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GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE PRESENTATION

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GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

  1. 2. G OTH C ARCHITECTURE
  2. 3. “ The insipid taste of gothic ornamentation, these odious monstruosities of an ignorant age, produced by the torments of barbarism” -La Gloire du Val Grace (1669)
  3. 4. HISTORY
  4. 5. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>High and Late Medieval Period </li></ul><ul><li>12 th -16 th Century France </li></ul><ul><li>“ French Style” </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture of Great Cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities </li></ul>
  5. 6. “ GOTHIC” <ul><li>“ Gothic architecture” NOT architecture of the historical Goths </li></ul><ul><li>Pejorative description during 1530s by Giorgio Vasari </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbaric </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. INFLUENCES <ul><li>Regional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independant city states and kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England influence Norway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scandinavian countries and Poland influence by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angevin Kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lusignan kings introduced French Gothic Architecture to Cyprus </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. INFLUENCES <ul><li>Eastern Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ pitched’ brick vaulting date back in the Ancient Near East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointed masonry arch appears in late Roman and Sassanian architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Church Building in Syria and Mesopotamia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secular Structures e.g. Karamagara Bridge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard feature of Islamic Architecture </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. CIVILIZATION <ul><li>Urbanization of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Military Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Revival </li></ul>
  9. 11. CIVILIZATION <ul><li>Availability of materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone (France) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corase limestone, red sandstone, dark green Purbeck marble (England) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brick (Northern Germany, Netherlands, Northern Poland, Scandinavia, and the Baltic countries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone (Italy) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. MAJOR EVENTS <ul><li>Crusades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Wars or Armed Pilgrimages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberate Jerusalem from Muslim Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim Possesion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Won during a rapid military expansion in 7 th century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of the Middle Ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Crusaders captured all the Islamic Territories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic counter-attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retaken all the Crusader possessions on the Asian Mainland </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. MAJOR EVENTS <ul><li>Monasticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benedictines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grey Abbey Churches outnumbered others in England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build within towns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cistercians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ruined abbeys in the remote countryside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franciscans “Grey Friars” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mendicant Order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established 13 th century by St. Francis of Assisi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mendicant Order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established by St. Dominic in Toulouse and Bologna </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence building of Italy’s Gothic Churches </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>The Great Famine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late Middle Ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calamaties and Upheavals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture affected by a climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented by Climate Historians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Felt by Contemporaries in the form of Periodic Famines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Famine of 1315-1317 </li></ul></ul>MAJOR EVENTS
  13. 15. MAJOR EVENTS <ul><li>The Hundred Years War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late Middle Ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of strong, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royalty-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nation states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom of England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom of France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Kingdoms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. MAJOR EVENTS <ul><li>The Hundred Years War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England and France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims by the English Kings to the French Throne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard on Peasantry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthened royal control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings profited from warfare by gaining land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last 116 years (1337-1453) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended in the expulsion of the English from France </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. “ Everything is a function of structure, the gallery, the triforium passage, the pinnacle, and the gable; no Gothic architectural form is the result of flights of fancy” -Viollet-le-Duc
  16. 18. SYSTEMS Structural, Spatial, Decorative
  17. 19. <ul><li>Latin Cross “Cruciform” plan </li></ul><ul><li>Long Nave Body of the church </li></ul><ul><li>Transept Transverse arm </li></ul><ul><li>Choir/Chancel/Presbytery Extension </li></ul>
  18. 20. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Structural Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Pointed Arches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gothic architects did NOT invent the pointed arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by Muslim artist in Asia, Africa, and even in parts of southern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began in Europe after the First Crusade (1099) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe had no belief in Muslim Religion yet; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitated the art </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Structural Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Pointed Arches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Round arches on the sides + round arches diagonal = Unequal Heights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointed arches on the sides + round arches diagonal =Equal Heights </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Structural Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Lancet Arch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplest shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow and steep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Two-centered arches whose radii are larger than the arch’s span” </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Structural Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Equilateral Arch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportion useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doorways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decorative arcades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Windows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filling with tracery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple equilateral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-circular forms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 25. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Structural Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Flamboyant Arch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drafter from four points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich and lively effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Window tracery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface Decoration </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Structural Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed Arch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider than its height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of flattened Under pressure </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Structural Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbed Vaults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight of vaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to force the walls outward ‘Thrust’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher building > More thrust from the arches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support walls with buttresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flying Buttresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sloping arch,reaching up from the buttresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressing against the outside of a higher wall </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Quadpartite ribbed Vault Sexpartite ribbed vault
  26. 29. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Structural Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Flying Buttresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the height of the nave to the maximum technically possible </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Structural Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Curvature of vaults and arches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weigh of roofing is thrown out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposing thrusts (Flying buttresses) or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculated vertical pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lightening of mass </li></ul><ul><li>Afforded greater ease of vertical construction </li></ul>
  28. 31. A building is an “interpretation of space” -Henri Focillon
  29. 32. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Spatial Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Naves erected “vertically” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High and narrow proportions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear arrangement of piers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and colonnettes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geometric proportions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equilateral triangle, square and circle </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Spatial Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Partition Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual impression that the actual dimensions of the building have been increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Light Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gos as ‘the superessential Light’ – Abbot Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stained Glass windows </li></ul></ul>
  31. 34. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Decorative Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Biblical stories </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize visual typological allegories between Old Testament prophecy and the New Testament </li></ul>
  32. 35. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Decorative Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptural composition and enrichment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gable porches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richly adorned crockets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure Sculpture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angels in the external </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pinnacles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gargoyles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carved Vegetation </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Decorative Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Tracery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced by an architect Master Henry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Westminster Abbey (1245) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved by English King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style Rayonnant (Reims) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the highest development of Gothic style </li></ul></ul>
  34. 37. ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Decorative Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Spires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranged according to the principles of the golden section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accentuate prevalence of the vertical, symbolic of the tension toward the divine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers pointing to heaven </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. STYLES AND DEVELOPMENTS
