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BPATS First Aid.ppt

  1. Safety and First Aid BPATS TRAINING JUNE 1, 2022
  2. First Aid  The care given to an injured or ill person until regular medical care can be supplied.
  3. 3 The Aims of First Aid  To Preserve life  To Prevent the condition getting worse  To Promote recovery 3
  4. 4 Human Anatomy (remind/revise) 1. Trachea 2. Lungs 3. Heart 4. Liver 5. Stomach 6. Pancreas 7. Large intestine 8. Small intestine 1 3 4 2 5 6 7 8 4
  5. 5 Circulatory System Aorta Largest artery in the body Arteries Strong muscular, elastic walls enable arteries to expand with each surge of blood away from the heart and towards tissues Veins Action of muscles around these thin walled vessels squeezes blood through them, and one-way valves keep it from flowing back towards the heart 5
  6. Universal Precautions for Airborne & Bloodborn Pathogens HIV & Hepatitis Tuberculosis Gloves & Respiratory Barrier devise are a must to prevent transmission of diseases
  7. 7 Self Protection ALWAYS WEAR GLOVES When dealing with blood or body fluids 7
  8. DURING TREATMENT avoid coughing, breathing, or speaking over the wound avoid contact with body fluids use a face shield or mask with one-way-valve when doing active resuscitation use only clean bandages and dressings avoid treating more than one casualty without washing hands and changing gloves AFTER TREATMENT clean up both casualty and yourself clean up the immediate vicinity dispose of dressings, bandages, gloves and soiled clothing correctly wash hands with soap and water
  9. Fundamentals of First Aid Activate EMS System “911”  1. ABC (airway-breathing-circulation)  2. Control bleeding  3. Treat for Shock(medical emergencies)  4. Open wounds & Burns  5. Fractures & Dislocations  6. Transportation
  10. 10 Emergency Services 999 • Name and telephone number • Give exact location • Type of incident • Seriousness of incident • Number of casualties • Condition of casualties • Any hazards Always Give the Following Information: DON'T HANG UP THE PHONE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO ! 10
  11. Life-Threatening Emergencies 1. The person has stopped breathing 2. The person has no heartbeat 3. The person is bleeding severely 4. The person is choking 5. The person has swallowed poison 6. The person has been severely burned
  12. Accident  An unexpected event that results in damage or harm
  13. Accidental Injuries  Injuries caused by unexpected events
  14. 14 Road Traffic Accidents Make the accident site safe 14 Speed Kills
  15. The Three C’s 1. CHECK the Scene and Victim  Make sure the area is safe for you and the victim  Move the victim only if they are in danger
  16. The Three C’s 2. CALL for Help  Call 911 or local EMS (Emergency Medical Service)
  17. The Three C’s  3. CARE for the person until help arrives  Use first aid techniques to treat the victim until help arrives.
  18. 18 Pulse Points Carotid Brachial Radial Femoral 18
  19. Rescue Breathing  A substitute for normal breathing in which someone forces air into the victim’s lungs.  1. Listen close to the victim’s nose and mouth  2. Tilt the head back to open the airway
  20. Rescue Breathing  3. Pinch the nose shut and give two slow breaths. The chest should rise with each breath  4. If the victim begins to breath normally stop
  21. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation  an emergency procedure consisting of chest compressions often combined with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
  22. 22 Principles of Resuscitation  For life to be sustained,:  A constant supply of oxygen must be maintained and delivered to the brain and other vital organs by circulating the blood.  The “pump” that maintains this circulation:  Is the heart. If the heart stops (cardiac arrest) urgent action must be taken if death is to be prevented. 22
  23. Reaction Time  If CPR/Artificial respiration is administered  Chance of brain damage 0 to 4 minutes - 4 to 6 minutes - 6 to 10 minutes- 10 minutes + - Recovery rate of victim if has artificial respiration done immediately Oxygenated blood flow must get to brain
  24. A-B-C’s  Use chin lift/head tilt Look.-listen-feel for breathing Attempt to Ventilate Ventilate Every 5 seconds • Establish responsiveness Check pulse Recovery position
  25. CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Hands Only CPR • Hands-Only CPR is CPR without mouth-to-mouth breaths.
