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10 user centered design

UCD, UX Usability

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10 user centered design

  1. 1. MedTech Dr. Lilia SFAXI www.liliasfaxi.wix.com/liliasfaxi Chapter 9 – User-Centered Design UX, Usability and Graphical Design 1 MedTech – Mediterranean Institute of Technology CS321-Software Engineering MedTech
  2. 2. MedTech USER-CENTERED DESIGN User-Centered Design 2
  3. 3. MedTech User-Centered Design • Often, systems are designed with a focus on: - Business goals - Fancy features - Technological capabilities of hardware and software tools • These approaches omit the most important part of the process: the end user • User-Centered Design (UCD) - Iterative methodology that puts the user at the center of all design decisions - Process of designing a tool (such as the user interface) from the perspective of how it will be understood and used by a human user 3 User-Centered Design
  4. 4. MedTech UCD: Goal • Optimize a user’s experience of a system, product or process - Considers the user perspectives during all phases of the development lifecycle • User Perspectives - Needs and wants - Goals, motivations and triggers - Obstacles and limitations - Tasks, activities and behaviors - Geography and language - Environment and gear - Work life and experience 4 User-Centered Design
  5. 5. MedTech UCD : Philosophy From system-centered design, to user-centered design The system adapts to the user, not the opposite! 5 User-Centered Design System-Centered Design • Component focus • System driven (use cases) • Product defect view of quality • Focus on system robustness User-Centered Design • Solutions focus • Real-world scenario driven • Task success view of quality • Focus on UI robustness
  6. 6. MedTech UCD: Principles • Early focus on users, tasks and environment - Structured and systematic information gathering (interviews, observation, etc.) - Users are involved throughout design and development • Empirical measurement and testing - Testing with real users - Focus on ease of learning and ease of use • Iterative Design - Product designed, modified and tested repeatedly. - Allow for the complete overhaul and rethinking of design by early testing of conceptual models and design ideas. 6 User-Centered Design
  7. 7. MedTech UCD PROCESS User-Centered Design 7
  8. 8. MedTech UCD Process Example 8 UCD Process
  9. 9. MedTech Step 1 - Analysis 9 UCD Process • Meet with key stakeholders to set vision • Include usability tasks in the project plan • Assemble a multidisciplinary team to ensure complete expertise • Develop usability goals and objectives • Conduct field studies • Look at competitive products • Create user profiles • Develop a task analysis • Analyze information architecture • Document user scenarios • Document user performance requirements
  10. 10. MedTech Steps 2&3 - Design & Evaluation 10 UCD Process • Design - Conceptual/Mental model, metaphors, design concepts - Navigation design - Storyboards, wireframes - Detailed design - Paper prototypes - Online mockups - Functional online prototypes • Evaluation (iterate back to design) - Design walkthroughs ("cognitive walkthroughs") - Heuristic evaluation - Guidelines reviews - Usability testing ✴ Paper, low-fidelity, high-fidelity, informal, formal,…
  11. 11. MedTech UCD and Agile 11 UCD Process • Move UCD deliverables to a quarterly management cycle • New features and functionality gained from field study and usability tests should be reviewed and prioritized at every new monthly build review meeting • Cascade usability finding to agile review cycles
  12. 12. MedTech UCD DISCIPLINES User-Centered Design 12
  13. 13. MedTech UCD Disciplines • Usability • User Experience • Accessibility • Information Architecture • Interaction Design • Visual Design 13 UCD Disciplines
  14. 14. MedTech Usability • Main Objective of UCD: Create products with a high degree of Usability • Usability - Extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness and satisfaction in a specified context of use • Usability depends on how well: - The functionality fits the user needs? - The flow through the application fits user tasks? - The response of the application fits the user expectations? • Usability is the quality of a system that makes it easy to learn, easy to use, easy to remember, error tolerant, and subjectively pleasing. 14 UCD Disciplines
  15. 15. MedTech Usability vs. UCD • How to achieve a high degree of usability? - Employ iterative design ✴ Progressively refines the design through evaluation from the early stages of design - Test actual users on a working system ✴ Focusing design efforts on the intended end-user of the system • Just make the distinction: - Usability is not UCD - Usability is an outcome of UCD practices - Usability is a result, a goal, a field while UCD is a methodology 15 UCD Disciplines
  16. 16. MedTech Usability Objectives • Usefulness - Product enables the user to achieve his goals, and the tasks it is supposed to carry out • Effectiveness - Ease of use - Quantitatively measured by speed of performance or error rates • Learnability - Ease of learning - User’s ability to operate the system to some defined level of competence after some predetermined period of training - Ability for infrequent users to relearn the system • Attitude/Likability - User’s perceptions, feelings and opinions of the product => User eXperience 16 UCD Disciplines
