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A Great epoch has begun. There exists a new spirit.Contemporary Architect
“Space and light and order. Those are the things that menneed just as much as they need bread or a place to sleep.”
Life story Original Name – Charles Edouard Jeanneret. Birth Date – October 6, 1887. Birth Place – LaChaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Second son of Edourad Jeanneret (dial painter) and Madame Jeanneret-Perrct (teacher). Influence - His familys Calvinism, love of the arts, and enthusiasm for the Jura Mountains. His Master - Charles LEplattenier, a teacher at the local art school. At thirteen, Le Corbusier abandoned matchmaking, and continued his studies in art and decoration, with the intention of becoming a painter. Insisted by his master to study architecture. Pioneer in studies of modern high design. Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of the crowded cities.
Contd… 1920’s – adopted his pseudonym. Architecture teacher in the art school – Rene Chapallaz. 1907 – traveled to Paris – found work in the office of Augeste Perret, the French pioneer of Reinforced Concrete. 1908 – Studied architecture. Between October 1910 and March 1911 – worked for renowned architect, Peter Behrens near Berlin. Taught at his old school during World War I. Worked in theoretical architectural studies using modern techniques. Began his own architectural practice in 1922 with his cousin, Pierre Jeanneret – partnership lasting 50 years. Established a new artistic movement, Purism in collaboration with Cubist painter, Amedee Ozenfant. Between 1918 & 1922, no building – concentrating his efforts on Purist theory and painting.
Contd… 1929 – Met entertainer and actress Josephine Baker while returning from South America to Europe. Practiced sketches by drawing nude images of Baker. Married Yvonne Gallis, a dressmaker and fashion model – died in 1957. Had a long extramarital affair with Swedish-American heiress Marguerite Tjader Harris. His first house, Villa Pallet. In Switzerland – designed a series of villas & embarked on a more theoretical study for a structural frame of reinforced concrete. VILLA PALLET Envisaged it as an affordable, prefabricated system for the construction of new housing – wake of World War I’s destruction. Developed with the help of Max Dubois and Perret, the system differed from the then standard Hennibique frame in its idealization of floors as flat slabs without exposed beams.
Contd… At the end of war – moved to Paris – worked on concrete structures under Government contracts – also ran a small brick manufacturing. Dedicated most of his efforts to the more influential, and lucrative, discipline of painting. Proposed an architecture – satisfying both the demands of industrial and the timeless concerns of architectural form. Included the first city plan, the Contemporary city. Proposed two housing types CONTEMPORARY CITY Vaulted Maison Maison Citrohan Monol
ARCHITECTURE CAREER During 1920’s – realized his first mature architecture in a series of villas. Foundation of architecture – Dom-ino House (1914-1915) Proposed an open floor plan consisting of concrete slabs supported by a minimal number of thin, reinforced concrete columns around the edges, with a stairway providing access to each level on one side of the floor plan. DOM-INO HOUSE
IDEAS The Modular: Use of Golden ratio for the scale of architectural proportion. Use of human measurements, Fibonacci series and the double unit. ○ E.g..:- 1927 Villa Stein, Graches. Placed system of harmony VILLA STEIN and proportion at the centre of his design philosophy. Furniture: “Chairs are architecture, sofas are bourgeois” Started experimenting in 1928.
influence Most influential in the sphere of urban planning. City of the future – large apartment buildings isolated in a park like setting on pilotis. Heavily influenced by problems he saw in industrial cities at the turn of 19th to 20th century. Leader of the modernist movement to create better living conditions & a better society through housing concepts.
Carpenter center It is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Building type – University art center. It is built with the reinforced cast-in-place concrete masonry. It is his only major building in the United States – designed to house classes in architecture, film and other arts.
Contd… It is designed with the collaboration of Chilean architect Guillermo Jullian de la Fuente. The building was completed in 1963. He never actually saw the building. No architecture style was involved in it. It is governed by the Harvard University. Its wonderful collection of concrete forms bring together many of the design principles and devices from his earlier works. Its concrete has a smooth, precise finish; tall, thin columns break up its interior spaces. A great curvilinear ramp bisects the structure and connects the main stair and an exhibition space.
