M01 todaro smith013934_11_econ_c01

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
Chapter 1
Introducing
Economic
Development:
A Global
Perspective
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-2
1.1 How the Other Half Live
When one is poor, she has no say in public, she feels inferior. She has
no food, so there is famine in her house; no clothing, and no progress
in her family.
—A poor woman from Uganda
For a poor person everything is terrible—illness, humiliation, shame.
We are cripples; we are afraid of everything; we depend on everyone.
No one needs us. We are like garbage that everyone wants to get rid
of.
—A blind woman from Tiraspol, Moldova
Life in the area is so precarious that the youth and every able person
have to migrate to the towns or join the army at the war front in
order to escape the hazards of hunger escalating over here.
—Participant in a discussion group in rural Ethiopia
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-3
1.1 How the Other Half Live
• When food was in abundance, relatives used to share it. These days of
hunger, however not even relatives would help you by giving you some
food. —Young man in Nichimishi, Zambia
• We have to line up for hours before it is our turn to draw water.
—Mbwadzulu Village (Mangochi), Malawi
• [Poverty is] . . . low salaries and lack of jobs. And it’s also not having
medicine, food, and clothes. --Discussion group, Brazil
• Don’t ask me what poverty is because you have met it outside my house.
Look at the house and count the number of holes. Look at the utensils and
the clothes I am wearing. Look at everything and write what you see. What
you see is poverty. —Poor man in Kenya
• A universal theme reflected in these seven quotes is that
poverty is more than lack of income – it is inherently
multidimensional, as is economic development.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-4
1.2 Economics and Development Studies
– The Nature of Development Economics
• Greater scope than traditional neoclassical economics
and political economy.
– Why Study Development Economics? Some
Critical Questions
– The Important Role of Values in
Development Economics
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-5
Figure 1.1 World Income Distribution
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-6
1.2 Economics and Development Studies
• Economies as Social Systems: The Need to
Go Beyond Simple Economics
• Social Systems
– Interdependent relationships between economic and non-
economic factors
• Success or failure of development policy
– Importance of taking account of institutional and structural
variables along with more traditional economic variables
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-7
1.3 What Do We Mean by Development?
• Traditional Economic Measures
– Gross National Income (GNI)
– Income per capita
– Utility of that income?
• The New Economic View of Development
– Leads to improvement in wellbeing, more broadly understood
• Amartya Sen’s “Capability” Approach
– Functionings as an achievement
– Capabilities as freedoms enjoyed in terms of functionings
– Development and happiness
– Well being in terms of being well and having freedoms of choice
– “Beings and Doings”:
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-8
Some Key “Capabilities”
• Some Important “Beings” and “Doings” in Capability to
Function:
– Being able to live long
– Being well-nourished
– Being healthy
– Being literate
– Being well-clothed
– Being mobile
– Being able to take part in the life of the community
– Being happy – as a state of being - may be valued as a
functioning
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-9
1.3 What Do We Mean by Development?
(cont’d)
• Three Core Values of Development
– Sustenance: The Ability to Meet Basic
Needs
– Self-Esteem: To Be a Person
– Freedom from Servitude: To Be Able to
Choose
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-10
Figure 1.2 Income and Happiness:
Comparing Countries
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-11
1.3 What Do We Mean by Development?
(cont’d)
• The Central Role of Women
– To make the biggest impact on development,
societies must empower and invest in women
• The Three Objectives of Development
– Increase availability of life-sustaining goods
– Raise levels of living
– Expand range of economic and social choices
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-12
1.4 The Millennium Development Goals
• Millennium Development goals (MDGs)
– Eight goals adopted by the United Nations in
2000
• Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
• Achieve universal primary education
• Promote gender equality and empower women
• Reduce child mortality
• Improve maternal health
• Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
• Ensure environmental sustainability
• Develop a global partnership for development
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-13
Table 1.1 Millennium Development Goals and
Targets for 2015
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-14
Table 1.1 Millennium Development Goals and
Targets for 2015 (cont’d)
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-15
1.5 Conclusions
• The importance of Development Economics
• Inclusion of non-economic variables in
designing development strategies
• Achieving the Millennium Development
Goals
• “…One future-or none at all”
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-16
Concepts for Review
• Absolute Poverty
• Attitudes
• Capabilities
• Developing countries
• Development
• Development economics
• Freedom
• Functionings
• Globalization
• Gross domestic product
• Gross national income
(GNI)
• Income per capita
• Institutions
• Less developed countries
(LDCs)
• Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs)
• More developed countries
(MDCs)
• Political economy
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
1-17
Concepts for Review (cont’d)
• Self-esteem
• Social system
• Subsistence economy
• Sustenance
• Traditional economics
• Values
1 de 17

