2. BAIBA MATISONE
Is a strategic planner who tries to unlock a bunch of
intriguing questions around strategy, communication,
brands, culture, and people.
3. A, B
ATTRIBUTES are characteristics of a
company, product, or service. They can be
functional or emotional. If attributes are what
a brand has, then beneﬁts (what the brand
offers to its customers) are why speciﬁc
attributes are essential.
BRAND is a set of elements, both physical
and emotional, used to evoke the desired
response in the minds of consumers or
audiences. The aim of branding is to create a
unique identity to differentiate a product or
service from its competitors. A brand usually
includes a range of designed elements,
including a name and a distinctive visual style.
BRANDING is the process used by a company
or organization to express its brand promise
to a particular target audience, which
conditions that audience to prefer the given
offer. This is achieved by manipulating the
tangible and intangible attributes that form
the brand into a range of communication
Almost any type of product can be branded
by giving the product a name and attaching
meaning to it in terms of what the product
has to offer and how it differs from
BRAND ESSENCE is the distillation of a
brand's core values into a simple, succinct
concept that is fundamentally rooted in
BRAND ARCHITECTURE can mean either the
organization and structure of a single brand,
created through a designed system of visual
elements, or else a system of related brands
exploring the relationship between a parent
company and its products and/or sibling brands.
BRAND AUDIT: The associations, either
functional or emotional, that an audience or
consumer assigns to a brand, either negative or
A comprehensive examination of a brand
involving activities to assess the health of the
brand, uncover its sources of equity, and suggest
ways to improve and exploit that equity. A brand
audit requires understanding the sources of
brand equity from the perspective of both the ﬁrm
and the consumers.
BRAND AWARENESS is the ability and speed
at which customers recognize a brand's name,
logo, and unique point of difference. Brand
Awareness is created by increasing the
familiarity of the brand through repeated
exposure (for brand recognition) and strong
associations with the appropriate product
category or other relevant purchase or
consumption cues (for brand recall).
BRAND BRIEF: The planning document for any
brand-building project. It is ﬁlled with the
goals, objectives, competitive landscape,
current performance, timeline, and budget. It
ensures that everybody.
BRAND EQUITY: A measure of the value of a
brand, it can be determined in two ways. One
is by examining the tangible assets (patents,
trademarks) and intangible assets
(differentiating qualities) that contribute to
the value of the brand. Alternatively, it is the
ﬁnancial premium derived from loyal
consumers willing to pay more for a branded
item or service.
Brand Equity is a function of the level of
Brand Awareness and the strength,
favorability, and uniqueness of brand
BRAND EXTENSION is the expansion of a
brand through the creation of a new product
or service. This usually entails leveraging the
brand's existing value in order to enhance the
consumer's perception of the new offer.
BRAND EQUITY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM is a set
of research procedures designed to provide timely,
accurate, and actionable information for marketers
so that they can make the best possible tactical
decisions in the short run, and the best strategic
decisions in the long run.
BRAND HIERARCHY: Reveals and explicits
ordering of brands by displaying the number and
nature of common and distinctive brand
components across the ﬁrm's products. By
capturing the potential branding relationships
between the products sold by the ﬁrm, a brand
hierarchy helps to graphically portray a ﬁrm’s
BRAND FEELINGS: Consumer emotional
responses and reactions with respect to a brand.
What feelings are evoked by marketing?
BRAND IDENTITY: A unique set of design
elements that identify the brand and
expresses the brand promise, including the
name, type, logo/symbols, icons, and colors.
BRAND IMAGE: A positive brand image is
created by marketing campaigns that link
strong, favorable, and unique associations to
the brand in memory. The realization of the
brand has important implications for building
BRAND LOYALTY: A measure of the strength
of consumer preference for a particular brand.
BRAND MANAGEMENT: The job of ensuring
that the tangible and intangible aspects of the
brand remain consistent.
BRAND JUDGMENT: Focus on consumers’
personal opinion and evaluations:
● Brand quality
● Brand credibility
● Brand consideration - crucial in
building Brand Equity
● Brand superiority
BRAND MARK: Also known as a logo or
brand icon. It is a symbol or design element
that allows consumers to identify a speciﬁc
brand and differentiate it from others.