  36. 39. <ul><li>Increased exaltation of light </li></ul><ul><li>Opening of walls </li></ul><ul><li>Use of stained glass </li></ul><ul><li>Flying Buttress (Increased and elaborate) </li></ul><ul><li>Pinnacles and spires </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of tribune </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve a new monumental appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Full of balance and harmony </li></ul>Classic Gothic
  37. 40. <ul><li>New window design </li></ul><ul><li>Radiating design </li></ul><ul><li>Piercing of rose windows </li></ul><ul><li>Monumentality was abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Series of supports/ Vertical tension </li></ul><ul><li>Without depth in the treatment of surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Visually without height </li></ul>Rayonnant Style/Court Style
  38. 41. <ul><li>Embellishment of technical and decorative elements </li></ul><ul><li>No important structural inventions </li></ul><ul><li>Plant forms </li></ul><ul><li>Exubent freedom curving </li></ul><ul><li>Twisting lines </li></ul><ul><li>Swirling curvilinear </li></ul><ul><li>Pointed tracery </li></ul><ul><li>Richest and most imaginative decorative themes </li></ul>Flamboyant Gothic
  39. 42. <ul><li>12 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced gothic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luminous spatial definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decorative forms from other nonmastic buildings </li></ul></ul>Cistercian Architecture
  40. 43. <ul><li>12 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Originality </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation on three levels </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal sections superimposed </li></ul><ul><li>Entire length of the nave </li></ul><ul><li>Without any vertical attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to horizontality </li></ul>Early English Gothic
  41. 44. <ul><li>13 th -14 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Typical church typography </li></ul><ul><li>Heights were not excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative building technique </li></ul><ul><li>Thick Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Limited flying buttresses </li></ul>Ornate English Gothic/Decorated Style
  42. 45. <ul><li>Final style </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical lines of tracery </li></ul><ul><li>Angularity of the constrasting lines </li></ul><ul><li>Ogee arches </li></ul><ul><li>Rose windows </li></ul><ul><li>Foliate patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Quatre foils </li></ul>English Perpendicular Gothic/Rectalinear
  43. 46. <ul><li>Gothic structural supports </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged column </li></ul><ul><li>Reims style tall windows </li></ul>German Gothic
  44. 47. <ul><li>Emperor Charles IV </li></ul><ul><li>Prague </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural and artistic centre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Cathedral of St. Vitus </li></ul><ul><li>Mathias of Arras </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Parler </li></ul>Prague and The Parler Family
  45. 48. <ul><li>13 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous vitality and Geographic variety </li></ul><ul><li>French Burgundian Ideas from Cistercians </li></ul><ul><li>Holding to Romanesque and Classical Traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Few signs of gothic forms and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of external flying buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>Vaulted and ribbed covering </li></ul>Italian Gothic
  46. 49. <ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gothic lancet arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moorish architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sculptural cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Burgundian ambulatory choir </li></ul>The Venetian Palace
  47. 50. <ul><li>L-shaped layout </li></ul><ul><li>Single nave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive severity </li></ul></ul>Architecture of the Mendicant Orders
  48. 51. <ul><li>Naturalistic or organic forms </li></ul><ul><li>Marine world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted rope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eclectic style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrival in Portugal of the new Reinaissance culture </li></ul></ul>Manueline Architecture in Portugal
  49. 52. <ul><li>Less fresh and less individual </li></ul><ul><li>Less chance for invention </li></ul><ul><li>Roman architect Vitruvius Pollio (1 st century) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear rules for the proportions of architecture </li></ul></ul>The International Late Gothic
  50. 53. <ul><li>Classic Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Rayonnant Style/Court Style </li></ul><ul><li>Flamboyant Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Cistercian Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Early English Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Ornate English Gothic/Decorated Style </li></ul><ul><li>English Perpendicular Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>German Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Prague </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture of the Mendicant Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Isabelline Style in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Manueline Architecture in Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>The International Late Gothic </li></ul>
  51. 54. Structures
  52. 55. Benedictine abbey church of St.Denis <ul><li>1132-1140 </li></ul><ul><li>First existing Gothic style </li></ul><ul><li>Burial place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capetian Kings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abbot Suger – Monk </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated to King Louis VII </li></ul><ul><li>Twin towered facade with rose window </li></ul><ul><li>Echoed Norman Romanesque Church of St. Etienne at Caen </li></ul>
  53. 56. Benedictine abbey church of St.Denis <ul><li>Pointed arches </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbed vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Ambulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Slender Columns </li></ul><ul><li>Space could flow </li></ul>
  54. 57. Chartres <ul><li>Complex amalgram of many different periods </li></ul><ul><li>Express the creators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dedicated to the Virgin Mary </li></ul>
  55. 58. Paris/ Notre Dame Cathedral <ul><li>Tallest Church in Christendom </li></ul><ul><li>Flying buttresses added </li></ul>
  56. 59. Reims Cathedral <ul><li>New window tracery </li></ul><ul><li>Jean d’Orbais </li></ul><ul><li>Ville de Honnecourt </li></ul>
  57. 60. Sens Cathedral
  58. 61. Noyon Cathedral <ul><li>Verticality of the pointed arch </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal effect of multiple storeys </li></ul>
