1. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
(Hygiene Factor and Motivator)
Federick Herzberg found out that factors responsible for job satisfaction were
different from those that cause job dissatisfaction from which the motivator-
hygiene theory was developed to explain the factors.
Herzberg called the satisfiers, motivators, and dissatisfiers, hygiene factors. The
table below some motivators and hygiene factors; at the point, the
identification of these two is crucial for terminology purposes.
Discussions at the foot of the table will further illustrate their meanings and
applications in management. More discussions on implications on management
are discussed at bottom of page.
Hygiene Factors Motivators
Company policy Achievement
Relationship with management Work itself
Work conditions Responsibility
Salary, Profit Sharing, Bonus Schemes Advancement
Relationship with co-workers Growth
Hygiene factors (inter-personal, work-
extrinsic, general work environment in
the firm, including salary) are
important to avoid dissatisfaction. A
minimum level must be reached so
that the employee would not feel
dissatisfied. However, if the level
should be above that minimum level,
the employee would not feel satisfied.
Motivators (personal, work-intrinsic,
and rewards) are important because
the higher the level of motivators, the
more satisfied the employees
become. Levels of motivators and
satisfaction are positively correlated,
and motivators are good for increasing
satisfaction, but not for avoiding
Management has to consider motivators and hygiene factors for decision making
on motivation. They are inseparable.
The use of hygiene factors and motivators in management are symbiotic. There
is always the possibility that an employee may feel dissatisfied and less satisfied
at the same time. Management should ensure non-dissatisfaction, and also
increased level of satisfaction for optimality in productivity.
Understanding the roles played by hygiene factors and motivators underlies the
different prescriptions to solve the two different management problems.