BRAND MESSAGE: The primary statement
used to express the brand promise, reﬂecting
the desired personality and position of the
BRAND MANTRA is highly related to concepts
such as "brand essence" or "core brand promise".
A mantra is an articulation of the "heart and soul"
of the brand. Brand mantras are three- to
ﬁve-word phrases that capture the irrefutable
essence or spirit of the brand positioning. Their
purpose is to ensure that all employees within the
organization and all external marketing partners
understand what the brand fundamentally is to
represent to consumers so that they can adjust
their actions accordingly.
BRAND PERSONALITY: The brand expressed in
terms of human characteristics (e.g. power,
caring, purity). A way to personify the brand
message, this application of human attributes is
used to achieve brand differentiation.
BRAND MANTRAS should be developed at the
same time as the brand positioning. Such
positioning is usually a result of an in-depth
examination of the brand through some form
of audit or other activities. Mantras require
more internal examination and involve input
from a wider range of employees and
BRAND PERFORMANCE relates to how a
product or service attempts to meet
customers' more functional needs. As such, it
refers to the intrinsic properties of the brand in
terms of inherent product or service
characteristics. How well does a brand rate on
objective assessments of quality? To what
extent does it satisfy utilitarian, aesthetic, and
economic customer needs and wants in the
product or service category?
Can be divided into 3 categories:
● Reliability - refers to consistency over
time and from purchase to purchase.
Can I trust the brand?
● Durability - refers to the expected
economic life of the product.
● Serviceability - refers to the ease of
servicing the product if it needs repair.
BRAND POSITION: The distinctive position
created for an offering that ensures clear
identiﬁcation and differentiation by consumers.
BRAND PROMISE: A statement capturing a
brand's unique offer to its consumers. It
highlights the brand's unique selling point and
deﬁnes its position in the market,
differentiating that brand from its competition.
BRAND PRODUCT MATRIX: Graphical
representation of all the brands and products sold
by the ﬁrm.
BRAND PORTFOLIO: This is the set of brands and
brand lines that a ﬁrm offers for sale to buyers in a
BRAND RECOGNITION relates to consumers' ability
to conﬁrm exposure to the brand when given the
brand as a cue.
BRAND REPOSITIONING: Developing a strategy to
move a brand to a new market position.
BRAND STANDARDS: Also known as "Brand
Guidelines". A document or manual exploring in
detail the design elements that constitute the brand
identity, specifying typefaces, colors, and visual
elements. It also includes how to apply the brand
7. B, C
BRAND RESONANCE: Refers to the nature of
the identiﬁcation consumers have with the
brand, and the extent to which consumers feel
they are "in sync" with the brand.
Can be broken down into 4 categories:
1. Behavioral loyalty
2. Attitudinal attachment
3. Sense of community
4. Active engagement
BRAND STRATEGY: The plan created after
in-depth research on markets, consumers, and
competitors. It is used to guide designers
when creating a new brand identity. It
highlights the competitive advantages by
deﬁning the unique factors identiﬁed for the
Brand Strategy is planned with a clear vision
and articulation of how the brand will deliver
distinctive and important beneﬁts to the target
BRAND STRATEGY: An effective brand
strategy answers ﬁve critical questions:
1. What are the most proﬁtable customer
segments with which the brand must
2. What is the single-minded value
proposition that will compel these segments
to choose the brand repeatedly?
3. Why should these target customers believe
in the brand?
4. What are the facts that back up the value
5. How do we communicate and implement
the branding and marketing that employees
and sales channels will adopt?
BRAND STRATEGY: There is no formula for
developing a brand strategy. There are many
different models, but all should be rooted in
the brand’s vision and directed by the
principles of differentiation and sustainable
BRAND SALIENCE: Relates to aspects of the
brand’s awareness: - how often and easily the
brand is evoked under various situations or
circumstances. To what extent is the brand easily
recalled or reorganized? What types of
cues/brand codes, or reminders are necessary?
