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Gis cartography layout design full

Gis CARTOGRAPHY layout Design primary and secondary element

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Gis cartography layout design full

  1. 1. WELCOM E TO OUR PRESENTATION UNIVERSITY OF RAJSHAHI DEPARTMENT OF G.E.S
  2. 2. SHAKHAWAT HOSSAIN SHAHAN FARIHA IQBAL 0 1 02 DESIGNED BY 03 NAFIS FOYSAL 04 SHAKHAWAT HOSSAIN SHAKIB
  3. 3.  Title  Subtitle  Legend  Maps  North arrow  Date  Authorship  Scale bars  Page border  Neat lines  Graticules  Network path  Disclaimer  Data sources  Data citations  Logos  Graphs Photographs Graphics Map number, if series Tables Copyright Projection Inset maps Descriptive text Layout Checklist Primary Elements Secondary Elements
  4. 4. Primary Elements
  5. 5. Though a title is short but it gives lengthy thought. The title’s purpose is to succinctly pronounce the intent of the map. In many cases it also identifies the geographic location of the map as well as the authoring agency. It should depict applicable information for the intended audience, depending on how well they know the subject before viewing the map. TITLE 1
  6. 6.  Titles could be placed anywhere on the layout page .A title is located at the top or bottom of a layout and is either center or flush left, though occasionally you will see it flush right.  The appropriate place to place the title is along the middle of the top. This makes the audience feel comfortable. Placement
  7. 7.  Using all capitals is acceptable in a title; however, consider a small-cap style for a slightly more readable look, especially if using a bold font in conjunction with the uppercase style. A drop-cap for the first letter may also be used. Some argue that all capitals is never okay because people cannot easily decipher the letter codes as they read when the letters are all the same height.  The color of the title is an important factor in making the map more attractive.  There are many different ways to bring a title to life. Shown here are several options ranging from simple to complex. The last title uses expanded character spacing which requires a serif font for better readability. STYLE
  8. 8. SUBTITLE  The subtitle is comprised of any spillover text that is slightly less important than the title but still somewhat necessary to fully understand the map. Ideally, the subtitle provides further detail that the viewer needs to know prior to being able to understand the map elements.  Subtitles can be used if clarification is needed. For example, the title, “Species Distribution Change over Time” could have a subtitle such as, “Five Species Tracked —Four Show Significant Change.” 2
  9. 9.  The subtitle is placed directly below or to the right of the title. However, the most suitable position is below the title. PLACEMENT
  10. 10.  The subtitle is displayed in the same font as the title but carries slightly less emphasis than the title. This is accomplished by not using a bold font on the subtitle, employing a smaller font size than the main title, and perhaps italicizing or indenting the text to further deemphasize and separate it from the main title. STYLE
  11. 11. A map legend is a visual explanation of the symbols used on the map. It typically includes a sample of each symbol and a short description of what the symbol means. A map legend is a description, explanation, or table of symbols printed on a map or chart to permit a better understanding or interpretation of it. LEGEND 3
  12. 12. IN THE CASE OF MAP LAYOUT LEGENDS ARE INCLUDED INTO TWO CATEGORIES LEGEND NARROW AUDIENCE WIDER AUDIENCE COUNTY BOUNDARIES, WATER BODIES, ELEVATION BLUE WATER BODIES, GREEN LAND EXPANSES
  13. 13. BEST PRACTICES Items are placed to the left of their corresponding level.  Many of the essential items in complicated legend are used at the grouping level. ITEMS LEVELS
  14. 14. PLACEMENT  LEGENDS CAN BE PLACED OUTSIDE OF THE MAP ELEMENT, IN THE MARGIN.  IN THE CASE OF SINGLE MAP LAYOUT, A COMMON LEGEND IS PLACED.  IN THE CASE OF MULTIPLE MAP LAYOUTS, DIFFERENT LEGENDS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEATURES ARE USED ON MAP LAYOUTS.
  15. 15. LEGEND COLOUR & GRADIENT  In case of map legend, color & gradient can be shown horizontally and vertically.
  16. 16. MAPS A map is a symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface. Maps represent information about the world in a simple, visual way. Map teach about the world by showing sizes and shapes of countries, locations of features and distances between places. Maps can show distributions of things over Earth, such as settlement patterns. They can show exact locations of houses and streets in a city neighborhood 4
  17. 17. BEST PRACTICES  MAPS CAN BE FRAMED WITH A BORDER.  IF THE MAP CAN BE FRAMED, VIEWERS WILL TRY TO UNDERSTAND THE MAP VERY EASYLY WITH THEIR INTEREST.