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M01 todaro smith013934_11_econ_c01

  • 1. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 Introducing Economic Development: A Global Perspective
  • 2. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-2 1.1 How the Other Half Live When one is poor, she has no say in public, she feels inferior. She has no food, so there is famine in her house; no clothing, and no progress in her family. —A poor woman from Uganda For a poor person everything is terrible—illness, humiliation, shame. We are cripples; we are afraid of everything; we depend on everyone. No one needs us. We are like garbage that everyone wants to get rid of. —A blind woman from Tiraspol, Moldova Life in the area is so precarious that the youth and every able person have to migrate to the towns or join the army at the war front in order to escape the hazards of hunger escalating over here. —Participant in a discussion group in rural Ethiopia
  • 3. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-3 1.1 How the Other Half Live • When food was in abundance, relatives used to share it. These days of hunger, however not even relatives would help you by giving you some food. —Young man in Nichimishi, Zambia • We have to line up for hours before it is our turn to draw water. —Mbwadzulu Village (Mangochi), Malawi • [Poverty is] . . . low salaries and lack of jobs. And it’s also not having medicine, food, and clothes. --Discussion group, Brazil • Don’t ask me what poverty is because you have met it outside my house. Look at the house and count the number of holes. Look at the utensils and the clothes I am wearing. Look at everything and write what you see. What you see is poverty. —Poor man in Kenya • A universal theme reflected in these seven quotes is that poverty is more than lack of income – it is inherently multidimensional, as is economic development.
  • 4. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-4 1.2 Economics and Development Studies – The Nature of Development Economics • Greater scope than traditional neoclassical economics and political economy. – Why Study Development Economics? Some Critical Questions – The Important Role of Values in Development Economics
  • 5. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-5 Figure 1.1 World Income Distribution
  • 6. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-6 1.2 Economics and Development Studies • Economies as Social Systems: The Need to Go Beyond Simple Economics • Social Systems – Interdependent relationships between economic and non- economic factors • Success or failure of development policy – Importance of taking account of institutional and structural variables along with more traditional economic variables
  • 7. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-7 1.3 What Do We Mean by Development? • Traditional Economic Measures – Gross National Income (GNI) – Income per capita – Utility of that income? • The New Economic View of Development – Leads to improvement in wellbeing, more broadly understood • Amartya Sen’s “Capability” Approach – Functionings as an achievement – Capabilities as freedoms enjoyed in terms of functionings – Development and happiness – Well being in terms of being well and having freedoms of choice – “Beings and Doings”:
  • 8. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-8 Some Key “Capabilities” • Some Important “Beings” and “Doings” in Capability to Function: – Being able to live long – Being well-nourished – Being healthy – Being literate – Being well-clothed – Being mobile – Being able to take part in the life of the community – Being happy – as a state of being - may be valued as a functioning
  • 9. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-9 1.3 What Do We Mean by Development? (cont’d) • Three Core Values of Development – Sustenance: The Ability to Meet Basic Needs – Self-Esteem: To Be a Person – Freedom from Servitude: To Be Able to Choose
  • 10. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-10 Figure 1.2 Income and Happiness: Comparing Countries
  • 11. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-11 1.3 What Do We Mean by Development? (cont’d) • The Central Role of Women – To make the biggest impact on development, societies must empower and invest in women • The Three Objectives of Development – Increase availability of life-sustaining goods – Raise levels of living – Expand range of economic and social choices
  • 12. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-12 1.4 The Millennium Development Goals • Millennium Development goals (MDGs) – Eight goals adopted by the United Nations in 2000 • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • Achieve universal primary education • Promote gender equality and empower women • Reduce child mortality • Improve maternal health • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases • Ensure environmental sustainability • Develop a global partnership for development
  • 13. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-13 Table 1.1 Millennium Development Goals and Targets for 2015
  • 14. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-14 Table 1.1 Millennium Development Goals and Targets for 2015 (cont’d)
  • 15. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-15 1.5 Conclusions • The importance of Development Economics • Inclusion of non-economic variables in designing development strategies • Achieving the Millennium Development Goals • “…One future-or none at all”
  • 16. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-16 Concepts for Review • Absolute Poverty • Attitudes • Capabilities • Developing countries • Development • Development economics • Freedom • Functionings • Globalization • Gross domestic product • Gross national income (GNI) • Income per capita • Institutions • Less developed countries (LDCs) • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) • More developed countries (MDCs) • Political economy
  • 17. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-17 Concepts for Review (cont’d) • Self-esteem • Social system • Subsistence economy • Sustenance • Traditional economics • Values