How pervasive is this brand's awareness?
CANNIBALIZATION: When a brand extension or
line extension results in overall losses of revenue
and brand value from existing and established
brands owned by the same company.
CO-BRANDING: A strategy that leverages two or
more brands together to form a more compelling
offer than either could have alone.
COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE: Every brand lives in
a competitive environment that is continuously
changing by time and consumer preferences. A
Competitive Landscape helps you understand
future threats that come from other brands.
8. C, D
CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY (aka
CBBE) is a model by Kevin Lane Keller that
provides a unique point of view on what the
brand equity is, and how it should be built,
measured, and managed.
CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY
CBBE depends on 3 main factors:
1. The initial choices for the brand
elements or identities making up the
2. The way the brand is integrated into
the supporting marketing campaign;
3. The associations indirectly
transformed into the brand by linking
the brand to some other entity (e.g.
the company, country of origin, a
channel, of distribution or another
CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY
● What is brand equity?
● How should it be built?
● How should it be measured?
● How should it be managed?
DEMOGRAPHICS: Statistical data showing
variables within a population, e.g. age,
gender, income level. Often used to guide
research into the market segmentation.
DESIGN STRATEGY: An outline of the design
decisions made to deﬁne a brand's aesthetic.
Used in brand creation and "policing", it
ensures consistent application of the identity
across all communication solutions.
DIFFERENTIATION: The distinct and unique
characteristics that differentiate a brand from its
competitors within the same category to give it a
EMOTIONAL BRANDING: The process of building
brand value by creating an emotional connection
between the intended consumer and the product or
FAMILY BRAND: A brand that has been extended to
a family of offerings. Often shown through a visual
relationship between the separate identities.
MARKET SEGMENTATION: A strategy that divides a
broad market into subsets of consumers with
common needs and priorities.
9. M, N, P, Q, R
MARKET SHARE: The total number of sold
units of a speciﬁc product expressed as a
percentage of the total number of units sold
by all competitors in a given market.
NICHE MARKETING: Considering and fulﬁlling
the needs, wishes, and expectations of small,
deﬁned groups of consumers.
PARENT BRAND: A brand that acts as an
endorsement to one or more sub-brands
within a range.
PENETRATION: A growth strategy in which a
company concentrates efforts in its target
market to increase market share or enhance
its competitive advantage.
PREMIUM BRAND: A brand that is known to
hold greater brand value than its competitors.
POINT-OF-SALE: A marketing display that
presents a product to consumers with
additional information about the offer, such as
an explanation of the product’s beneﬁts. Also,
know as point-of-purchase.
PSYCHOGRAPHICS: A market segmentation
process that creates groups of customers
according to their lifestyle, social class, and
personality. Used to explore patterns of
THE PRODUCT is at the heart of Brand Equity
because it is the primary inﬂuence on what
consumers experience with a brand, what they
hear about a brand from others, and what a
ﬁrm can tell customers about a brand in its
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH is a method of
gathering information about consumers’
preferences, beliefs, and emotions. It is
performed through group interactions and
discussions. It helps you ﬁnd insights that don’t
require statistical accuracy.
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH is often a survey
conducted with a large enough sample to
determine the importance of different customer
needs, current products and customer
satisfaction levels, probability of repurchase, and
REBRANDING: The revision of a brand’s
communication to refocus or update an identity in
response to internal or external forces such as
new market entrants.
10. T, V
TARGET AUDIENCE: A speciﬁed demographic
group that the brand is trying to approach. It
often involves statistical aspects of
consumers, such as gender, ethnicity, income,
qualiﬁcation, and marital status, but it can also
include psychographic, behavioral, and
VISUAL IDENTITY: The total of the brand's
visual aesthetics, including logos, logotypes,
symbols, colors, etc.
Keller, K. L., Aperia, T., Georgson, M., Strategic
Brand Management . England: Pearson
Butterﬁeld, L., Excellence in Advertising.
Slade-Brooking, C., Creating a Brand Identity.
London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd