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Antonio Gaudi. Vida y obra

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Resumen de la vida y obra de Gaudí. Un estudio poco profundo para tener las nociones básicas acerca del arquitecto español.

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Antonio Gaudi. Vida y obra

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Hijo de un calderero, fue el menor de cincohermanos, padeció reumatismo desde niño, lo quele impidió disfrutar de la infancia• Al pasar tanto tiempo a solas o con su madre, estimuló dos de las cualidades que influirían en su obra: La observación y el análisis de la naturalezaA los 17 años fue a estudiar arquitectura a Barcelonay debido a sus escasos recursos económicos obtuvoel título a los 26 años• Destaca el carácter conservador y religioso de su pensamiento político, unido a la defensa de la identidad cultural del pueblo catalán. 2
  3. 3. Tras finalizar su carrera, mientras esperaba algunaobra de gran importancia, realizó trabajosdecorativos, como una vitrina para una guantería.• En este trabajo conoció a Güell quien se convertiría en un buen amigo y mejor clienteEn 1883 acepta el encargo de construir la Sagradafamilia. Tras ello, recibió numerosos encargos enCataluña y León, pero desde 1914 decide centrarseen esta catedral, rechazando otros encargos.• Falleció en Barcelona, en 1926, al ser atropellado por un tranvía. 3
  4. 4. Casa Batlló (Barcelona) En la obra de Gaudí se distinguen dos etapas: › ETAPA HISTORICISTA (1883-1900) Donde se basa en arquitecturas como la gótica, árabe,... › ETAPA MODERNISTA (1900-1917) Es el período de las construcciones más atrevidas, modernas y personales, utiliza formas onduladas, naturales,... Alcanza su máximo exponente con la casa Batlló. Gaudí es conocido por ser un Durante toda su vida diseñó creador en todo los sentidos, numerosos edificios religiosos, se Diseñó muebles, mosaicos, le consideraba humano, decoraciones, hierros forjados y caritativo, en ocasiones alejado cualquier elemento que formara parte de sus del ansia de gloria de los construcciones modernistas. 4
  5. 5.  Arquitectura medieval Renacimiento del arte gótico Arquitectura oriental Formas de la naturaleza Destacan algunos autores que lo inspiraron: › Escritos teóricos del inglés John Ruskin (el ornamento como origen de la arquitectura ) › El libro de Viollet-le-Duc (arquitectura medieval francesa) › William Morris 5
  6. 6. 61883 -1888 1883 - 1885 1883 - 1926 1886 - 1889 1889 - 1890 Colegio Casa El Sagrada Palacio de las Vicens Capricho Familia Güell Teresianas1889 - 1893 1891 - 1894 1898 - 1899 1900 - 1909 1900 - 1914 Palacio Casa Casa Torre Parque Episcopal Botines Calvet Bellesguard Güell Astorga1904 - 1906 1905 - 1906 1906 - 1912 1908 - 1914 1908 - 1909 Jardines Escuelas Casa Cripta de Can Casa Milá Sagrada Batlló Güell Artigas Familia
  7. 7.  Villa de Gracia, Barcelona Para Manuel VicensCARACTERÍSTICAS Etapa historicista: Mezcla lo árabe y lo autóctono. Muy recargada: Numerosos azulejos de colores en la fachada. Utiliza sólo formas rectas. Verja de hierro forjado, muy original (hojas de palmito). 7
  8. 8.  Nou de la Rambla, Barcelona. Para Eusebi Güell, su futuro mecenas.CARACTERÍSTICAS Etapa historicista: Influencia mudéjar. Tiene 20 chimeneas geométricas diferentes de azulejos de cerámica. Puertas de arcos parabólicos y dragón de hierro forjado. 8
  9. 9.  Astorga, León Encargo del obispo GrauCARACTERÍSTICAS Etapa historicista: Estilo neogótico (sótano mudéjar). Destaca el porche, con tres arcos abocinados (columnas inclinadas), elementos espectaculares de Gaudí. Interior: Granito, mosaicos, pilares y columnas se mezclan espectacularmente permitiendo una organización práctica del espacio. Gaudí renunció a acabar la obra por falta de fondos. 9