  26. CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Hands Only CPR 1. Be sure 911 has been called! 2. Keep the neck and head in proper alignment. 3. Gently guide the victim/patient to the floor and elevate the legs by placing a blanket or pillow under the legs. 4. Tap on the shoulder and shout, “Are you okay?” and quickly look for breathing. 5. If unresponsive and not breathing, BEGIN CHEST COMPRESSIONS!
  27. CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION How to do Chest Compressions 1. Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first hand, lacing your fingers together. 2. Place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest. 3. Keep your arms straight, position your shoulders directly over your hands. 4. Push hard, push fast: • Compress the chest at least 2 inches; • Compress at least 100 times per minute; • Let the chest rise completely before pushing down again.
  28. CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION When to Stop Chest Compressions Do Not Stop Except in one of these situations: • You see an obvious sign of life (breathing); • Another trained responder arrives and takes over; • EMS personnel arrive and take over; • You are too exhausted to continue; • An AED is ready to use; or • The scene becomes unsafe. •
  29. Types of Wounds
  30. Types of Bleeding •Veins •Capillary Spurting Steady flow Oozing Artery Internal Injuries
  31. 31 Functions of the Blood  Transportation of gases  Nutrition  Regulation  Protection  Excretion
  32. First Aid for Severe Bleeding  Wear gloves if possible and wash you hands after  Sit or lay the victim down  Elevate the wound above the heart  Apply direct pressure with a clean cloth  Wrap the wound  Apply pressure to the artery  Get them professional treatment
  33. Control of Bleeding Direct Pressure Elevation Cold Applications Pressure bandage
  34. 34 Dressings & Bandages: Uses  Dressings  Control bleeding  Reduce infection  Bandages  Direct pressure  Securing dressings etc  Reduce swelling, support limbs  Restrict movement 34
  35. Tourniquet Absolute last resort in controlling bleeding Remember - Life or limb Once a tourniquet is applied, it is not to be removed , only by a doctor
  36. First Aid for Choking  Know universal sign for choking  Ask “are you choking”
  37. First Aid for Choking  Use abdominal thrusts- upward pulls into the diaphragm to force out the object blocking the airway.
  38. Heimlich Maneuver for Conscious Airway Obstruction
  39. First Aid for Choking  For an infant you will give them 5 back blows and five chest compressions. Using fingertips on breastbone  If they become unconscious call 911
  40. First Aid for Poisoning  Call 911
  41. First Aid for Burns Kinds of Burns First Degree  Burn in which only the outer part of the skin is burned and turns red  Treatment-Cool the burned area with cold water (15 min.) and cover with a clean dry dressing.
  42. First Aid for Burns Second Degree  A serious burn in which the damaged area blisters or peels.  Treatment-Cool the burned area with cold water (15 min.) and elevate. Wrap loosely with clean dry dressing. DO NOT POP BLISTERS!
  43. First Aid for Burns Third Degree  A very serious burn in which deep layers of skin and nerve endings are damaged.  Treatment-Cool the burned area with cold water as best as you can. Call 911 immediately.
  44. Burns Cool applicationDon’t break blisters Dry sterile dressing, treat for shock RAPID TRANSPORT!!!
  45. First Aid for Breaks  Fracture- Break in a bone  Ask questions- did you hear a snap or does the are hurt when touched.  If you suspect a break call 911 do not attempt to move them.
  46. Fractures & Dislocations Must treat for bleeding first Do not push bones back into place Don’t straighten break Treat the way you found it
  47. First Aid for Sprains  Sprain- when a joint is stretched or twisted causing damage to the tendons and ligaments  Use the R.I.C.E. method  Rest. Ice. Compression. Elevation.  Temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain  Reaction to pain or fright  Emotional upset  Exhaustion  Lack of food  Long periods of standing
  48. 48 If unconsciousness persists Call for the ambulance Treatment for Fainting  Raise and support lower limbs  Fresh air, open window  As they recover reassure casualty  Assist casualty to sit up  Treat any injuries
  49. Snake & Spider bites Rattlesnake Copperhead Black Widow Brown Recluse Limit activity Constricting bandage above Cold application Advanced medical attention Good Samaritan laws offer legal protection to people who give reasonable assistance to those who are, or whom they believe to be injured, ill, in peril, or otherwise incapacitated
  50. GOOD SAMARITAN LAW offer legal protection to people who give reasonable assistance to those who are, or whom they believe to be injured, ill, in peril, or otherwise incapacitated