  17. 17. MedTech User-Experience • Behavior, attitude and emotions of a user when he uses a product, system or service • Includes practical, experimental, emotional and human-machine interaction aspects • Concerns - Utility of the product - Ease of use of the product - Efficiency of the product • Very subjective notion, as it depends on the considered person • Dynamic notion, as it evolves with time - Depending on the circumstances of use - Depending on the habits and trends of the user 17 UCD Disciplines
  18. 18. MedTech UX vs UI UI: User Interface Technical: What the users manipulate to interact with the product UX: User eXperience Emotional: What the users feel when using the product 18 UCD Disciplines
  19. 19. MedTech User-Experience Design • User Experience Design (UXD) entails conducting user research exercises with intended user of a system • Reveals users' needs and preferences through : - User observations - One-to-one interviews - Creative activities that encourage users to express their emotions, motivations and underlying concepts and beliefs • Why is Style and Design important? - The form must follow the function ✴ What is the intended message the system wants to send? - Consistency ✴ If it looks the same, it should act the same.. 19 UCD Disciplines
  20. 20. MedTech Factors Influencing UX • Useful - The content should be original and fulfill a need • Usable - The product must be easy to use • Desirable - Image, identity, brand, and other design elements are used to evoke emotion and appreciation • Findable - Any needed content needs to be navigable and locatable • Accessible - Content needs to be accessible to people with difficulties • Credible - Users must trust and believe what the product communicates 20 UCD Disciplines Usable desirable Useful findable credible accessible Valuable User Experience Honeycomb - Peter Morville
  21. 21. MedTech Garrett’s Elements of User Experience 21 UCD Disciplines
  22. 22. MedTech Garrett’s Elements of User Experience 22 UCD Disciplines Business Goals
  23. 23. MedTech Garrett’s Elements of User Experience 23 UCD Disciplines Possible user operations in the UI Functional Specification & Content Requirement
  24. 24. MedTech Garrett’s Elements of User Experience 24 UCD Disciplines Navigation from Place to Place in the UI
  25. 25. MedTech Garrett’s Elements of User Experience 25 UCD Disciplines Screen Layout and Functional Compartments
  26. 26. MedTech Garrett’s Elements of User Experience 26 UCD Disciplines Finished Visual Design Aspects
  27. 27. MedTech Accessibility • Users vary by language, gender, age, culture, preferences and interests • In software engineering, other differences must be addressed - Skills, ability levels, constraints of use • Consider disability: - 1 in 5 people in US has a disability - Almost 30 million people are impacted by inaccessible computer and software design • Design for diversity - Increases the number of people able to access the software - Increases their level of involvement in it 27 UCD Disciplines
  28. 28. MedTech Accessibility Basics • Incorporate accessibility early and throughout the project - Decreases the time and money to design accessible products - Increases the positive impact that accessibility can have on design overall • Involving people with disabilities in your project - High ROI (Return on Investment) - If difficult, get training from an accessibility consultant - Start with people fairly experienced with products like yours, then switch to novices • Interacting with people with disabilities - Respect the person and see them beyond their disability - Do a little research to ensure that you use widely-accepted terminology and avoid potentially offensive terminology - Get to know them until you are comfortable and able to see the real issues and challenges 28 UCD Disciplines
  29. 29. MedTech Interacting with Disabled People : Recommandations • Don’t make assumptions about people or their disabilities - Don’t assume you know what they want or need - If a person with disability prefers one way, it doesn’t mean another will prefer it the same way • Ask before you help, even if they seem to be struggling… • Talk directly to the person, not to the interpreter or friend • Speak normally, not louder or slower… • Use « people-first » language - Put the person first and the disability second - Say, for example: «  a man who is blind », instead of «  a blind man » • Avoid potentially offensive terms or euphemisms - Ask them what terms they prefer - Say, for example: « blind » instead of «  visually impaired » • Be aware of personal space - Don’t touch, move or lean on their mobility aids 29 UCD Disciplines
  30. 30. MedTech Information Architecture • How to create intuitive navigation schemes for software • Applies to any kind of software application • Should be designed to make it easier for the users to find desired information or functionality • Can add important context to the current page - When a user begins the visit from within the website (having come directly from a search engine for example) • An information architect must create navigation schemes for software that are at once concise, descriptive, mutually-exclusive, and possessive of information scent. - Information scent: cues used in an information display that help people locate and navigate to relevant information 30 UCD Disciplines
