! In our modern society we are constantly on the go and eating a healthy diet can be
! The type of food we consume has a direct impact on our health.
! Several studies have shown a correlation between diet and increase in
degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity and some types of
cancers (Satyanarayana, 2012).
! It is important to understand the components or nutrients the body requires to
! Our bodies require both macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) and also
micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) for energy.
! Important factors to consider when obtaining nutrients are the sources and
! In our modern society we have many processed foods which are filled with
empty calories and are not nutrient dense.
! Processed foods are refined foods in which the nutrients are removed to
prevent them from spoiling and are easier to store and transport.
! Whole foods are foods that have not been processed and have no additives or
preservatives such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains.
! Macronutrients are substances that provide energy such as carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids, fiber and water.
! Carbohydrates are the main source of energy and is chemically broken down
into to glucose, which is fuel for cells.
! Proteins are made up of amino acids and are necessary for growth and tissue
! Lipids are fats required to help with maintaining the cell membranes, helps
with insulating the body and absorption of some vitamins.
! Fiber are indigestible forms of carbohydrates that help remove waste from the
! Micronutrients are nutrients that are required in small amounts in order to
! Vitamins and minerals are considered micronutrients.
! Vitamins are organic substances made from plants.
! Minerals are inorganic elements which come from the soil and water.
! These elements are absorbed by the plants.
! Vitamins and minerals are responsible for many different functions throughout
! They help with the production and release of energy.
! They help with build proteins and support functions of the cells.
! They also help may collagen, which helps with healing.
6. Dietary Supplements
! Dietary supplements are a mixture of vitamins , minerals , herbs and other
! Dietary supplements can help alleviate certain deficiencies that may be lacking in
our normal diet.
! Some studies have shown that taking dietary supplements may reduce certain risks
or delay progression of chronic disease such as HIV (Woodside, 2005).
! A good example is vitamin B12 which is not produced by plants and is only
available from animal sources.
! A vast majority of the US population are not getting adequate amounts of nutrients.
8. Vitamins & Minerals
! The essential vitamins are vitamin A, B-complex (consisting of thiamin
(B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5). B6, biotin (B7), folic
acid (B9) and vitamin B12 , vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K.
! The essential minerals are; calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and zinc.
! Eating a balance diet is important in order to obtain the adequate amounts,
however most Americans do not get the necessary amounts.
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Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Lichtenstein, A., & Russell, R. (2005). Essential nutrients: food or supplements. The
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O’Leary, F., & Samman, S. (2010). Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease. Nutrients, 2,
Satyanarayana, S., Kumar Pindi, P., Singh, A., A, D., & G, A. (2012). Potential
Impacts of Food and it’s Processing on Global Sustainable Health. Journal of Food
Processing & Technology, 3(2), 1-7. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000143
Woodside, J., McCall, D., McGartland, C., & Young, I. (2005). Micronutrients: dietary
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