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Indus valley civilisation | Detail Analysis | Early civilisation

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Indus valley civilisation | Detail Analysis | Early civilisation

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Here you will learn about the Indus valley civilisation in a very lucid language which will help you to get the details of this civilisation .

*** want video on this topic click below

(PART - 1)
https://youtu.be/TS8VYGpMmtU

(PART -2 )
https://youtu.be/MNS3Ly7_0Wg

Here you will learn about the Indus valley civilisation in a very lucid language which will help you to get the details of this civilisation .

*** want video on this topic click below

(PART - 1)
https://youtu.be/TS8VYGpMmtU

(PART -2 )
https://youtu.be/MNS3Ly7_0Wg

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Indus valley civilisation | Detail Analysis | Early civilisation

  1. 1. The Indus Valley Civilisation •It developed more than 5,000 years ago in the valley of the Indus River. •It covered an area as large as that of the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilisations put together. •The civilisation spread - •westwards to the present Iranian border, •southwards to the banks of the river Godavari, •eastwards to areas beyond Delhi, •And northwards to the present Afghanistan border.
  2. 2. THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIVILISATION •Over the centuries, the ruins of the civilisation got buried under mud and sand, and people forgot about this ancient civilisation. •Then, in the 1850, British engineers building a railway line from Lahore to Multan found several perfectly shaped bricks of a high quality. •Curious about this mysterious bricks, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) started excavations here.
  3. 3. •In 1921, Dayaram Sahni, an Indian archaeologist working with the ASI, unearthed the ruins of Harappa city. •In 1922, Rakhaldas Banerjee, another Indian archaeologist of the ASI, excavated the city of Mohenjo-daro (meaning the mound of the dead). •Their excavations showed that between 2600 and 1900 BCE, a highly advanced civilisation had established along the banks of the Indus.
  4. 4. LOCATION AND IMPORTANT SITES •Some are in present-day Pakistan, while some are in India. •Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Mehrgarh are in Pakistan. •Sites located in India include Dholavira in the Rann of Kachchh, Lothal in Gujarat, Ropar in Punjab, Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Alamgirpur in Uttar Pradesh and Banawali in Haryana. Rakhigarhi in Haryana. •India, is believed to be the largest Indus Valley Civilisation site discovered till date.
  5. 5. THE ENVIRONMENT •Today, much of Sindh, Rajasthan and parts of Punjab is a desert. •But 5,000 years ago, when the Indus Valley civilisation flourished, the land here was fertile. There was plenty of rainfall, and wheat, barley and rice grew abundantly. •There were dense forests, and animals like the elephant, tiger and rhinoceros.
  6. 6. SETTLEMENTS OF THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION •Most of the sites discovered so far are small villages or towns, with only a few large cities. •The villages covered around eight hectares each, while cities like Mohenjo-daro extended over 32 hectares. •Historians say that most of these cities seemed to have followed the same town plan. •They had well-planned cities. •Careful attention was paid to the layout of the roads, to the drainage and the sewerage systems.
  7. 7. TOWN PLANNING •The cities of this Civilisation were built using the grid system of town planning. •The main roads were around nine metres wide and ran parallel to one another from north to south, Roads lying east to west cut across these main roads at right angles. •The city was divided into square or rectangular blocks. •Each street and lane had a public well. •Buildings in this civilisation fall under three broad categories - houses, public buildings and baths.
  8. 8. The Citadel •The Indus cities were divided into two main parts. •One part of the city was built on a higher platform, Archaeologists call it the citadel. The most important buildings in the city were built on this citadel. •These massive citadels are thought to have protected the people from floods. •The lower part of the city consisted of houses for the common people.
  9. 9. Houses and Drainage •The walls of the houses were made of baked bricks. •This was the first ancient civilisation to bake bricks for building purposes. •The roofs were flat and made of wood. •Each house had a courtyard with rooms built on two or three sides.
  10. 10. •Remains of staircases prove that some houses were double-storeyed. •This civilisation had wells within most houses for the supply of water. •It was also the only ancient civilisation in which every house had a bathroom with brick flooring. •The floors of the bathroom were sloping, so that the water could drain easily. These bathrooms had outlets to carry the dirty water to the drains outside.
  11. 11. •The drains ran along the sides of the roads. •They were built of baked bricks and were covered with stone slabs. •There were inspection holes at intervals; they allowed the drains to be cleaned easily. •The waste water was let out beyond city walls.
  12. 12. Other Important Buildings •In Mohenjo-daro, there is a large structure on the citadel, which archaeologists have called the Great Bath. •It looks like a swimming pool with 'changing rooms' surrounding it. •Bitumen (coal tar) was used on the floor and walls of the tank to make them waterproof. •Some historians believe the Great Bath may have been a public bath. Others believe it was used for religious purposes.
  13. 13. •At Harappa, the Great Granary, made mostly of timber, built near the river so that grain could be carried easily to the boats. •Such granaries were used to store excess grain for trade. •The granaries were well ventilated. •Similar granaries have been found in Mohenjo- daro.
  14. 14. QUICK RECAP • The Indus Valley civilisation developed on the banks of the Indus River around 5000 years ago. It reached its peak between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE. • Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Mehrgarh, Lothal, Rakhigarhi, Dholavira, Ropar, Kalibangan, Alamgirpur and Banawali are important sites of the Indus Valley civilisation.