Contd… At the heart is the cubic volume from which curved studios pull away from one another on the diagonal. The whole is cut through by an S-shaped ramp which rises from one street and descends towards the other. The layers and levels swing out and back from the grid of concrete pilotis within, making most of cantilevering to create interpenetrations of exterior and interior. Also a sequence of spatial events is linked by the promenade architecture of the ramp.
Contd… From Quincy street there are two possible approaches to the building: up the ramp or down to the main gallery entrance. The ramp was intended to be the centerpiece of the building, taking people directly to its center. This ramp provides an impressive experience. Different type of lightings was designed at different times of day. The use of concrete pilotis elevated the building above the ground. The pilotis extended the landscape beneath the building. When site plan was being drawn up, he suggested that all the tree locations be marked with a high level of precision. But, in the final design, he aligned some of the pilots with the existing tress. The pilotis vary in diameter throughout the building, depending on the load they are forced to carry. In many places these pilotis are designed to give the building a feeling of freedom.
Contd… It was built with a philosophical belief that a visual arts building should demostrate innovation and creativity. There is a definite relationship between the brick of the surrounding buildings and the concrete and glass of the carpenter center. Unlike brick, the light colored concrete reflects morning sun and captures afternoon shadows, from trees and other elements. The curved surface of the concrete compress or elongate these shadows, giving them visual life as the angle of the sun changes.
Contd… Extensive cantilevering and a reliance on reinforced concrete to create large areas of open space. It is fully of load-bearing columns. All the five levels of the building are designed to be configurable through movable partitions. Every time you go, you see a new thing in this building.
Centre Le Corbusier•The Centre Le Corbusier or Heidi WeberMuseum is an artmuseum in Zürich (Switzerland) dedicated tothe work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier.•This building should exhibit his works of art inan ideal environment created by the architecthimself.•It is the last building designed by LeCorbusier marking a radical change of hisachievement of using concrete and stone,framed in steel and glass, in the 1960s createdas a signpost for the future.•Le Corbusier made intensive use ofprefabricated steel elements combined withmulti-coloured enamelled plates fitted to thecentral core, and above the complex he designeda free-floating roof to keep the house protectedfrom the rain and the sun.
•The Centre Le Corbusier is a"Gesamtkunstwerk", i.e. a total work ofart, and reflects the harmonic unity ofLe Corbusiers architecture,sculptures, paintings, furniture designsand his writings which is unique andpossibly the only one such existingstructure in the world.•The museum is listed as a Swissheritage site of national significance.
Villa Savoye•Villa Savoye (Frenchpronunciation: [savwa]) isa modernist villa in Poissy, inthe outskirts ofParis, France.•It was designedby Swiss architects LeCorbusier and PierreJeanneret, and built between1928 and 1931•A manifesto of Le Corbusiers "five points" of new architecture, the villa is representative of the bases ofmodern architecture, and is one of themost easily recognizable and renownedexamples of the International style.
•The Villa Savoye is probably Corbusiersbest known building from the 1920s, it hadenormous influence on internationalmodernism.•It was designed addressing hisemblematic "Five Points", the basic tenetsin his new architectural aesthetic: •Support of ground-level pilotis, elevating the building from the earth and allowed an extended continuity of the garden beneath. •Functional roof, serving as a garden and terrace, reclaiming for nature the land occupied by the building. •Free floor plan, relieved of load- bearing walls, allowing walls to be placed freely and only where aesthetically needed. •Long horizontal windows, providing illumination and ventilation. •Freely-designed facades, serving as only as a skin of the wall and windows and unconstrained by load-bearing considerations.
•Unlike his earlier town villas Corbusier was able tocarefully design all four sides of the Villa Savoye inresponse to the view and the orientation of the sun.•On the ground floor he placed the main entrance hall,ramp and stairs, garage, chauffeur and maids rooms.•At first floor the master bedroom, the sons bedroom,guest bedroom, kitchen, salon and external terraces.•The salon was orientated to the north west whilst theterrace faced the south.•The sons bedroom faced the south east and the kitchenand service terrace were on the north east.•At second floor level were a series of sculpted spaces thatformed a solarium.
ChandigarhIn 1950 invited by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to design thecity.Chandigarh – Provisional capital of Punjab.Commencing of work started in 1951 until his death in 1965.Design • Grid Iron Plan • Hierarchy of movement from highways to pedestrian walkways. • Metaphor of a human being. • Head – Capital Complex. • Heart – Commercial Centre. • Arms – Academic and Leisure Facilities. • Incorporated his principles of light, space and greenary.
