“ Collective programming of the mind which distinguishes
the members of one human group from another... Includes
system of values; and values are among the building blocks
of culture...” (Hofstede, 1980)
Glue that binds groups together. Without cultural patterns,
organized system of significant symbols, people would have
difficulty living together (De Mooij, 2004)
Set of control mechanisms – plans, recipes, rules,
instructions – for governing behavior (Geertz, 1973)
Includes shared believs, attitudes, norms, roles and values
found among speakers of a particular language who live
during the same period in a specific geographic region
Characteristics of culture
1. Culture is learned
2. Common to members of a certain group
3. Determines the behavior of group
4. Culture (customs, values, habits) makes
life more effective
AN INDIVIDUAL DOESN’T HAVE
AN INDIVIDUAL HAS A PERSONALITY!
Characteristics of Culture:
By Keith Williams
Culture exists to serve the needs of the
Culture is acquired from society throughout
our life time.
Culture is not static
Culture is learned through interactions with
other members of the culture.
Culture is transferred from generations to
Culture will be adaptive to the needs of the
Culture and CB
Culture has immense influence on the
values and lifestyles of individuals.
it cannot be underestimated as it actually
affects their thoughts, motives and value
Due to this dynamism people’s
psychological construct changes and,
therefore, their consumption patterns
Culture and CB……
culture explicates the value systems of the
consumers that subsequently governs the
interpretation of environment around the
it plays an immense role in affecting the
consumers’ affective and cognitive choices
of consumption and spending.
Culture and CB…….
Core values of a society define the usage of
Positive and negative valences for brands
and for communication programs
Culture define the ideology of consumption
Causes : Dissolving boundaries across
World communication (media)
Global supply chain
Global virtual teams
A global network of productive units with a
decentralized authority structure and no
distinct national identity
Relies on a blend of global and local
Culture . . .
. . . is a learned behavior.
Enculturation is learning one’s own
Acculturation is learning a new
A distinct cultural group
that exists as an
within a larger, more
23Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Twelve Slide
A subculture is a segment of a larger culture whose members
share distinguishing values and patterns of behavior.
The unique values and patterns of behavior shared by
subculture group members are based on the social history of
the group as well as on its current situation.
Marketing to African Americans
More than 60% of African American shoppers say that
one of their most important reasons for choosing a store
is that it treats its customers with respect.
This focus on respect is caused by the sad fact that
many black shoppers still encounter obviously
disrespectful acts such as being closely watched while
shopping as well as more subtle discrimination such as
Asian Americans are a rapidly growing subculture, due
primarily to immigration. Asian Americans have the highest
average household income of any ethic group. However, Asian
Americans are also the most diverse group, with numerous
nationalities, languages, and religions.
National Background of Asian Americans
Nearly half live in the West, and there are approximately 550
Native American tribes, each with its own language and traditions.
There are approximately 1.7 million Americans of Indian heritage.
There are well educated, affluent, and fluent in English.
They are approximately 1 million Arab Americans in the U.S..
They are come from a variety of countries, including Morocco,
Egypt, Jordan, and Kuwait. They share a common Arabic heritage
and the Arabic language.
Issues in Understanding Gender as a Subculture
• Sex Roles and Consumer Behavior
– Masculine vs. Feminine Traits
• Consumer Products and Sex Roles
• Women as depicted in Media
30Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Twelve Slide
The imperative to be multinational
Acquiring exposure to other cultures
Through consumers’ own initiatives
Through movies, theatre and art
Through new products/services
Culture transfer through international marketing
Country of origin effects
Consumers use their knowledge of where products are made in
the evaluation of their purchase options
France – perfumes, wine, clothing
Italy – shoes, sports cars, furniture
Japan – cameras and consumer electronics
Germany – cars, tools and machinery
India – spices, textiles, jewellery
US – computers, entertainment, fast-food
Context and communication
The context explains the degree of
directness of communication.
In high context communication message
most of the info is either part of the
context or internalized in the person. Very
little is made explicit. Use of symbolism or
indirect verbal expressions.
In low context communication message is
direct and unambiguous.
The Measurement of Culture
• Content Analysis: systematically analyzing the
content of verbal and/or pictorial
communication. Is frequently used to determine
prevailing social values of a society.
• Consumer Fieldwork: Field Observation (natural
setting, subject unaware, focus on observation of
behavior); Participant Observation
• Value Measurement Instruments: Rokeach Value
Survey (RVS); List of Values (LOV); VALS
Indirect socio-cultural effects
Appropriate portion size / packaging
Cultural interest in a food
Cultural avoidance of a food
Indirect personal effects
Body image/ideals and eating
Norms about meal size and timing
Social and moral implication of eating
Preferences versus likes
Food presentation (cuisine)
Intake increases with the number of individuals
involved in a eating episode
Presence of particular others (e.g. girlfriend trying to
“Females eat less, that is, behave on a more
feminine way, in the presence of a desirable male
companion” (Mori et al., 1987)
Presentation of food / exposure
Influence through others’ mood
Consuming/buying food in public (judgement)
A subculture has beliefs, values, and customers that set them apart from the other members of the same society.
You have probably heard these terms before. Marketers and other researchers divide the population into groups depending on the year they were born. There are many differences between these age subcultures, which will be explored in the following slides.
Gender plays an important role in some marketing issues. Men and women react differently toward print ads and have very different shopping motives. As such, some consumer products are much more focused to one sex versus the other. It is only in the past few years that men have increased their purchases of consumer care products, including moisturizers and hair care products.
Many women are concerned with the way they are depicted in media and would like to see more of the “real” women that advertisers like Dove have begun to use. Follow this web link to the Campaign for Real Beauty by Dove to learn more about the campaign.
It is important for marketers to realize that an individual can belong to several of the subcultures presented in these slides and must consider how these influences will work together.
Measurement techniques are used to track values and social trends for government and business. Each one will be looked at individually on the following slides.
Instead of observing behavior, these techniques use surveys of consumers. As you can see, there are a variety of these studies, each a bit different in the number of questions that are asked and the categories they choose to emphasize.