  18. 18. PLACEMENT  THE MAIN PURPOSE OF PLACEMENT IS TO PLACE THE MAP IN A LAYOUT.  IT IS BEST TO PLACE THE MAP IN THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYOUT BECAUSE VIEWRS CAN EASILY UNDERSTAND IT.
  19. 19. NORTH ARROW Best practices  We should keep the north arrow small, simple, and unobtrusive for most modern layouts. A north arrow is a graphical representation indicating the direction of north in an Area. The North arrow is a map symbol that shows the direction of North on the map, it illustrates the orientation of the map to the viewers. Nautical charts and other orienteering maps should show both true north and magnetic north 5
  20. 20. PLACEMENT North arrows are best left in a less conspicuous area of the layout. Grouping the north arrow with other ancillary map information such as the scale bar and legend is another common practice.
  21. 21. STYLE  The trend in mapping design has been going toward simplistic north arrows for some time.  The context and style of your overall layout will help determine whether you should stick with this trend or branch out to a fancier style.
  22. 22. DATE The Date of the map tells us when the map was made. ⮚ The date referred to here is the date on which the layout was printed. ⮚ Date on most layouts that are intended to be stand-alone prints. ⮚ The date also gives the audience an idea of the map’s vintage for maps that endure. 6 Date
  23. 23. Best practices The date can be preceded by text such as “printed on:” to dispel any confusion over whether the date refers to the data or the day of printing Placement The date is considered metadata and therefore should be placed with the other margin elements in an inconspicuous location.
  24. 24. Authorship  Authorship refers to the person and agency who designed the map, created the analysis, and put together the layout.  In other words, authorship is a plain-text way of getting information such as about the company that contributed the underlying data, performed the analysis, sponsored the work etc. across to the viewer of the map. 7
  25. 25. Best Practices Signifies that someone is taking responsibility for what is contained in the printed work Provides the contact name for follow-up questions Enables people to receive public acknowledgment for their work Encourages people to do better work
  26. 26. Placement  Conference posters: can include the authorship information directly after the title and subtitle, in the descriptive text portion of the poster, or in a corner.  The author(s) names may be followed by numbers in superscript that are referenced elsewhere on the poster for the author’s affiliation and contact information  Smaller maps/poster-sized (non-conference) maps: in a corner, in dark gray, italicized text.  It remains as metadata in this way
  27. 27. Scale Bars  A scale bar is a graphical means of depicting distance on a map.  It is basically a graphic that shows the map viewer how to translate between map units and real-world units.  Graphic scales are used instead of verbal ones in the modern convention. 8
  28. 28. Best Practices  Modern scale bars are simple and unadorned; as often the viewer needs to see only two divisions (one at the beginning and one at the end) and a number indicating the distance between those divisions in real-world units  Multi-unit scales can be provided together on the same map as required  Maps primarily used for pinpointing an exact location or distance may require a more detailed scale bar showing subdivisions and their associated measurements
  29. 29. STYLE  Color: almost always black, or dark gray in some instances  Font: Conforming to the other fonts used on the layout  Using the compact form should be considered since it is more balanced and modern; however, multiple-unit scale bars may be used as required  The map scale can be showed as a representative fraction too.  In conjunction with conventional scale bars, the scale can also be showed in area form; as in many population density maps, for example, are shown in square mile or square kilometer units
  30. 30. Page Border  A page border is used to group all the layout elements together by means of a single graphic line surrounding all of the elements.  In other words, it is basically a large neat line around the entire layout.  It can be used when the layout contains elements that are outside of the map elements. 9
  31. 31. Placement  It is placed around all the layout elements, including a narrow white-space buffer that acts as a frame.  The frame:  does not have to be white; it can be any color that unifies the layout  ought to be the same width or proportional to the other separating spaces on the layout
  32. 32. STYLE  Acceptable styles: Double lines, single lines, varying thicknesses, shadow boxes, rounded corners, and so on are all used and acceptable. The simplest and best is the single-line page border so as not to detract from the surrounding elements.  Thickness:  Poster-sized maps at C size or larger require at least 3-point thickness  E-size sheets require up to 5-point thickness
  33. 33. Neat lines • A neat line is simply a graphic line placed on the layout. • The purpose of it is to explicitly separate elements to provide an organized look. • These lines can be used singly, in tandem, or in groups and can consist of simple lines or boxes 1
  34. 34. Placement  Though neat lines are on the lowest end of the information spectrum for map elements, they are on the high end of the scale of the design spectrum for layouts. They can make a map look professional.  Example: A neat line placed above and below the legend given below with the aim to separate it from other elements on the layout
  35. 35. STYLE  Color: Almost always black or dark gray  Thickness: Should commensurate with the importance of the information it is enclosing or separating as well as the total layout size  Type: Drawn as boxes or simple lines.  If lines are being used, and they are intended to meet up with other lines, it needs to be ensured that they join together neatly. Conversely, any neat line that is not purposefully intended to meet up with another line should be far enough away from all other lines.