Contd… Divided the city into different sectors. Each sector having the residential and commercial zones. Planning was done in such a way that a tourist can also find his own way. Maps displayed along the walkways and footpaths. Roads Designed and oriented in such a way that most of the time during the day, they are under shadow. Huge parking areas for the commercial zones. Parking lanes – broad as main roads. Pedestrian walkways segregated from the main road with the help of wide lawn strip. Huge gardens along the main roads.
Urban and Architectural Work of Le Corbusier in Chandigarh•The city of Chandigarh is situated atthe base of the Shiwalik Range of theHimalayas, at 333m above sea level,approximately 260 km northwest ofIndias capital, New Delhi.•The site is a gently sloping plain, withtwo seasonal rivulets - Patiali-ki-Raoand Sukhna Choe -marking itsnorthwest and southeast boundaries.• The city forms the urban core of the"Union Territory of Chandigarh", whichhas a total area of 114 sq km. All of theurban and architectural work of LeCorbusier listed in this document islocated within Chandigarhs "PhaseOne", an area of approximately 70 sq.km. which can be regarded as the citys"Historic Core."
•The most significant role played by LeCorbusier in Chandigarh was in conceivingthe citys present urban form.•It is the well-ordered matrix of his generic‘neighborhood unit and the hierarchicalcirculation pattern of his ‘7Vs that hasgiven Chandigarh its distinctive character.•The Matrix comprises a regular grid of thefast traffic V3 roads which define eachneighbourhood unit, the ‘Sector.•The Sector itself was conceived as a self-sufficient and - in a radical departure fromother precedents and contemporarousconcepts - a completely introverted unit,but was connected with the adjoining onesthrough its V4 - the shopping street, as wellas the bands of open space that cut across •The vertical green belts, with thein the opposite direction. pedestrian V7, contained sites for•Day-to-day facilities for shopping, schools and sports activities.healthcare, recreation and the like werearrayed along the V4 - all on the shadyside.
•Besides determining the citys urban form, Le Corbusier, as the "SpiritualDirector" of the entire Chandigarh Capitol Project, was also responsible fordesigning the key ‘Special Areas of the city, each of which contains severalindividual buildings.•The most significant of these is the ‘Capitol Parc - the ‘head and la raisondêtre of the entire enterprise.•A parallel undertaking - one of almost equal significance as the Capitol, wasLe Corbusiers design of the citys ‘heart, the City Centre. In time, the designof the ‘Cultural Complex along the ‘Leisure Valley, including the GovernmentMuseum and Art Gallery and the College of Art (L-Cs Centre for Audio-visualTraining), as well as some other smaller works (such as the Boat Club andparts of the Sukhna Lake, which essentially were seen as integral parts ofthe Capitol parc) were also undertaken by him.
National Museum of Western Art •The National Museum of Western Art is the premier public art gallery in Japan specializing in art from the Western tradition. •The Museum is located in the museum and zoo complex in Ueno Park in Taito, central Tokyo. •This popular Tokyo museum is also known by the English acronym NMWA (National Museum of Western Art).•Externally the building is clad inprefabricated concrete panels which sit onU-shaped frames supported by the innerwall. T•The building generally is constructed ofreinforced concrete and the columns havea smooth concrete finish.
•The museum is square in plan with the mainbody of the galleries raised on piloti to firstfloor level. The layout is influenced by LeCorbusiers Sanskar Kendra museum inAhmedabad which was being designed at thesame time.•Entrance for visitors is at ground floor levelvia the 19th Century Hall.•This double height space is lit from abovewith a north glazed pyramidal skylightintersected with reinforced concrete beamsand a column.•On the opposite side of the hall from theentrance, the ascent to the paintings gallery isvia a promenade ramp which affords betterviews of Rodins scupltures.•The paintings gallery wraps around 19thCentury Hall, the ceiling is initially low but israised to two storeys around the perimeter todisplay the paintings.
•There are also balconies at this level that push back into the 19th Century Hall to re-orient the visitor.•Le Corbusier designed the paintings gallery to be lit by natural daylight via four lighting troughs, but these are no longer used and the galleries are now artificially lit.