  31. 31. MedTech Information Architecture: Tips • Navigation should: - Be easy to learn. - Be consistent throughout the software. - Provide feedback, such as the use of breadcrumbs to indicate how to navigate back to where the user started. - Use the minimum number of clicks to arrive at the next destination. - Use clear and intuitive labels, based on the user’s perspective and terminology. - Support user tasks. - Have each link be distinct from other links. - Group navigation into logical units. - Avoid making the user scroll to get to important navigation or submit buttons. - Not disable the browser’s back button. 31 UCD Disciplines
  32. 32. MedTech Information Architecture: Steps 1. Find out what the mission or purpose of the website is:  why will people come to your site? 2. Determine the immediate and long-range goals of the site:  are they different? 3. Pinpoint the intended audiences and conduct a requirements analysis for each group. 4. Collect site content and develop a content inventory. 5. Determine the website’s organizational structure, which can include: - hierarchical - narrow and deep - broad and shallow - sequential - tag-based 32 UCD Disciplines
  33. 33. MedTech Information Architecture: Steps 6. Create an outline of the site, which can include: - Content Inventory: a hierarchical view of the site content, typically in a spreadsheet format, which briefly describes the content that should appear on each page and indicates where pages belong in terms of global and local navigation. - Site Maps: visual diagrams that reflect site navigation and main content areas. They are usually constructed to look like flowcharts and show how users will navigate from one section to another. Other formats may also indicate the relationships between pages on the site. 33 UCD Disciplines
  34. 34. MedTech Content Inventory Example 34 UCD Disciplines
  35. 35. MedTech Site Map Example 35 UCD Disciplines
  36. 36. MedTech Information Architecture: Steps 7. Create a visual blueprint of the site, which can include Wireframes - Rough illustrations of page content and structure, which may also indicate how users will interact with the website. - These diagrams get handed off to a visual designer, who will establish page layout and visual design. - Wireframes are useful for communicating early design ideas and inform the designer and the client of exactly what information, links, content, promotional space, and navigation will be on every page of the site. - Wireframes may illustrate design priorities in cases where various types of information appear to be competing. 36 UCD Disciplines
  37. 37. MedTech Wireframe Example 37 UCD Disciplines
  38. 38. MedTech Information Architecture: Steps 8. Define the navigation systems: - Global navigation: Global navigation is the primary means of navigation through a software. Global navigation links appear on every page of the site, typically as a menu located at the top or side of each web page. - Local navigation: Local links may appear as text links within the content of a page or as a submenu for a section of the website. Local navigation generally appears in the left-hand margin of a web page and sometimes is placed below the global navigation. - Utility links: Utility links appear in the header or footer of every page. These may include infrequently used links such as: Contact Us, About Us, Customer Support, Customer Feedback, Privacy Policy, Terms of Use, Site Map, Press Room, etc. Search boxes often appear in the header of the site as well, so the Search feature is available on every page of the site. 9. Conduct user research: - Once you have a draft navigation structure, conduct appropriate usability research to collect feedback from the target audience. 38 UCD Disciplines
  39. 39. MedTech Interaction Design • Design of interactive products and services • Particularly concerns the way people interact with products and services. • Can be examined through five dimensions - Words (1D) encompass text, such as button labels, that help convey the right amount of information to users.  - Visual representations (2D) are graphical elements such as images, typography, and icons that aid in user interaction.  - Physical objects/space (3D) involves the medium through which users interact with the product or service—for instance, a laptop via a mouse, or a mobile phone via fingers.  - Time (4D) relates to media that changes with time, such as animations, videos, and sounds.  - Behavior (5D) is concerned with how the previous four dimensions define the interactions a product affords—for instance, how users can perform actions on a website, or how users can operate a car. Behavior is also about how the product reacts to the users’ inputs and provides feedback. 39 UCD Disciplines
  40. 40. MedTech Visual Design • Focuses on the aesthetics of a product and its related materials by strategically implementing images, colors, fonts, and other elements • A successful visual design - does not take away from the content on the page or function.  - enhances it by engaging users and helping to build trust and interest in the brand. • Visual Design Elements - Lines  - Shapes  - Color palette  - Texture  - Typography  - Form  40 UCD Disciplines
