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Community Garden Midterm Presentation (1).pptx

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Community Garden Midterm Presentation (1).pptx

  1. 1. Eastover, SC Community Garden Design in a Marginalized Food Desert: Soil, Water and Crop Management for a Sustainable and Climate-Smart Food Production Cate Gent, Mary Fran Burnett, Madison Hobgood, Maddyson Frierson, Bryan Carroll December 8th, 2022, Clemson, South Carolina
  2. 2. Outline ● Introduction ○ Background ○ Rationale ○ Objectives ○ Approaches ● Literature Review ● Materials and Methods ● Results ● Recommendations ● Acknowledgements
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Background ● Location: Eastover, SC ● Community garden that has been struggling to provide enough food for the town ○ Issues with soil health and water retention ○ Issues with seasonal crops ● 9,000 ft2 of land available for use ○ 5,000 - 6,000 ft2 currently being used ● Recently received a $70,000 grant from USDA
  5. 5. Rationale ● Eastover, South Carolina is located in a food desert where access to nutritional foods is limited ● Eastover appears to be subject to Environmental Racism, as Eastover is >95% Black according to the 2020 census, and has a Coal Power Plant and Paper Mill located near the town, on top of being a food desert ● Therefore, there is a need to design a method to provide nutritious food such as a sustainable community garden for the community
  6. 6. Objectives The objectives of this project are to: 1) engineer an optimized, low-cost community garden design to maximize crop yield, soil health, and access to food 2) improve access to nutritious foods in a marginalized food desert through a design that is sustainable by the local community of Eastover, SC.
  7. 7. To achieve these objectives the following tasks have been completed: Task 1. Perform site visit Task 2. Perform land survey and hydrologic analysis of site i. Model topography of site employing survey data ii. Analyze water infiltration and retention Task 3. Conduct soil and water sampling of site Task 4. Assess current crop management and condition Task 5. Analyze soil and water samples Approaches
  8. 8. Approaches The following tasks are planned: Task 6. Design and model a low-cost irrigation and pump system, including with city water Task 7. Design and model a low-cost composting system modeled with STELLA i. Lay out a plan to balance nutrients in soil ii. Optimize compost percentage to improve water retention Task 8. Design a crop rotation and management plan i. Create a design optimized for food production
  9. 9. Gantt Chart ● Made with Smartsheet Design a water harvesting plan
  10. 10. Food Security Soil and Water Health Crop Management Eastover Community Garden Project Abundance of available crops More nutritious crop yield Sustainable Community Garden Practices
  11. 11. Literature Review
  12. 12. Literature Review Composting ● Artursson V, Finlay RD, Jansson JK. 2006. Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria and their potential for stimulating plant growth. Environmental Microbiology. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16343316/ ○ This paper goes into the improvement of plant growth after interactions with bacteria present in compost (shown in the figure above) ● Cáceres, R., Malińska, K., and Marfà, O. 2018. Nitrification within composting: A review. Waste Management. Retrieved October 20, 2022 from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956053X1730795X ○ “Composting is considered an environmental-friendly process involving aerobic transformation of organic matter and destruction of pathogens and weeds (Rawoteea et al., 2017, Wu et al., 2017). This process is regarded as a great contributor of promoting circular agriculture (Cáceres et al., 2017) because allows stabilization of organic waste and production of an organic fertilizer that can be used as a soil conditioner (Sun et al., 2016), in gardening or as a growing medium in soilless cultures.” ○ This paper discusses the nitrogen cycling within the composting process.
  13. 13. Literature Review Composting ● Hamoda, M., Abu-Qudais, H., and Newham, J. 1998. Evaluation of municipal solid waste composting kinetics. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. Retrieved October 31, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344998000214 ○ Assumed whole process with one rate constant (0.15/day) ● Sole-Mauri, F., Illa, J., Magrí, A., Prenafeta-Boldú, F., and Flotats, X. 2007. An integrated biochemical and physical model for the composting process. Bioresource Technology. Retrieved October 20, 2022 from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852406003014#app1 ○ Extensive model on kinetics of composting
  14. 14. Literature Review Water Harvesting ● Jennings, A. A., Adeel, A. A., Hopkins, A., Litofsky, A. L., & Wellstead, S. W. (2013). Rain barrel–urban garden stormwater management performance. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 139(5), 757-765. ○ Analysis of a rain barrel implementation strategy that diverts only roof runoff, for which there is a beneficial garden use, is presented and illustrated with a case study application.
