS, HENCE ITS NAME IS ADHAI DIN KA JHONPARA (HUT OF TWO-AND-A-HALF-DAYS). • COVERS MORE THAN TWICE THE SPACE OCCUPIED BY THE KUWAIT- UL- ISLAM MOSQUE. • IT HAS GRACEFULNESS IN ITS SLENDER PILLARS, FINER PROPORTIONS IN ITS COLUMNED AISLE, AND A MORE FINISHED ADJUSTMENT OF ITS ROOFING. • INCREASED HEIGHT WAS 'OBTAINED BY SUPER- IMPOSING NOT TWO, BUT THREE OF THE HINDU SHAFTS TO FORM EACH PILLAR, SO THAT THE CEILINGS ARE TWENTY FEET FROM THE PAVEMENT. • MAIN ENTRANCE HAS FOUR FLIGHT OF STEPS FLANKING TO AN ENTRANCE PORTICO WITH FLUTED MINARETS FOR ENTERING EASTERN CLOISTER. • FOR SOME TIME THE INTERIOR OF THE MOSQUE CONSISTED OF MERELY AN OPEN COLONNADE SURROUNDING ITS COURTYARD, BUT AFTERWARDS, AS AT DELHI, AN ARCHED SCREEN WAS BUILT ACROSS THE FRONT OF THE SANCTUARY TO FORM A FACADE. AS THIS FACADE WAS ADDED DURING THE REIGN OF ILLTUTMISH. LOCATION AERIAL VIEW OF ADHAI DIN KA JHONPARA INTERIOR VIEW OF COLLONADES FRONT FACADE OF ADHAI DIN KA JHONPARA DETAIL OF INSCRIPTIONS ON ARCH QURAN INSCRIPTIONS ON ARCH VIEW OF ROOF FROM VERANDAH ADHAI DIN KA JHON PARA- 1200 A.D.- SLAVE DYNASTY AKANSHA AWASTHI ANURAG VERMA HIMANSHU VERMA MAHAK GUPTA COLUMN DETAIL CORBELLED DOME FRONT FAÇADE
  3. 3. TOMB OF SHAMS-UD-DIN ILLTUTMISH- 1235 A.D. • WITH THE TOMB OF ILTUTMISH THE STORY OF INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE UNDER THE SLAVE DYNASTY CLOSES, AND FOR A PERIOD OF SOME SIXTY YEARS. • LIES TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE QUWWATU'L ISLAM MOSQUE IN DELHI. • 42 FT OUTSIDE AND 33 FT. INSIDE SQUARE AND HAS FINE INSCRIBED PATTERNS AND BORDERS ON OUTER FAÇADE. • IT HAS ELABORATELY SCULPTURED INTERIORS AND HAS SANDSTONE WALL WITH WHITE MARBLE INSERTIONS. • IT IS THE FIRST EXAMPLE OF TYPICAL ISLAMIC VOCABULARY OF PLACING CIRCULAR DOME ON A CUBIC MASS. • IT IS SOME FORM OF SHALLOW DOME, EITHER BEAMS WERE PROVIDED FOR SUPPORT OR SQUINCH TAKES A FORM OF SMALL VAULT WITH HALF DOME SUPPORTING OVRER. • ARCHES OF SQUINCH ARE DECORATED WITH INTRICATE PATTERNS, DELICATELY SUNK IN SANDSTONE AND MARBLE, FINE SCHEME OF MOTIFS , INTERSPERSED WITH GEOMETRIC PATTERNS. • IT HAS COARSE NATURE OF THE MASONRY, WHICH IS A RUBBLE FOUNDATION COVERED WITH CEMENT. • THE INTERIOR ON THE WEST IS OCCUPIED BY THREE 'MIHRABS' OR PRAYER NICHES, THE CENTRAL ONE HIGHER AND ORNAMENTED WITH MARBLE, TO SERVE AS A PLACE FOR PRAYERS, WHILE THE OTHER SIDES ARE PIERCED BY ARCHED ENTRANCES. • THE TOMB OF ILTUTMISH IN DELHI IS PLAIN ON THE OUTSIDE, BUT IS PROFUSELY CARVED ON THE ENTRANCES AND IN THE INTERIOR WITH INSCRIPTIONS IN 'KUFI' AND 'NASKH' CHARACTERS WITH GEOMETRICAL AND ARABESQUE PATTERNS IN SARACENIC TRADITION, ALTHOUGH SEVERAL MOTIFS AMONG ITS CARVINGS ARE REMINISCENT OF HINDU DECORATION. PLACING A CIRCULAR DOME ON SQUARE MASS WITH HELP OF BEAMS MAKING A SQARE TURNING INTO OCTAGON GRAVE OF ILTUTMISH IN CENTER OF TOMB EXTERIOR OF ILTUTMISH TOMB VIEW OF OCTAGON SUPPORTING THE DOME SLAVE DYNASTY AKANSHA AWASTHI ANURAG VERMA HIMANSHU VERMA MAHAK GUPTA CORBELLED ARCH IN EXTERIOR FOILATED ARCH IN EXTERIOR