  41. 41. MedTech Visual Design: Principles • Unity has to do with all elements on a page visually or conceptually appearing to belong together. Visual design must strike a balance between unity and variety to avoid a dull or overwhelming design. • Gestalt, in visual design, helps users perceive the overall design as opposed to individual elements. If the design elements are arranged properly, the Gestalt of the overall design will be very clear. • Space is “defined when something is placed in it”, according to Alex White in his book, The Elements of Graphic Design. Incorporating space into a design helps reduce noise, increase readability, and/or create illusion. White space is an important part of your layout strategy. • Hierarchy shows the difference in significance between items.  Designers often create hierarchies through different font sizes, colors, and placement on the page. Usually, items at the top are perceived as most important. 41 UCD Disciplines
  42. 42. MedTech Visual Design: Principles • Balance creates the perception that there is equal distribution.  This does not always imply that there is symmetry. • Contrast focuses on making items stand out by emphasizing differences in size, color, direction, and other characteristics. • Scale identifies a range of sizes; it creates interest and depth by demonstrating how each item relates to each other based on size. • Dominance focuses on having one element as the focal point and others being subordinate.  This is often done through scaling and contrasting based on size, color, position, shape, etc. • Similarity refers to creating continuity throughout a design without direct duplication. Similarity is used to make pieces work together over an interface and help users learn the interface quicker. 42 UCD Disciplines
  43. 43. MedTech Visual Design: Example 43 UCD Disciplines
  44. 44. MedTech UCD TECHNIQUES User-Centered Design 44
  45. 45. MedTech Use Cases • Describe the interactions between an individual and the rest of the world • Normally include details about an interaction represented with series of simple steps to achieve a goal • Normally expressed in a two-column table: Actor/World • Helps making problems easier for the designer - Because it breaks the complicated tasks into smaller bits • Helps identify useful levels of design work 45 UCD Techniques
  46. 46. MedTech Personas • Fictional character with all the characteristics of the user - Illustrate a typical profile of a user in a target segment • An effective persona - Represents a major user group - Expresses and focuses on the major needs and expectations of the most important user groups - Gives a clear picture of the user’s expectations and how they’re likely to use the product - Aids in uncovering universal features and functionality - Describes real people with backgrounds, goals and values • A persona - Must have a name, a picture and be considered as a real man or woman - Has descriptive information: age, gender, address, job, etc. - Has a motivation for using the product - Has a quote that sums up what matters most to the persona as it relates to your site 46 UCD Disciplines
  47. 47. MedTech Personas: Best Practices • Conduct user research: Answer the following questions: Who are your users and why are they using the system? What behaviors, assumptions, and expectations color their view of the system? • Condense the research: Look for themes/characteristics that are specific, relevant, and universal to the system and its users. • Brainstorm: Organize elements into persona groups that represent your target users. Name or classify each group. • Refine: Combine and prioritize the rough personas. Separate them into primary, secondary, and, if necessary, complementary categories. You should have roughly 3-5 personas and their identified characteristics. • Make them realistic: Develop the appropriate descriptions of each personas background, motivations, and expectations. Do not include a lot of personal information. Be relevant and serious; humor is not appropriate. 47 UCD Disciplines
  48. 48. MedTech Personas: Example 48 UCD Disciplines
  49. 49. MedTech Scenarios • A fictional story about the daily life or a sequence of events where personas are the main character of the story • The story should be specific of the events happening that relate to the problems of the primary stakeholder group • Are based on assumptions and data • Create a social context in which the personas exist (in the actual physical world) • Consider: - Who is the user? Use the personas that have been developed to reflect the real, major user groups coming to your site. - Why does the user come to the site?  Note what motivates the user to come to the site and their expectations upon arrival, if any. - What goals does he/she have? Through task analysis, you can better understand the what the user wants on your site and therefore what the site must have for them to leave satisfied.  49 UCD Techniques