  15. 15. Literature Review Irrigation ● Andersson, L. (2005). Low-cost drip irrigation : on farm implementation in South Africa (Dissertation). Retrieved from http://ltu.diva- portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1025520/FULLTEXT01.pdf ○ Water scarcity is linked to food scarcity ○ Assess success of low cost drip irrigation for small scale farms ○ Improved water efficiency, time and labor savings and reduced soil erosion ○ Relevance: Properly train the Eastover garden manager and volunteers on maintaining the irrigation system ● Rivard, Cary, et al. “Drip Irrigation for Community Gardens .” Research and Extension | Kansas State University, Kansas State University , Oct. 2014, https://www.shawnee.k-state.edu/lawn-garden/ ○ Drip irrigation systems precisely move water and limit spread of pathogens ○ Disadvantage: water filtration is required to prevent clogging of emitters ○ High pressure drip irrigation suitable for city water outlets (30-50 psi) ○ Relevance: Recommend a filter and high pressure irrigation design
  16. 16. Literature Review Crop Rotation Griffiths-Lee, J., Nicholls, E. and Goulson, D. (2020). Companion planting to attract pollinators increases the yield and quality of strawberry fruit in gardens and allotments. Ecol Entomol, 45: 1025-1034. Retrieved from https://doi- org.libproxy.clemson.edu/10.1111/een.12880 ● This study discusses the impacts of companion planting on strawberry crop yield in a garden ● The study found that companion planting increased the amount of pollinating insects in the garden, as well as, the strawberry crop yield of plants directly beside the companion plant Kemble, J.M., Meadows, I., Jennings, K., Walgenbach, J., Wszelaki, A. L. (2022). 2022 Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook. Retrieved from https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/southeastern-us-vegetable-crop-handbook ● This handbook is a reference guide to planting crops in the southeastern United States ● The guide contains state specific species, pests, fertilization, planting, harvesting, etc for various crops
  17. 17. Literature Review Soil ● Ritzema, H. P., Bos, M. G., Braun, H. M., Lenselink, K. J., & Van Aart, R. (Eds.). (1972). Drainage Principles and Applications (2nd ed.). International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement. ○ Water retention and infiltration are important factors to soil health. ○ The water holding capacity of a soil is the range between the field capacity and wilting point. This is affected by soil type and organic matter content. ○ Infiltration can be defined as the rate at which water flows into the soil through the surface. ● NRCS. (n.d.). NRCS official soil series description view by list. USDA. Retrieved December 1, 2022, from https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/osdlist.aspx ○ Both Marlboro and Norfolk soils are well draining soils with moderate to high permeability ○ Coxville soil is a poor draining soil with low permeability. ● Alvarado, D. (2022, April 7). Improving garden soils with organic matter. OSU Extension Service. Retrieved December 1, 2022, from https://extension.oregonstate.edu/pub/ec-1561 ○ “Soils amended with organic matter are a better sponge for water. More water goes into the soil, and less water runs off the surface. Because surface runoff is reduced, pesticides and fertilizers are retained in the soil instead of washing into nearby rivers and lakes” ○ “Some vegetable crops, such as rhubarb, are perennials, and many herbs are small shrubs. The deeper roots of these plants and of annual root crops such as carrots do better in soils amended to a depth of 10 to 12 inches”
  18. 18. Literature Review Soil ● Pitt, R., Lantrip, J., Harrison, R., Henry, C. L., & Xue, D. (1999). Infiltration Through Disturbed Urban Soils and Compost-Amended Soil Effects on Runoff Quality and Quantity (United States of America, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development). ○ Final infiltration rate of sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam soils were found in a range of 0.30 - 0.45 in/hr ○ The field capacity was increased for some soils with the addition of compost as shown in Table 4- 1. ○ Compost amendments improved infiltration rates in all soil types as shown in Table 4-2.
