1 de Apr de 2023

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  1. Professor(Dr.) Ashim Kumar Barua MBBS, MCPS, DFM. Professor and Head Forensic Medicine Chattagram Maa-O-Shisu Hospital Medical College, 01819396757.
  2. INTRODUCTION TO FM WITH BRIEF HISTORY  While introducing the subject of FORENSIC MEDICINE, the natural and obvious query which appears in one’s mind is about the meaning and scope of the words ‘Forensic Medicine’.
  3.  The word “forensic” has been derived from the Latin word ‘forensis’, which implies something pertaining to ‘forum’ .  In Rome, ‘forum’ was the meeting place where civil and legal matters used to be discussed by those with public responsibility.  Thus, the word ‘forensic’ essentially conveys any issue related to the debate in the court of law.
  4.  The word ‘Medicine’ carries wide import. Broadly, it may be considered as a science for preserving health and effecting cure.  From the interaction of these two professions of medicine and law, has emerged the discipline/subject of Forensic Medicine.
  5. FORENSIC MEDICINE GOAL The goal of teaching Forensic Medicine in the undergraduate medical course is to produce a physician who is well informed and alert about his/her medico legal responsibilities and is capable of discharging medico legal duties in medical practice .
  6. FORENSIC MEDICINE Departmental objectives: At the end of course in the F.Medicine the MBBS students will be  Able to identify, examine & prepare report or certificate in medico legal cases.  Able to perform medico legal autopsy findings and results of other relevant investigations to logically conclude the cause, manner and time since death.
  7. Contd. departmental objectives  Aware of medical ethics, etiquette, duties, rights, medical negligence and legal responsibilities of the physicians to-ward patient, profession, society, state and humanity at large.
  8. Contd.Departmental objectives  Able to preserve and dispatch viscera’s/specimens in post-mortem cases and other concerned materials to the appropriate Government agencies for necessary examination.  Aware of relevant legal/court procedures applicable to the medico legal practice.
  9. Contd.Departmental objectives  Manage medico-legal implications, diagnosis and principles of therapy of common poisons.  Aware of general principles of analytical, environmental, occupational and preventive aspects of toxicology.
  10. FORENSIC MEDICINE  Definition of Forensic Medicine :  Forensic Medicine may be defined as the science which deals with the application of medical and allied knowledge and expertise towards the administration justice.  (It deals with medical aspect of law).
  11.  FM is defined as that branch of medicine, which deals with the application of medical and paramedical scientific knowledge of both civil and criminal law in order to aid administration of justice.
  12.  Forensic medicine is mostly an exercise of commonsense, combined with the application of Knowledge and experience, already acquired in the study of other branches of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, anatomy, physiology etc.
  13.  LEGAL MEDICINE  Application of medical knowledge for solution of legal problems.  In Europe and United States, is often preferred.
  14. MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE  (Juris=law, prudence=knowledge)  May be defined as the science which deals with the application of rules and regulations for the guidance of the medical profession.  (It deals with legal aspect of practice of medicine).
  15. Forensic Medicine & Medical Jurisprudence are essentially different subjects, but are closely related.
  16. Synonyms:  Forensic Medicine (U.K.)  Legal Medicine (U.S.A.)  Medical Jurisprudence (India)  Forensic medicine = the medicine of forum or law courts (Forum = Roman law court)  Legal medicine = the branch of medicine that deals with the law  Medical Jurisprudence (Jurisprudence = laws)
  17. BRANCHES OF FORENSIC MEDICINE  Clinical Forensic Medicine  Forensic Pathology Others branches of Forensic Medicine  F. Toxicology  F. Radiology  F. Psychiatry  F. Ballistic
  18. Contd.Other Branches of Forensic Medicine  F. Thanatology  F. Serology  F. Odontology  F. Obstetrics  F. Dactylography
  19. CLINICAL FORENSIC MEDICINE  Which deals with the examination of victims of sexual assault, estimation of age, injury and mental status.  (It deals with the living body only)
  20. Clinical Forensic Medicine  (a) Medicolegal examination of rape cases  (b) Determination of age for medicolegal purposes  (c) Assessment of degree of permanent disabilities, following a factory accident of a workman for compensation
  21.  (d) Psychiatric assessment of a person for: -  - insanity in a case of murder  - competency as a witness  - testamentary capacity in executing a will  - validity of consent
  22. FORENSIC PATHOLOGY  Branch of FM which deals with the study and application of medical and pathological knowledge in determining the cause of death and manner of death in case of violence, suspicious, unexplained, unexpected sudden and medically unattended death.  (It deals with the dead body only)
  23. Forensic Pathology  This knowledge is used in:  (a) Finding the cause of death as a result of trauma  (b) Finding of the cause of death in sudden unexpected death.  (c) Interpreting the mechanism of injuries and giving medico-legal opinions. e.g., amount of force; position of victim and assailant 
  24. FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY  Branch of F.M. which deals with the comprehensive study of poisons, their sources, properties, signs and symptoms they produce, their fatal dose and fatal period and the management to be undertaken for combating the effects of individual poison and post mortem appearances in case of death.
  25. FORENSIC RADIOLOGY  Which deals with the x-ray examination for determination, of age in various criminal cases, detection of fetus, diagnosis of fetal death, detection of missile, diagnosis of head injuries etc.
  26. FORENSIC BALLISTIC  Which deals with the investigations of firearms, ammunition and of the problems arising from their use.
  27. FORENSIC THANATOLOGY  Branch of F.M. deals with the medical and legal aspects of death.
  28. FORENSIC SEROLOGY  Branch of FM. which deals with the examination of blood and seminal staining and their specific test to detect the crime.
  29. FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY  Psychiatry deals with the study, diagnosis and management of mental diseases.  Forensic psychiatry deals with the application of psychiatric knowledge in the administration of justice.
  30. FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY  Is the science of dentistry and their role in the administration of justice .
  31. FORENSIC OBSTETRICS  Branch of F.M. deals with the application of obstetrical knowledge in the administration of justice.
  32. FORENSIC DACTYLOGRAPHY  Study of fingerprints as a method of identification is known as Dactylography.
  33. History of Forensic Medicine  The salient points in the history of F.M. extended back to the 4000 to 3000 B.C. ------- in Egypt, Babylon, India and china., • It Egypt ----- 3000 B.C., the chief physician used to be chief justice too.  It the 5th and 4th century B.C. Hippocrates; (460- 355BC) talked about medical ethics.
  34. • In 3000 B.C. a Chinese; Materia Medica, gives information of poisons.  The code of “Hummurabi’ king of Babylon (about 2200 B.C.) is the oldest known medico-legal code.
  35. Contd.History of F.M.  The first medico-legal autopsy was done in Bologna in Italy in 1302,by Bartolomeo De varignana.  The first medico-legal journal came out in German in 1482.  In 1602, an Italian physician published the first book on F. Medicine, Fortuneto Fedel.
  36. Contd.History of F.M.  The first chair in F.M. was established in Edinburgh in 1807.  In the 18th century, Professorship in F.M. was founded by the state in Germany.
  37.  1801, the first chair of F.M. in Great Britain was established in the University of Edinburgh, the first incumbent was Dr. Duncun.  In 1843, the law regarding the criminal responsibility of insane persons was established in England in Mc-Naughten case.
  38. Thank you