  50. 50. MedTech Scenarios : Types • Goal- or Task-Based Scenarios  - State only what the user wants to do, do not include any information on how the user would complete the scenario.  - Useful in helping to define your site architecture and content. - Should be given to users in a usability test. It gives them a reason and a goal for going to the site, but it lets them show you how they would use the site to accomplish that goal. • Elaborated Scenarios - Give more user story details. - Give a deeper understanding of the users and users’ characteristics that may help or hinder site interaction. - Knowing this information, the team is more likely to develop content, functionality, and site behavior that users find comfortable and easy to work with. • Full Scale Task Scenarios - Include the steps to accomplish the task. - Either report all the steps that a specific user currently takes or it can describe the steps you plan to set up for users in the new site. - Very similar to use cases, but they lay out the steps from the user's point of view rather than from the website's point of view. 50 UCD Techniques
  51. 51. MedTech Screening Techniques • Simple activities to help identify potential accessibility barriers in product designs. • Interacting with a product with one or more physical or sensory abilities eliminated or modified - for example, wearing thick gloves to limit your dexterity, and wearing low vision glasses or blindfolds to limit your vision. • Involve using adaptive strategies, assistive devices, and assistive technologies. - For example, a software designer turns off her monitor and uses a screen reader to interact with her application • Screening techniques are not disability simulations. - They do not replicate the real-life experiences of people with disabilities, as people with disabilities are likely to do much better using a product than people who are using screening techniques, because they are used to interacting with products with their functional limitation. 51 UCD Techniques
  52. 52. MedTech Card Sorting • A method used to help design or evaluate the information architecture of a site • Participants organize topics into categories that make sense to them and they may also help you label these groups. • You can use actual cards, pieces of paper, or one of several online card-sorting software tools • Two types - Open card sort : Participants are asked to organize topics from content within your website into groups that make sense to them and then name each group they created in a way that they feel accurately describes the content. ✴ Use an open card sort to learn how users group content and the terms or labels they give each category. - Closed card sort : Participants are asked to sort topics from content within your website into pre-defined categories. ✴ Works best when you are working with a pre-defined set of categories, and you want to learn how users sort content items into each category. 52 UCD Techniques
  53. 53. MedTech Card Sorting 53 UCD Techniques
  54. 54. MedTech Prototyping • Draft version of a product that allows you to explore your ideas and show the intention behind a feature or the overall design concept to users before investing time and money into development. • Should be done early in the design process • Two types: - Low Fidelity Prototypes: often paper-based and do not allow user interactions.  Quicker to create. Enable early visualization of alternative design solutions, which helps provoke innovation and improvement. An additional advantage to this approach is that when using rough sketches, users may feel more comfortable suggesting changes. - High-Fidelity Prototypes: computer-based, and usually allow realistic (mouse- keyboard) user interactions. Assumed to be much more effective in collecting true human performance data (e.g., time to complete a task), and in demonstrating actual products to clients, management, and others. 54 UCD Techniques
  55. 55. MedTech Usability Testing • Evaluating a product or service by testing it with representative users. • Participants will try to complete typical tasks while observers watch, listen and take notes • Goal: - identify any usability problems, - collect qualitative and quantitative data, and - determine the participant's satisfaction with the product. • Steps for usability testing - Develop a test plan - Recruit participants - Analyze the findings 55 UCD Techniques
  56. 56. MedTech Usability Testing : Test Plan • Document : - what you are going to do, - how you are going to conduct the test, - what metrics you are going to capture, - number of participants you are going to test, and - what scenarios you will use. • Elements of a test plan - Scope: what you are testing - Purpose:  Identify the concerns, questions, and goals for this test.  - Schedule & Location:  Indicate when and where you will do the test. - Sessions:  Describe the sessions, their length (typically one hour to 90 minutes) 56 UCD Techniques
  57. 57. MedTech Usability Testing : Test Plan • Elements of a test plan (2) - Equipement:  Type of equipment you will be using in the test; - Participants: Number and types of participants to be tested you will be recruiting - Scenarios: number and types of tasks included in testing.  - Metrics: Subjective metrics: Include the questions you are going to ask the participants: ✴ prior to the sessions (e.g., background questionnaire), ✴ after each task scenario is completed (ease and satisfaction questions about the task), and ✴ overall ease, satisfaction and likelihood to use/recommend the software - Quantitative metrics: Indicate the quantitative data you will be measuring in your test (e.g., successful completion rates, error rates, time on task). - Roles:  Include a list of the staff who will participate in the usability testing and what role each will play. 57 UCD Techniques