  36. 36. Graticules Graticules are latitude and longitude lines that run along the surface of the map element and enable the viewer to visualize how the flat map surface relates to the real-world 3D surface in the map’s projection. 2
  37. 37. Best practices and style Best Practices:  Layouts showcasing analytical-results maps do not need to include graticules. However, including graticules on non-navigational maps can be considered as an additional location and scale-related metadata element. Style:  Navigational maps: Requires easy-to-read, prominent labels at the top and bottom of the graticule lines.  Non-navigational maps: Gray or dashed lines, fewer divisions, and small labels can be used; also running the graticules behind certain portions of the map, usually the land portions of a worldwide map, can also be considered to make them unobtrusive and minimize their interference.
  38. 38. Network path  A network path is an element used to alert the viewer to the location of the layout and data files should the map need to be updated or the data used for a future project.  Network paths enable successors to pick up the old documents and use these network paths to find the digital files after an author leaves a project  It also provides the original author with a memory boost to find the files at some later date.  In the case of an enduring presentation map, it can be of vital importance for anyone picking up that project in the future. 3
  39. 39. Best practices and style Best Practices:  Depending on the complexity and number of projects in a GIS work group, making the inclusion of network paths a standard practice for the work group can be considered Style:  It can be put in a corner of a map either just above or just below the page border; this technique is often used for nonessential but informative data
  40. 40. Disclaimer The GIS map disclaimer is an element that is used by most public agencies and many private companies to protect themselves from lawsuits arising from the map being used for unintended purposes and to inform the reader as to the potential limitations of the map product. 4 Disclaimer
  41. 41. Best practices and style Best Practices:  Which title to put at the beginning of the disclaimer text block should be considered carefully; some examples are: “Disclaimer”, “Note”, “Standard Disclaimer”, “Disclaimer of Liability” etc. Style:  The common practice is to print the disclaimer in small but legible text on the layout with the other metadata elements. To ensure an unobtrusive fashion, some options are: Using gray font color Using less than single spacing between lines Pushing it to the edge of a layout as opposed to placing it between two other margin elements
  42. 42. Data sources Originating agencies for the data used in the map or maps are reported in the data sources section of the layout. The data for map layout can be derived from various sources. 5
  43. 43. Best practices and style Best practices: The data sources element is extremely useful for both the intended audience as well as for the future reference of the layout originator or project successor. Style: The style guidelines for the data sources element are similar to all the other metadata text elements. Items to consider including about each dataset are: I)Data dates II)Agency names III)Web site IV)A short description of how the data were used V)Potential limitations
  44. 44. DATA CITATIONS Data that are contained on the map may require citations by the source agencies and authors of the data. Many times this is stated in a “Creative Commons” licensing agreement. The data citation is the originating author’s way of receiving due credit for work that is being made freely available, it is important from an ethical as well as a legal standpoint to include it. 6
  45. 45. LOGOS ⮚ A logo is a graphical way of signifying a company name or brand and is used to enable rapid identification of what it is representing. ⮚ Logos proclaiming authoring or sponsoring agencies are often displayed prominently on presentation maps. ⮚ logos often clash with the colours and style of the map product. To get rid of it we can balance the logo out with some other feature or tuck one black-and-white rectangular-shaped logo at the bottom or corner of the layout. ⮚ Best practices: A logo can sometimes be used to balance out another element of the layout. ⮚ Placement: The best place to put a logo (if it must be on the layout), is in the least obtrusive part of the layout 7
  46. 46. GRAPHS ⮚ A graph shows the values of your data in diagram or chart form. ⮚ Graphs can be any of several types such as: 1.Scatterplot 2.Bar graph 3.Pie chart 4.Histogram 5.Bar chart ⮚ Graphs can also provide ancillary data that, although not shown on the map, help to further the viewer’s understanding of the material. ⮚ Best practices: Graphs ought to match the data shown in the map in terms of colour and hue, if they display the same data. ⮚ Placement: Many possibilities exist for graph placement on a layout. 8
  47. 47. Digital photographs are used to enable the map viewer to see portions of the map in its real world likeness. In some cases the photographs are tied to a very specific location via coordinates and placed near where the corresponding location is on the map element PHOTOGRAPHS 9
  48. 48. BEST PRACTICES  The photographs should not be the main focus of anyone layout. It is the best work for including photographs on anyone layout at all is if they widely enhance the viewers understanding of the subject matter.
