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The fight characteristics of UAVs

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The fight characteristics of UAVs

  1. 1. The Flight Characteristics ofThe Flight Characteristics of Unmanned Aircraft SystemsUnmanned Aircraft Systems Presentation created by Leonid Sopizhenko student of SE 107 group
  2. 2. Introduction Development of unmanned air vehicles has been greatly accelerated in the past decade. Major aerospace organizations have seen the flexibility of application of such vehicles in a military or battle field situations. This will inevitably do away with the high casualties associated with conflict scenarios. There are three groups of UAV: 1. High altitude and long endurance (HALE). 2. Medium altitude and long endurance (MALE). 3. Tactical role referred to as TUAV.
  3. 3. UAVs TypesUAVs Types Target and decoyTarget and decoy - providing ground and aerial gunnery a- providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that simulates an enemy aircraft or missiletarget that simulates an enemy aircraft or missile ReconnaissanceReconnaissance - providing battlefield intelligence- providing battlefield intelligence CombatCombat - providing attack capability for high-risk missions- providing attack capability for high-risk missions Research and developmentResearch and development - used to further develop- used to further develop UAV technologies to be integrated into field deployed UAVUAV technologies to be integrated into field deployed UAV aircraftaircraft Civil and Commercial UAVsCivil and Commercial UAVs - UAVs specifically designed- UAVs specifically designed for civil and commercial applicationsfor civil and commercial applications
  4. 4. Flight characteristics of UAVs Flight characteristics of UAVs typically divided by several groups: 1)Flight control 2)Navigation 3)Propulsion 4)Payloads 5)Launch and recovery 6)Communication 7)Air traffic management
  5. 5. Flight control Typically a UAV is operated by: 1- A flight control (designated pilot). 2- A payload control (sensor operator). 3- A command control (mission controller). 4- A maintenance control (ground crew).
  6. 6. Navigation Unmanned air vehicles usually incorporate global positioning satellite (GPS) systems for navigation. These systems use pre-programmed way points which can be modified by the mission controller allowing for quick and effective mission changes. Such a system however suffers from the need for 3-d digital maps of the global terrain which itself can be a technological barrier.
  7. 7. Scheme of transfer information by drone to the receiver.
  8. 8. Propulsion Piston or electric engines are commonly observed on UAV’s. Turboprop and turbojet engines are more suited to HALE and MALE types of UAV. There are new innovations in the area of UAV propulsion especially focused on improving UAV endurance. Such innovations for example, regenerative fuel cells, solar and nuclear power are envisaged to give long operational life for the UAV’s.
  9. 9. Scheme of turbojet engine The fuel-air mixture is injected into the combustion chamber, where it is a constant burning. Formed during combustion gas under very high pressure is released through the nozzle outwards, creating the reactive power and causing the rocket motor, and with it the rocket to move in the opposite direction.
  10. 10. Payloads Most aircraft payloads can also be carried by UAV’s. The restrictions here more to a scaling problem the size of the payload and the corresponding availability of a UAV to transport it. For TUAV’s miniaturization of payloads has already been researched where payloads have been appropriately scaled down. Micro-UAV’s are currently being research for military use.
  11. 11. Launch and recovery A runway or flat open site is used for both the launch and recovery of HALE and MALE types of UAV. In such cases no pre-flight assembly of the UAV is required. For TUAV’s a RATO (rocket assisted) system or a catapult system (from a rail) is used for take-off. The recovery of such UAV’s is performed using an airbag or parachute. Other methods of launching UAV’s include air launching from under an aircraft wing, helicopter launching or even VTOL (vertical take-off and landing).
  12. 12. For large UAVs we must use special catapult.Also for little UAVs we can use catapult or launch it with help of special slingshot or manually
  13. 13. Communication Modern day UAVs use dedicated control link interfaces between vehicle and operator controller. This may include satellite UHF (or Ku) bands for both long range and short range.A failure mode has to be built into the UAV to allow for control link failure and enabling it to operate autonomous if required. The Ku band is the 12–18 GHz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies. The C band is the 4-8 GHz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies.
  14. 14. Communication between UAV and ground receiver
  15. 15. Air Traffic Management The issue of air traffic management for UAV’s lags well behind the actual developments and capabilities of the UAV’s. As such there are no rules which have been exclusively specified for UAV air traffic management. The UAV’s themselves have been built to a high quality standard
  16. 16. Conclusions The future of UAV’s definitely looks bright and eventful. Given the current conflicts worldwide, UAV’s have a definite part to play from a military perspective. The rest of the world however contributes very little to UAV research and development. It is expected that the military will hence drive the UAV requirements for 20-30 years before a shift to the civilian sector.