  19. 19. Materials and Methods
  20. 20. Site Visit 1 ● Site visit conducted on September 23rd, 2022 ● Collected soil samples for soil test with Clemson Agricultural Lab ● Examined site
  21. 21. Site Visit 2 ● Site visit conducted on October 14th, 2022 ● Conducted double ring infiltrometer test ● Collected soil samples ● Collected water sample ● GPS survey (Juno) ● Observed quality and types of current crops
  22. 22. Geographical Survey of Site Materials ● Handheld GPS Receiver (Trimble Juno 3B) ● GPS Data Collection Software (TerraSync) ● GPS Data Processing Software (GPS Pathfinder Office)
  23. 23. Geographical Survey of Site Methods ● Area and point features were collected on the handheld GPS device using GPS data collection software ■ Areas: total greenspace, current garden space, greenhouse, raised beds, and mounds ■ Points: around the base of tree and water spout ● The data was processed and corrected in GPS Pathfinder Office
  24. 24. GPS Data Correction ● Extraneous points are manually deleted and excluded from the data ● GPS data can have lots of different errors based on the conditions during which the data collection was performed ● Many of these errors can be corrected by applying the differential correction feature in Pathfinder Office ● This correction is done by selecting a base station near the site. This base station has accurate data from other satellites that Pathfinder Office uses to compare to the collected data
  25. 25. Water Retention and Infiltration Analysis Double-Ring Infiltrometer Test ● Materials ○ Double ring infiltrometer ○ Water ○ Ruler ○ Stopwatch ● Methods ○ Double ring infiltrometer was placed in a bed where crops were growing in order to best represent the conditions for growth ○ Water was added to the inner and outer ring until the rate at which the water level decreased began to slow down ○ The rings were filled with water, and timer was started ○ The timer was stopped after the water level had dropped one inch
  26. 26. Crop Management Materials: ● Spatial Analysis ○ GPS Data Collection Unit Trimble Juno Series 3 ○ TerraSync GPS Software Methods: 1. Gather total garden area, raised bed areas, and all permanent points in the garden using GPS mapping procedures with the Trimble Juno Series 3 2. Observe current garden crop and soil conditions 3. Use obtained data to determine maximum garden spacing and available crop land 4. Research zone specific agricultural data to determine crop list 5. Create a crop rotation and management plan based on garden area, climate, and local crop planting schedules
  27. 27. Composting ● Design a sustainable system that will support the nutrient needs of the garden overtime ● Perform a soil sample test via the Clemson Agricultural Lab to determine nutrient deficiencies and excessive nutrients, then design a system based on improving the soil quality. ● Develop a batch composting system model using STELLA to understand kinetics of system and design the system to optimize efficiency and production. ● Ensure a system design will focus on processing compost through the all three stages of composting.
  28. 28. Results
  29. 29. Soil Sample Results Soil Sample Test Performed October 11th, 2022 via the Clemson Agricultural Lab.
  30. 30. Soil Survey Info ● Coxville: 11.6% ○ Sandy Loam ○ HSG D ● Marlboro: 43.0% ○ Sandy Loam ○ HSG B ● Norfolk: 45.4% ○ Loamy Sand ○ HSG B ● Via USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Database
  31. 31. Survey Data Uncorrected Raw Data Corrected
  32. 32. Survey Data Section Area [ft2] Description A 16,146 Total greenspace B 4,306 Current garden C 215 Greenhouse D 745 Mulch mounds E 238 Raised beds A B C D E
  33. 33. Infiltrometer Test ● The water level dropped 1 inch in 7 minutes ● This infiltration rate is significantly higher than other reported infiltration rates for similar soil types ● Sandy loam soils have infiltration rates between 0.30 and 0.45 in/hr. ● Visually, the water level had begun to decrease at a steady rate, but more time may have been required to reach the final rate of infiltration ● There may have been macropores under the surface of the soil ● For the purpose of this project, an infiltration rate between 0.30 and 0.45 in/hr can be assumed
  34. 34. Irrigation system ● Area:4400 sqft (80 ft ✕ 55 ft) ● High Pressure Drip In-Line Irrigation system with an End Feed Layout ● Water filter is important for city water lines ● Check valve to prevent city water line biological contamination ● Solenoid valve to pump water ● Volumetric Water Content Sensor City Water Inlet Water Filter Solenoid Valve Check Valve ` Solar Panel Hunter Controller Volumetric Water Content Sensor
  35. 35. Irrigation Calculations and Key Parameters ● Soil Survey Information ○ Coxville: 11.6% (Sandy Loam) (D) ○ Marlboro: 43% (Sandy Loam) (B) ○ Norfolk: 45.4% (Loamy Sand) (B) Wilting Point: 12.9% water Field Capacity: 30.6% water ● Infiltration rate for sandy loam soils found to be 0.3 to 0.45 in/hr Average rate: 0.375 in/hr ● Hunter Industries Drip Irrigation Design Guide ○ Emitter Flow Rate (D): 1.0 GPH ○ Emitter Flow Rate (B): 0.6 GPH Overall Flow Rate: 0.82 GPH ● End Feed Layout
  36. 36. Irrigation Calculations and Key Parameters ● Emitter spacing (D): 12 in ● Emitter spacing (B): 18 in Overall Emitter Spacing: 15 in ● Row spacing (D): 15 in ● Row spacing (B): 19 in Overall Row Spacing: 17 in ● Based on row spacing it is possible to have 38 rows of crops ● Quantity of Emitters within a zone ○ Total Length (in): 11,520 ○ Emitter Spacing (in): 15 Quantity of Emitters: 768
  37. 37. STELLA Batch Compost
  38. 38. STELLA Model Results
  39. 39. Water Collection Method
  40. 40. Water Collection Design - Rain Barrel Sizing Roof length: 6.64 ft Roof width: 4.30 ft Roof area: 28.52 square ft Average monthly rainfall in Richland County, SC: 0.29 ft Volume of roof water that will fill the bucket (roof area x average monthly rainfall): 8.2 cubic ft or 61.35 gallons per month Days it will take to fill 50 gallon barrel: 24 days
  41. 41. Recommendations
  42. 42. Irrigation Materials and Pricing Irrigation Controller Hunter PRO-HC 12 Station ($420) Volumetric Water Content Sensor Hunter Soil-Clik ($114) Drip Emitters: Hunter - HE20B100 - Point Source Drip Emitter, Self-Piercing Barb ($780 @ $1 each) Water Filter: One Stop Outdoor 3/4" Drip Irrigation/Hydroponics Y Filter ($17) High Pressure Irrigation Tubing Supply Tubing (1/2 in), 1000-ft Roll ($118)
  43. 43. Flush Valve: Hunter 17 mm Automatic Flush Valve Barb ($10) Irrigation Materials and Pricing Solenoid Valve 1" 24V AC Electric Brass ($70) Check Valve Hunter Grey 3 - 15 GPM 3/4 in. ($9) PVC Charlotte 1-in x 10-ft White PVC Pipe ($80) Air Relief Valve Geoflow 1” MPT kinetic air/vacuum relief valve ($25) Sigineer Power 1500W 12V Inverter Charger ($429) Total: $2,072
  44. 44. Irrigation ● Assess the success of the irrigation systems after 1 year though soil quality and crop yield ● Clean the water filter regularly ○ Andersson, L. (2005) ● Properly train all volunteers and employees on drip irrigation management ● Assess crop yield after 3 years to determine if system upgrades are needed ● Each year assess the system for broken parts ● Consider annual flush of irrigation system ○ Biological material and mineral build up ■ Rivard, Cary, et al (2014) Consult a Hunter Industries Representative regarding the End Feed Layout design, necessary parts and pricing.
  45. 45. Energy Collection Method EcoFlow 220W Bifacial Portable Solar Panel $449 ● Uses a natural resource to power Irrigation system ● Assess capacity of solar panel and battery pack after 3 years ○ Consider moving on to city power grid
  46. 46. Water Collection Materials $356.99 $131.14 $13.88 (120 in) $43.32 (120 in)
  47. 47. Compost Amendment ● In order to bring the organic matter content up from 4.6% to 10%, 1.5 - 2 inches of compost should be added and tilled 10 -12 inches deep ○ For an area of 4,500 ft2, 535 ft3 (20 cubic yards) are required ○ For an area of 7,500 ft2, 895 ft3 (35 cubic yards) are required ● Throughout the year a light layer of compost should be added after harvesting and two weeks prior to planting.