  49. 49. GEOGRAPHER USE PHOTOGRAPHS FOR Describe the natural and human environment Compare different places around the world Save many words by when describing features in our world Show how places change overtime
  50. 50. Ground level photograph Oblique photograph Vertical photograph Satellite photograph In google map
  51. 51. Map graphic features or elements can be classified as points, lines, areas. In GIS, these features are grouped together to form more complex objects such as networks of streams or roads, three dimensional terrain surface, and multi-polygon regions GRAPHIC 10
  52. 52. Placement:  Basically graphics can be placed anywhere and everywhere on the map layout.  light graphics sketches in the background of the map is considered appropriate. Style:  Graphics can have any style and level of importance the designer deems appropriate
  53. 53. A map number refers to the page number of a map that is contained within a series. Map numbers are usually accompanied by a number signifying the total number of maps in the series MAP NUMBER 11
  54. 54.  MAP NUMBER CAN BE PLACED ANYWHERE IN THE MAP WITHIN THE MARGIN.  MAP NUMBER CAN BE PLACED IN ALL PLACES FROM TOP TO BOTTOM RIGHT TO LEFT. PLACEMENT
  55. 55. THERE ARE MANY STYLE OF THE WAY.  MAP NUMBER 1 OF 10  FIRST IN A SERIES OF TEN  1 OF 10 STYLE
  56. 56. TABLES A table chart is a means of arranging data in rows and columns. The use of tables is pervasive throughout all communication, research and data analysis. 12
  57. 57. • If a table is placed in the map layout, the properties of the attributes can be known in detail and serious creates alternate conditions on the map. • Tables are used in large maps. BEST PRACTICES • In many styles we use tables in the map layout. • The littles of the rows and columns are clearly arranged. STYLE:
  58. 58. Copyright A newer method of licensing a creative work like a map layout that acts in addition to a copyright. whereby some rights are explicitly given to the licensee, is called Creative Commons licensing. A map copyright states the author of the map layout and is sometimes accompanied by the date of copyright declaration. However, in the United States, all maps are automatically protected (except some government documents) and therefore explicitly stating the copyright is not an absolute necessity. 13
  59. 59. Placement and style • Placement: The copyright information is usually left as an inconspicuous metadata-type element and is given the least emphasis possible while still remaining legible. • Style: Usually, the text of the copyright includes the word“ copyright” and the author’s name or the copyright symbol (©) and author’s name. The phrase “All Rights Reserved” and the copyright dates are optionally included as well.
  60. 60. Projection Without axis and longitudes, it is not possible to accurately map the earth or any part of the earth. For this reason, to draw a map of the whole earth or part of it on a piece of flat paper, the axis and longitudes are expressed in a mesh- like chart on a certain scale. This is called projection. That is to say, a projection is a table or grid arranged like a net by a certain scale and in a certain way to draw a map of the earth or a part of it on a plane.  The main features of the projection are three. 1.The projection is drawn on the plane. 2.The projection is drawn with the help of axis and longitude line. 3.The nature of the earth is proportionally reduced on a certain scale. 14
  61. 61. Placement The map projection information is placed in the margin along with the other metadata elements that are similar such as the disclaimer, data sources, data citations, and copyright.
  62. 62. INSET MAP Inset maps are smaller maps that are included on the same page as the main map. They can show additional information related to the main map. An inset map is a small map relative to the primary map, generally with a ratio of about one eighth to one sixteenth the size of the primary map element. The inset map has two potential functions. One is to show an area of the primary map in more detail by zooming in to a portion of the primary map and the other is to give an overview of the primary map’s location by zooming out from the primary map. Best placement of inset map is the left side over the map 15
  63. 63. Style The inset map element should include its own scale bar, especially if it is a detail map. The over view style insets do not necessarily require a scale bar if enough spatial context is provided for the audience to orient themselves. The small part shown in the figure is Inset Map. And the big part is the primary map.
  64. 64. Descriptive text We explain different phenomena through maps. Some of the words used on the map to describe these phenomena in a specific way are called descriptive text. Descriptive text refers to any text that furthers the map’s purpose that does not fit into any of the above categories. Often, the specific nature of your map will require unique descriptive elements.  Best placement of descriptive text is the right side over the map. 16
  65. 65. Style  On a large poster-sized layout please remember to ensure the readability of all large blocks of text. This means that the font size must be large enough to read. We should also double-space the lines to make it even easier to read, look less dense, and be therefore less off-putting.  Headings for large blocks of text should avoid the use of common terms like “introduction” or “study area” and instead use a description that is pertinent to the material such as “Tide Levels” or “The Great Lakes.”
  66. 66. REFERENCE: GOOGLE THE G.I.S ENCYCLOPEDIA NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY SOCITY NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY ENCYCLOPEDIA GOOGLE IMAGE WIKIPIDEA

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Gis CARTOGRAPHY layout Design primary and secondary element

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