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Chapter 5
Chemicals for Consumers
A. SOAP AND DETERGENT
Definition:
Soap
A sodium or potassium salt of long-chain fatty acid
General formula of soap:
RCOO-N...
Detergent
A sodium or potassium salt of alkyl sulphonic
acids or alkylbenzene sulphonic acid
Soap preparation process
• Soap is prepared by hydrolyzing fats or oils under
alkaline condition. This reaction is called
...
Oil/Fat
Glycerol Soap
+
PREPARATION A SOAP IN LAB
Describe how soap can be prepared in laboratory
Procedure:
1. Place 10 g of palm oil in a beaker.
2. Slowly and carefully ...
Why is sodium chloride added to the mixture?
Sodium chloride, NaCl is added to:
• Reduces the solubility of soap in water
...
Detergent preparation process
• During the preparation of detergent, a long-chain
hydrocarbon obtained from petroleum frac...
Structure of soap
• Soap consists of sodium/potassium cations and soap
anions
• When a sodium/potassium soap dissolve in w...
What is soap anions?
Hydrophobic
(water-hating)
Hydrophilic
(water-loving)
Cleaning action of soap & detergent
• When soap/detergent is
added to water,
soap/detergent molecule
dissolve in water to ...
• The hydrophobic
part dissolve in
grease
• The hydrophilic part
attracted to water
molecule
• Mechanical agitation
during scrubbing
helps the hydrophobic
part pull away the
grease from the
surface
• The grease is b...
• The droplet does not
coagulate due to the
repulsion between
negative charges
• The droplets are
suspended in water to
fo...
Explain why detergent is more effective in hard water
• Hard water contain calcium ion, Ca2+ and magnesium
ion, Mg2+
• Soa...
5.1 Soap and Detergent
Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare a soap by
using a namely oil and alkali.
State how to v...
5.1 Soap and Detergent
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5.1 Soap and Detergent

Chapter 5: Chemical for Consumers

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5.1 Soap and Detergent

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Chemicals for Consumers
  2. 2. A. SOAP AND DETERGENT Definition: Soap A sodium or potassium salt of long-chain fatty acid General formula of soap: RCOO-Na+ or RCOO-K+
  3. 3. Detergent A sodium or potassium salt of alkyl sulphonic acids or alkylbenzene sulphonic acid
  4. 4. Soap preparation process • Soap is prepared by hydrolyzing fats or oils under alkaline condition. This reaction is called SAPONIFICATION • The process involves boiling fats or oils with concentrated NaOH or concentrated KOH to produce glycerol and the salts of fatty acids which are the soap
  5. 5. Oil/Fat Glycerol Soap +
  6. 6. PREPARATION A SOAP IN LAB
  7. 7. Describe how soap can be prepared in laboratory Procedure: 1. Place 10 g of palm oil in a beaker. 2. Slowly and carefully add 15 cm3 of 6 mol dm-3 concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. 3. Gently heat the mixture, stirring with glass rod until the oil layer becomes invisible. 4. Add 20 ml of water and 12 g of sodium chloride into the mixture and stir. 5. Cool the mixture. 6. Filter the mixture. 7. Rinse the solid soap with distrilled water and dry the solid soap.
  8. 8. Why is sodium chloride added to the mixture? Sodium chloride, NaCl is added to: • Reduces the solubility of soap in water • To precipitate the soap produced
  9. 9. Detergent preparation process • During the preparation of detergent, a long-chain hydrocarbon obtained from petroleum fraction is converted into an organic acid through a series of steps. • The organic acid is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution to produce a detergent.
  10. 10. Structure of soap • Soap consists of sodium/potassium cations and soap anions • When a sodium/potassium soap dissolve in water, it will form soap anions and sodium ion, Na+ or potassium ion, K+
  11. 11. What is soap anions? Hydrophobic (water-hating) Hydrophilic (water-loving)
  12. 12. Cleaning action of soap & detergent • When soap/detergent is added to water, soap/detergent molecule dissolve in water to form free moving anions and cations • Soap reduces surface tension of water
  13. 13. • The hydrophobic part dissolve in grease • The hydrophilic part attracted to water molecule
  14. 14. • Mechanical agitation during scrubbing helps the hydrophobic part pull away the grease from the surface • The grease is broken up into small droplet
  15. 15. • The droplet does not coagulate due to the repulsion between negative charges • The droplets are suspended in water to form an emulsion • When rinsed, the droplet will be removed
  16. 16. Explain why detergent is more effective in hard water • Hard water contain calcium ion, Ca2+ and magnesium ion, Mg2+ • Soap anions react with Ca2+ ion and Mg2+ ion to form scum • Scum is insoluble in water • Detergent does not form scum in hard water • Detergent is more effective than soap in hard water
  17. 17. 5.1 Soap and Detergent Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare a soap by using a namely oil and alkali. State how to verify the product formed is soap. Terangkan suatu experiment makmal untuk menyediakan sabun dengan menggunakan minyak dan alkali yang dinamakan. Nyatakan bagaimana anda mengesahkan hasil yang terbentuk itu adalah sabun. [10 marks]

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