  10. 10.  Centro histórico de León Para los hijos de Botinàs, Fernández y Andrés.CARACTERÍSTICAS Estilo neogótico y modernista. Usa columnas de hierro forjado para sostener el sótano y la planta baja. La fachada es gótica, con muchos ventanales y tiene en la entrada una escultura de San Jorge y el dragón. El edificio está flanqueado por cuatro torres cilíndricas rematadas con elevadas agujas cónicas, hechas de pizarra. 10
  11. 11.  Barcelona Para la familia Calvet, industriales textiles.CARACTERÍSTICAS Fachada (piedra con esculturas), vestíbulo, escaleras... De estilo Barroco. Las fachadas delantera y trasera están repletas de balcones y galerías. Tanto edificio como el mobiliario y las decoraciones se inspiran en formas orgánicas. Es probablemente la obra más convencional de Gaudí. 11
  12. 12.  Calle de Olot, Barcelona Para el conde GüellCARACTERÍSTICAS Estilo: Modernista Numerosas formas orgánicas: Cúpulas como setas, dragón mosaico,... La sala de recibimiento, está sujeta por 86 columnas dóricas. Destaca el banco serpenteante decorado con baldosas de colores. Los desniveles del terreno se salvan con columnas inclinadas (piedra catalana). 12
  13. 13.  Barcelona Encargo de renovación por Josep Batlló i Casanovas.CARACTERÍSTICAS Estilo: Modernista La fachada está cubierta de fragmentos de cerámica y vidrio de colores que le dan una iluminación especial. Los balcones parecen fragmentos de cráneos con las aberturas de los ojos y la nariz, y combinan con las columnas del primer piso, que parecen huesos humanos 13
  14. 14.  Gaudí diseñó un tejado inclinado, que parece un dragón de piezas de cerámica. La casa tiene una torre en cruz con formas vegetales y ocho chimeneas muy creativas. En el interior, destaca una chimenea empotrada, o el techo del salón, que se decoró como un cielo raso de mucho relieve con forma de espiral. 14
  15. 15.  Barcelona Para los señores MiláCARACTERÍSTICAS Estilo modernista Fachada ondulada, similar a un precipicio con balcones de hierro forjado como plantas. Gaudí diseñó una gran cantidad de chimeneas que parecen guerreros, hechas con formas vanguardistas y decoradas con vidrios, baldosas, mármol... 15
  16. 16.  Barcelona Encargo tras la dimisión de Francisco de Paula Villar.CARACTERÍSTICAS Estilo: Modernista (columnas inclinadas).FACHADA NACIMIENTO Fue construida durante la vida de Gaudí. Infinitas formas orgánicas. Estilo barroco. Representa un portal de Belén y otras escenas de la infancia de Jesús. 16
  17. 17. FACHADA PASIÓN Las columnas de la entrada tienen forma de huesos humanos. Se sitúa opuesta a la del Nacimiento. Es minimalista, tiene muchas menos esculturas que la del Nacimiento. Trata sobre la muerte y resurrección de Jesucristo.La fachada de la Gloria está en construcción. Será la más importante del templo. 17
  18. 18. Este es el diseño inicial deGaudí para el Temploexpiatorio de la SagradaFamilia.Está compuesto por 18torres: 12 menores quesimbolizan a los apóstoles. 4 que simbolizan a losevangelistas.1 que simboliza a laVirgen. La más alta, simboliza aJesucristo (no podíamedir más de 137mporque no podía superarla obra de Dios).Se calcula que las obrasterminarán en unos 25-30años. 18
  19. 19. 19http://www.ctv.es/USERS/ags/GAUDI.htmhttp://www.artehistoria.jcyl.es/historia/personajes/6764.htmhttp://www.gaudiclub.com/esp/e_vida/e_menu.htmlhttp://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoni_Gaud%C3%ADhttp://www.gaudiallgaudi.com/EA002.htm Laura Ruiz Ballesteros Julia Brezmes Liter Ana Fernández Valls

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