  59. 62. Laon Cathedral
  60. 63. Amiens Cathedral <ul><li>Designed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1220 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert de Luzarches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closely modelled on Reims </li></ul><ul><li>Vaults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>140 deet high </li></ul></ul>
  61. 64. Beauvais Cathedral <ul><li>Choir collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Structure was too tall </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned the aspiration for higher structures </li></ul><ul><li>Final development of the style </li></ul>
  62. 65. Bourges Cathedral <ul><li>Pure gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Slender ppiers </li></ul><ul><li>Buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>Great windows </li></ul><ul><li>Decorated with stained glass </li></ul>
  63. 66. Lincoln Cathedral <ul><li>Rebuilt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1192 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geoffrey de Noier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Crazy vault’ of Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate emphasis on the decorative role of the ribs </li></ul>
  64. 67. Sainte-Chapelle <ul><li>Jewel of the court style </li></ul><ul><li>Built for St. Louis </li></ul><ul><li>National shrine </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of the French Achievement </li></ul>
  65. 68. Cologne Cathedral <ul><li>Begun 1245 </li></ul><ul><li>Built after more than 600 years </li></ul><ul><li>Architect Etienne de Bonneuil </li></ul>
  66. 69. St. Maclou <ul><li>Ambition to dissolve solid mass </li></ul><ul><li>Diagonal Polyphony of pinnacled ornament </li></ul>
  67. 70. The Palace of the Popes at Avignon <ul><li>French secular architecture </li></ul>
  68. 71. Palais de Justice <ul><li>Flamboyant style </li></ul><ul><li>Civic architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Public building </li></ul>
  69. 72. Canterbury Cathedral <ul><li>Destroyed the Romanesque Choir by a great fire of September 1174 </li></ul><ul><li>Seat of the Primate of England </li></ul><ul><li>Flourishing Benedictine Monastery </li></ul><ul><li>Centre of growing cult of devotion to St. Thomas a Becket </li></ul>
  70. 73. Salisbury Cathedral <ul><li>High crossing tower </li></ul><ul><li>Soaring spire </li></ul><ul><li>English Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Screen facade </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in Chiaroscular effects </li></ul><ul><li>Door of little importance </li></ul>
  71. 75. Ely Cathedral <ul><li>New approaches to space </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple visual directions </li></ul><ul><li>New applications of perspect </li></ul><ul><li>Octagon lantern of Ely </li></ul>
  72. 76. Westminster Abbey <ul><li>Functions of 3 buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The coronation church of Reims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Royal Mausoleum at St. Denis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sainte-Chapelle in Paris </li></ul></ul>
  73. 78. Strasbourg Cathedral <ul><li>Initial reaction >> Full acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Great windows of Chartres </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion and elaboration of Royannant Gothic </li></ul>
  74. 79. Prenzlau <ul><li>Brickwork </li></ul><ul><li>Backsteingotik </li></ul><ul><li>Simply gothic of the Great cathedrals </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation of flat wall surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Formal and pictorial qualities </li></ul>
  75. 80. Wiesenkirche <ul><li>Proportions between aisles and the nave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden Section </li></ul></ul>
  76. 81. Milan Cathedral <ul><li>Summation and hybridization of different currents and trends </li></ul><ul><li>French Flamboyant style and German </li></ul>
  77. 82. Palma de Mallorca Cathedral <ul><li>Dense rows of buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>Dark grooves of shadow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong visual effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical French Rayonnant style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejects opening of w </li></ul></ul>
  78. 83. Santa Eulalia Barcelona <ul><li>Expanding spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Breathtaking scale </li></ul><ul><li>Joining architectural volumes </li></ul>
  79. 84. Burgos Cathedral <ul><li>Simplification of the French Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Result of Financial limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque traditions </li></ul><ul><li>15 th century eastern towers </li></ul>
  80. 85. S Maria da Vitoria, Batalha <ul><li>International components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French and English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirm a principle of political legitimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express and symbolize the ideas and political policies </li></ul></ul>
  81. 86. Cathedral of Seville <ul><li>Elements of France and England </li></ul><ul><li>Began 1401 </li></ul>
  82. 87. Sees Cathedral
  83. 88. Hotel de Cluny
  84. 89. Cathedral of Troyes
  85. 90. Exeter Cathedral
  86. 91. York Cathedral
  87. 92. Wells Cathedral
  88. 93. Paris Church of St. Mary Redcliffe
  89. 94. St. Stephen’s Chapel
  90. 95. Gloucester Cathedral
  91. 96. Wymondham
  92. 97. Florence Cathedral
  93. 98. Orvieto Cathedral
  94. 99. GOTHIC INSPIRED
  95. 100. Sagrada Familia by Antoni Gaudi
  96. 101. Cathedral Side Table by Nobu Miake of Design Soil
  97. 102. Cement Truck by Wim Delvoye
  98. 103. REFERENCES <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Grodecki L. (1977). Gothic Architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>New York. Harry N. Abrams. </li></ul><ul><li>Prina F. & Demartini E. (2006). 1000 Years of World Architecture. London. Thames & Hudson. </li></ul><ul><li>Watkin D. (2005). A History of Western Architecture (4 th ed). London. Laurence King Publishing. </li></ul>
  99. 104. REFERENCES <ul><li>Internet Sources </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.historyofjihad.org/crusades.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://history-world.org/hundred_years_war.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/the-crusades.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/late-middle-ages-timeline.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_architecture </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages#Art_and_architecture </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_architecture </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.euskonews.com/0463zbk/argazkiak/ </li></ul><ul><li> kosmo46301_05.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_architecture </li></ul>

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