  15. 15. • The cities of the Indus Valley civilisation were extremely well planned. The main roads cut each others at right angles. Drains ran along the side of every road. Houses were made of baked bricks. Most houses had a well and a bathroom. • The Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro, the Great Granary at Harappa and the dockyard at Lothal were some of the important buildings found at the Indus Valley sites.
  16. 16. THANK YOU FOR WATCHING
  17. 17. INDUS VALLEY SOCIETY They had three social classes- priests and rich merchants made one group, traders, craftsmen and farmers made up the next, and the labourers formed the third group.
  18. 18. CLOTHES •The people this civilisation knew how to spin and weave cotton clay spindles. •Archaeologists say that men wore flowing lengths of cloth. •The women wore skirts, draped shawls over their shoulders and tied up their hair, decorating it with combs. Women used kajal or kohl for the eyes.
  19. 19. •They kept their cosmetics in small jars made of ivory, clay or stone. They used bronze mirrors and ivory combs. •Both men and women wore ornaments. Earrings, bracelets, nose-rings, bangles and anklets have been recovered from the ruins. •These were made of gold, silver, copper, bronze and ivory.
  20. 20. Food •Archaeologists studied the grains, seeds and bones found at the Indus Valley sites. •They saw that wheat and barley formed the staple food of the Indus Valley people. •Grain was ground in millstones and the flour baked into chapatis. • People ate meat, fish and fruit, especially bananas and pomegranates. •Milk and dates were an important part of their diet.
  21. 21. ART AND CRAFT •The cotton cloth they made was very popular. •The pottery was beautiful and made mostly of red clay, with dots, lines, geometric designs and animal figures painted in black. •Several statues and toys of terracotta (unglazed, brownish-red clay) have been found. •Some statues like the bronze dancing girl are excellent works of art.
  22. 22. •Many of the toys found at Harappa and Mohenjo- daro had parts which moved. Bulls and rams were made to shake their heads and tails, and birds moved up and down a rope. In villages of India, we still find toys like these made of wood. •Expert metalworkers made metal figures. •They also made vessels, weapons and tools. •Goldsmiths made ornaments of different kinds.
  23. 23. Seals •Seals of different shapes, made of stone, clay and metal, made figures of animals, trees, human beings or natural scenes have been found in great numbers. •They were probably used as units of exchange. •Since money had not yet been invented.
  24. 24. SCRIPT •It is a pictographic script and has around 400 basic signs with several variations. •The longest continuous set of 10 characters has been found on a fallen signboard near the north gate of Dholavira.
  25. 25. OCCUPATIONS •The main occupation of the Indus Valley people was agriculture. •The people cultivated wheat, barley, rice, mustard, vegetables and cotton. •Other occupations included weaving, pottery, metal- working jewellery-making, toy-making, animal rearing and fishing.
  26. 26. TRADE •The people of the Indus Valley traded with other civilisations by both land and sea. •The merchants traded with Mesopotamia and with towns along the Persia ( presently called Iran) •Cotton was the main export. •Stone beads, objects made from ivory and seals belonging to the Indus Valley civilisation have been found at Ur ( presently Iraq) in Mesopotamia.
  27. 27. •These finds prove that trade existed between the Indus Valley civilisation and other cultures of the time. •A dock has also been discovered at Lothal. •A dock is a place where ships and boats land and unload or load their cargo.
  28. 28. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS •The people believed in a mother goddess. •It is believed to represent the Hindu god Shiva as Pashupati (lord of the animals). •The peepal tree and the humped bull were considered sacred. •The people of the Indus Valley civilisation believed in life after death. •When a person died, food, utensils, ornaments and mirrors were placed in the grave along with the body.
  29. 29. THE END OF THE CIVILISATION Some historians believe it ended because of natural factors - •There may have been repeated floods caused by changes in the environment. •Some historians believe that there was a shift in the course of the river flowing through this region, causing the land to dry up and forcing people to move away.
  30. 30. • It may also be that the civilisation decayed steadily due to a gradual decrease in rainfall, leading to long drought. • As population increased, people began to clear forests for food, shelter and agriculture. • This could have led to deforestation and gradual desertification.
  31. 31. •The reasons behind the decline of the Indus Valley civilisation will remain a mystery. •Many practices and customs seen in India today seem to have originated in the Indus Valley civilsation. •For example, Indians still wear jewellery of the kind worn by the people of the Indus Valley civilisation, children still play with toys similar to the ones played with by children of the Indus Valley civilisation.
  32. 32. QUICK RECAP • Statuettes like those of a bronze dancing girl and the bust of a bearded priest, and painted pottery are examples of Indus Valley art and craft. • Seals of different shapes and sizes made of clay, stone and metal are valuable finds of the Indus Valley civilisation. • Natural causes are believed to have brought the Indus Valley civilisation to an end.
  33. 33. • The Indus Valley people followed various occupations. There were farmers, weavers, potters, metal- workers, jewellers, toy-makers, shepherds and others in the Indus Valley. The people traded with other countries, both by land and by sea. • The Indus Valley people believed in the mother goddess. They also appear to have worshipped Shiva in the form of Pashupati.
  34. 34. THANK YOU FOR WATCHING

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