  4. 4. TOMB OF NASIR-UD-DIN MOHAMMED •THE TOMB OF NASIR-UD-DIN MOHAMMED ALSO KNOWN AS SULTAN GHARI, OR "SULTAN OF THE CAVE" BUILT BY SHAMS-UD-DIN ILTUTMISH AS A TOMB FOR HIS SON IN A.D. 1231 NEAR DELHI. • THE WHOLE BEING RAISED ON A 3M HIGH PLINTH WITH A MASSIVE PORTAL ON THE EASTERN SIDE. THIS BUILDING WAS REGARDED AS A SHRINE TO WHICH THE MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY COULD REPAIR FOR DEVOTIONS ON CERTAIN OCCASIONS. • THIS EXTERIOR WHICH IS BUILT OF GREY GRANITE WITH CIRCULAR BASTIONS PROJECTING FROM EACH ANGLE OF THE SQUARE, SERVE AS SOME KIND OF ADVANCED OUTWORK TO THE MAIN FORTRESS OF THE CAPITAL. • WITHIN THE WALLED ENCLOSED- SURE IS A SQUARE COURTYARD OF SIXTY-SIX FEET SIDE, IN THE CENTRE OF WHICH IS AN OCTAGONAL PLATFORM, FORMING THE ROOF OF THE TOMB CHAMBER BELOW. • SO INCOMPLETE A CENTRAL FEATURE CAN ONLY BE EXPLAINED BY THE FACT THAT THIS PLAT- FORM WAS DESIGNED TO SUPPORT A SUPERSTRUCTURE, PROBABLY A PILLARED PAVILION WITH A PYRAMIDAL ROOF, THE WHOLE OF WHICH HAS DISAPPEARED. •THESE CONSIST OF TWO PILLARED ARCADES ON THE EAST AND WEST SIDES, THAT ON THE LATTER BEING THE MORE IMPORTANT AS IT RESOLVES ITSELF INTO A SMALL, BUT VERY COMPLETE MOSQUE SANCTUARY. • IT WAS PROBABLY USED AS MILITARY SURVILLENCE OR CEREMONY ACCOMODATION AS IT LOOKS LIKE A FORTRESS. OCTAGONAL PLATFORM 3M HIGH PLINTH BASTIONS INSIDE GRAVEFLUTED &BRACKET COLUMNS THE EXTERIOR IS BUILT OF GREY GRANITE WITH CIRCULAR BASTIONS PROJECTING FROM EACH CORNER OF THE SQUARE. THE ENCLOSURE IS CONTAINED WITHIN A MASSIVE MASONRY ARCADE. THE MOSQUE SANCTUARY HAS A CENTRAL DOMED NAVE WITH A FOLIATED ARCH AS MIHRAB AND AISLES ON EITHER SIDE THE WHOLE IS FRONTED BY A COLONNADE OF MARBLE PILLARS WITH BRACKET CAPITALS. THE TOMB IS ADORNED BY CORBELLED OPENINGS CHISELLED AND FINISHED TO RESEMBLE TRUE ARCHES.
  5. 5. SLAVE DYNASTY AKANSHA AWASTHI ANURAG VERMA HIMANSHU VERMA MAHAK GUPTA TOMB OF GHIYAS -UD -DIN- BALBAN (1265-1286) • THE TOMB OF GHIYAS UD DIN BALBAN (1287 AD), SITUATED WITHIN WHAT IS NOW KNOWN AS THE MEHRAULI ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARK, OCCUPIES A POSITION OF IMMENSE IMPORTANCE IN THE EVOLUTION OF ARCHITECTURE IN INDIA. • IT WAS IN THIS STRUCTURE, THAT FOR THE FIRST TIME, TRUE ARCHES WERE EMPLOYED IN THE SPANNING OF OPENINGS. • ALL ISLAMIC BUILDINGS BUILT BEFORE THIS TOMB CONTAIN ‘FALSE’ CORBELED ARCHES. • THE TOMB ITSELF IS SQUARE IN PLAN, WITH THE WALLS TRANSLATED INTO AN OCTAGON THROUGH SQUINCHES AT A HIGHER LEVEL. • THERE MAY HAVE BEEN A TRUE DOME, THE FIRST OF IT’S KIND IN THE SUBCONTINENT, CAPPING THE TOMB, BUT ONLY RUINED VESTIGES REMAIN TODAY. • THE GRAVE SITS AT THE GEOMETRIC CENTRE OF THE STRUCTURE. • TWICE THE SIZE OF ILTUTMISH’S TOMB AND HAS ARCHWAY ON EACH OF ITS FOUR SIDES. A‘TRUE ARCH’ SPANNING THE MAIN ENTRANCE TO THE TOMB THE TOMB IN ITS ENTIRETY ONE OF THE ‘TRUE ARCHES’ OF THE TOMB. FOR THE FIRST TIME IN INDIA, ARCHES BEGAN TO BE CONSTRUCTED BY RADIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE VOUSSOIRS, AS OPPOSED TO ‘FASLE’ CORBELED ARCHES USED EARLIER. THE INTERIOR OF THE TOMB. NOTICE THE VESTIGES OF THE SQUINCHES TRANSLATING THE SQUARE PLAN TO AN OCTAGON. THE GRAVE OF BALBAN OCCUPIES THE GEOMETRIC CENTRE OF THE STRUCTURE, AS IS THE CASE WITH MOST ISLAMIC TOMBS. TRUE ARCHES SQUINCHESVIEW FROM EXTERIOR

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