  48. 48. Tilling equipment can be rented for $40/day or purchased from Home Depot for $450. Maximum tilling depth of 11” Composting Cost A cubic yard of compost ranges from $25- 35 ● Initial compost layer of 1.5 - 2 inches ○ 4,500 ft2 : $500 - $700 ○ 7,500 ft2 : $875 - $1,225
  49. 49. Composting System Materials 2X$64.50 $22.99 $12.14
  50. 50. Composting System Recommendations ● The waste from the garden should be used as a consistent waste stream to bins. ● An optimal ratio of C:N should be maintained in waste to the compost (around 25- 30:1) to ensure enough nitrogen is available but also to reduce odor. ○ This is done by ensuring browns and greens are both added to the bin (browns are carbon rich, while greens are nitrogen rich) ● Compost should be ensured to go through all 3 stages of composting (by checking and logging the temperature, ideally daily). ○ This prevents the growth of pathogens, and ensures maturing of compost ○ For this reason compost should be sectioned in batches as much as possible. ● Local waste streams should be explored to supplement garden waste, which could have the potential to offset use of synthetic fertilizers and lower the footprint and cost of the garden, while improving production and overall health of the garden.
  51. 51. Crop Rotation Source: Clemson Extension ● The full crop list was determined by using recommendations from Clemson Extension based on South Carolina gardening regions and vegetables with high nutritional value ● These gardening regions take into account climate and soil composition to plant each vegetable at the correct time for each season ● The crop rotation plan was also created for a 3 year minimum rotation taking into account soil health to determine which crops should be planted where each year
  52. 52. Crop Spacing Plant Seed (100-ft row) Spacing Between row-In row (inches) Planting Depth (inches) Approximate Days to Harvest Broccoli ½ ounce 36 x 18 ½ 90-110 Cabbage ½ ounce 36 x 12 3 90-100 Cantaloupe 1 ounce 60 x 24 1 75-85 Collard/Mustard Greens ½ ounce 36 x 8 ½ 60-70 Cucumber 1 ounce 60 x 12 1 50-60 Garlic - 6 x 6 8 200-280 Kale ½ ounce 36 x 1 ½ 30-55 Lima Beans ¾ pound 36 x 3 1 ½ 65-75 Marigold 2 pounds 7 x 7 ¼ - Nasturtium ½ ounce 11 x 11 1 -
  53. 53. Crop Spacing (Cont.) Plant Seed (100-ft row) Spacing Between row-In row (inches) Planting Depth (inches) Approximate Days to Harvest Onions ½ ounce 30 x 3 ½ seed 100-120 Peppers - 36 x 18 3 60-70 Potatoes 12 pounds 36 x 12 3 90-110 Southern Peas ½ pound 46 x 4 1 ½ 75-85 Summer Squash 1 ounce 36 x 15 1 50-60 Tansy ½ ounce 35 x 16 ⅛ - Tomatoes - 60 x 24 4 60-100 Turnips ¼ ounce 30 x 2 ½ 60-70 Watermelon ½ ounce 60 x 60 1 ½ 80-100
  54. 54. Crop Planting Schedule ● Assuming seeds are directly sown ● Last spring frost: March 24th ● First fall frost: November 9th
  55. 55. Garden Design Year to Year Year 1 Created with: GrowVeg Garden Planner Source: Farmer’s Almanac
  56. 56. Full Garden Design
  57. 57. Total Cost Estimate Our estimate for total costs of recommendations comes out to just under $10,000. This is well within the $70,000 grant allowing money for maintenance and upgrades.
  58. 58. Food Security Soil and Water Health Crop Management Eastover Community Garden Project Abundance of available crops More nutritious crop yield Sustainable Community Garden Practices
  59. 59. Acknowledgements We would like to extend gratitude to Michael Dantzler, Dr. Christophe Darnault,The US EPA Representative Jeannie Williamson, Dr. Thomas Dodd and the community of Eastover to allow us to exercise our engineering skills and deliver on a positive project.
  60. 60. Thank you!

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