  58. 58. MedTech Usability Testing : Test Metrics • Successful Task Completion:  The scenario is successfully completed when the participant indicates they have found the answer or completed the task goal.  • Critical Errors: Deviations at completion from the targets of the scenario. Essentially the participant will not be able to finish the task. Participant may or may not be aware that the task goal is incorrect or incomplete.  • Non-Critical Errors:  Non-critical errors are errors that are recovered by the participant and do not result in the participant’s inability to successfully complete the task. • Error-Free Rate:  Error-free rate is the percentage of test participants who complete the task without any errors (critical or non-critical errors). • Time On Task:  The amount of time it takes the participant to complete the task. • Subjective Measures: These evaluations are self-reported participant ratings for satisfaction, ease of use, ease of finding information, etc where participants rate the measure on a 5 to 7-point Likert scale. • Likes, Dislikes and Recommendations: Participants provide what they liked most about the site, what they liked least about the site, and recommendations for improving the site. 58 UCD Techniques
  59. 59. MedTech Usability Testing : Recruiting Test participants • Must be similar to your product users • If you have multiple potential users groups: - include representatives of all these groups - perform testing with each group separately • Use your internal staff only if: - They have had no involvement in the design or development of the site or product and - They represent a target audience • Nielsen(https://www.nngroup.com/articles/how-many-test-users/) outlines the number of participants  that you need based on a number of case studies: - Usability Tests: test 5 users lets you find almost as many usability problems as you'd find using many more test participants. - Quantitative studies (aiming at statistics, not insights): test at least 20 users to get statistically significant numbers; tight confidence intervals require more users. - Card sorting: test at least 15 users. - Eye tracking: test 39 users if you want stable heat maps. 59 UCD Techniques
  60. 60. MedTech Usability Testing : Running the test • Choose a moderating technique, such as: - Concurrent Think Aloud: ✴ Used to understand participants’ thoughts as they interact with a product by having them think aloud while they work. The goal is to encourage participants to keep a running stream of consciousness as they work. - Retrospective Think Aloud: ✴ Moderator asks participants to retrace their steps when the session is complete. Often participants watch a video replay of their actions - Concurrent Probing: ✴ Requires that as participants work on tasks—when they say something interesting or do something unique, the researcher asks follow-up questions. - Retrospective Probing: ✴ Requires waiting until the session is complete and then asking questions about the participant’s thoughts and actions. 60 UCD Techniques
  61. 61. MedTech Usability Testing : Best Practices • Treat participants with respect and make them feel comfortable. • Remember that you are testing the site not the users. Help them understand that they are helping us test the prototype or Web site. • Remain neutral – you are there to listen and watch. If the participant asks a question, reply with “What do you think?” or “I am interested in what you would do.” • Do not jump in and help participants immediately and do not lead the participant. If the participant gives up and asks for help, you must decide whether to end the scenario, give a hint, or give more substantial help. • The team should decide how much of a hint you will give and how long you will allow the participants to work on a scenario when they are clearly going down an unproductive path. • Take good notes. Note-takers should capture what the participant did in as much detail as possible as well as what they say (in their words).  The better the notes are that are taken during the session, the easier the analysis will be. • Measure both performance and subjective (preference) metrics. People's performance and preference do not always match. Often users will perform poorly but their subjective ratings are very high. Conversely, they may perform well but subjective ratings are very low. 61 UCD Techniques
  62. 62. MedTech EXAMPLE OF A UCD PROCESS User-Centered Design 62
  63. 63. Example 63 UCD Process
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  71. 71. MedTech Dr. Lilia SFAXI www.liliasfaxi.wix.com/liliasfaxi References 71 • Usability First website, http://www.usabilityfirst.com/, last viewed nov-2017 • Usability web site, https://www.usability.gov/, last viewed nov-2017 • Silvana Churruca, User Centered Design in short, Softonic, 2013 • Experience Dynamics, User Centered Design 101, 2007 • Aaron Hursman, User Centered Design Overview, Comdata, 2010 • Jeff Patton, Bringing User-Centered Design Practices into Agile Development Projects, Thoughtworks, 2008 • Web Accessibility Initiative- W3C, https://www.w3.org/WAI, last viewed nov-2017