2. What is Poultry
• There are different classes of poultry
• These are usually based on the birds
age and gender.
3. •Poultry is similar to meat in
structure. Both poultry and
meat are made up of
muscle, connective tissue,
fat, and bone. Poultry flesh
is made up of protein, water,
and fat. The fat in all types
of poultry is found just
underneath the skin.
4. Poultry Nutrition
•Poultry is packed with protein. A 3½-ounce
roasted chicken breast with skin has about
197 calories, 30 grams of protein, 84
milligrams of cholesterol, and 7.8 grams of
6. The United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) categorizes poultry according to
species, or kind. The kinds of poultry include
chicken, turkey, goose, duck, pigeon, and
guinea. Each kind of poultry is divided into
different classes based on the age and gender
of the bird. (See Figure 22.1.)
7. TYPES OF POULTRY DESCRIPTION
Cornish hen Young (5–6 weeks); very
Young (9–12 weeks), male or female;
Young (3–5 months), male or female;
Capon Male, under 10 months; very tender
Stewer Mature female, over 10 months; tough
Fryer-roaster Young bird, male (tom) or female (hen); tender
Mature or old turkey
Hen or tom, with tender flesh but firmer cartilage
Fully mature, but tender
Hen or tom with tough flesh and coarse skin
Young goose Under 6 months; tender
Mature goose Over 6 months; tough
Broiler or fryer duckling Young, with soft windpipe; tender
Young, with hardening windpipe; tender
Old, with tough flesh
Squab 3–4 weeks; light, tender
Pigeon Over 4 weeks; dark, tough meat
Under 6 months; tender
Up to 12 months; tough
FIGURE 22.1 Poultry Classifications
8. Maturity and Tenderness
The older the bird the
tougher the meat
We want to select birds that
are younger and less mature.
The older the bird the more
muscle they will have built.
This causes the meat to be
9. Dark vs. Light Meat
• Birds that rarely fly have light colored
wing and breast meat. (Chickens and
• Light meat has less fat and cooks faster
than dark meat.
• Parts of the bird that has more muscle
(connective tissue) are darker in color.
• The thighs and legs have more muscle.
• These parts take longer to cook.
• Duck and Goose are composed mostly of
10. Purchasing Poultry
• Poultry can be purchased in
• You can buy fresh, frozen, or fully
• When poultry is prepared and
ready to cook it is called ready to
cook or RTC.
• Class depends on age and gender.
11. • Male birds have tougher meat
than female birds.
• Judging Quality:
• Check color: should be cream to
yellow, Avoid birds with purple
or green bruising, dark wing
tips, these are indications of
• Check odor: Uncooked poultry
should not have a strong odor or
12. Place the bird on the cutting board, breast
side down, and remove the wings at the
Turn the bird on its side, grasp the breast,
and begin cutting between the breast and
the leg. Turn the bird over and repeat.
2 Pull the leg back and cut along the
backbone to remove the leg. Turn the bird
over and repeat. Set the legs aside.
13. Cut along each side of the backbone
toward the front of the breast. Then,
remove the entire backbone.
4 Use the tip of the knife to expose the
breast- bones and ribs.
Grasp the back of the
breast and remove the
breast and keel bones.
6 Lay the boneless breast
on the cutting board and
split into two pieces.
7 To separate the drumstick
from the thigh, cut
between the joints.
Tie a slip knot in the twine to
Cut a piece of butcher’s twine
about three times the bird’s
Tuck the wings behind the back.
Tie the twine loosely around the
tail of the bird. Wrap the twine
around the legs, and cross in
Flip the bird over, and tie a knot in the
15. Inspection and Grading
• All poultry must be inspected by the
• Inspectors check to see if it has been
processed in sanitary conditions.
• If it passes inspection it will receive USDA
stamp of approval.
• All poultry should be graded.
• The highest grade poultry can receive is an
16. • Using grade A poultry allows
foodservice establishments to provide
better quality and a more consistent
• In order for a bird to receive an A:
–Must be plump and meaty
–Have clean skin
–No broken bones
17. When we use grades B and C
• Birds that do not meet the above
standards receive lower grades.
• Lower quality birds are processed to
make poultry products such as chicken
fingers and turkey pot pie!
18. Handling and Storage
• Fresh and Frozen poultry must be handled
• Poultry should be frozen immediately if it
is not going to be used right away.
• Fresh poultry should be used within 2-3
• Store frozen poultry below 0 degrees F
• Thawing poultry should be done in the
27. • belong to the
• contain nutrients
• vitamins A, B, D, K
• two large eggs equal a serving
• each egg contains approximately 80 calories
34. AA - yolk is firm and the area
covered by the white is small;
there is a large proportion of
thick white to thin white
A - yolk is round and
upstanding; the thick white is
large in proportion to the thin
white and stands fairly well
around the yolk
B - the yolk is flattened and
there is about as much or more
thin white as thick white
C - not sold in stores; may be
used in prepared mixes