2. Hearst Tower is the world headquarters of the Hearst
Corporation, bringing together for the first time their
numerous publications and communications companies
under one roof, including, among others, Cosmopolitan,
Esquire Marie Claire, Harper's Bazaar, Good
Housekeeping and Seventeen.
Architects: Foster and Partners
Location: Midtown Manhattan, New York
City, New York, USA
Architect: Foster and Partners Project
Design: Norman Foster
Structural Engineer: WSP Cantour Seinuk
Construction: Turner Construction
Project Year: 2006
Hearst Tower is a 46-storey office tower whose
landmark six-story cast stone base is ornamented with
columns and allegorical statues, while the tower
portions’ diagrid cladding is profiled stainless steel
and low-E clear glass. Hearst Tower is located on 8th
Avenue between 56th and 57th Streets. The former
six-story headquarters building was commissioned by
its founder, William Randolph Hearst, and awarded to
the architect Joseph Urban. The building was
completed in 1928.
First building in New York City to receive a LEED® Gold
certification for New Construction™ - Commerical Interiors™
Diagrid frame contains roughly 20% less steel than would a
conventional perimeter frame, saving approximately 2,000 tons
Each triangle in the diagrid is four stories tall, or 54 feet
Over 90% of its structural steel contains recycled material
Daylight sensors control lighting and reduce energy use
95% of office space has daylighting; 80% has views
Over one mile of glass office fronts
15 passenger elevators utilizing the Schindler Miconic 10
destination dispatch vertical transportation system High-
speed fiber-optic data transmission; fully Wi-Fi enabled
Nine-story atrium lobby with a six-story fresco, Riverlines, and a
three-story glass water feature, Icefall
The Hearst Tower was designed by the famous
British architect, Norman Foster, and it is
considered one of the most innovative designs
in the modern era. The building's design is
centered on sustainability and energy
efficiency, which is apparent in the building's
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design) Gold certification.
The building's unique form is achieved
through the use of a diagrid structure. The
diagonal steel frame provides stability and
allows for a column-free interior, maximizing
the available floor space. The building's
exterior is clad in a glass curtain wall, which
reflects the surrounding skyline and provides
natural light for the interior spaces.
ABOUT THE TOWER
ORIGINAL BUILDING HAS AN APPROXIMATE
FOOTPRINT OF (200x200) FT.
• HAS 2 DISTINCT ZONES:
1) ZONE BELOW 10TH FLOOR CONTAINS
ENTRANCE AT STREET LEVEL, LOBBY AND
2) AUDITORIUM AT THE 3RF FLOOR WITH
AN APPROXIMATE 80 FT. HIGH INTERIOR
• THE TOWER IS CONNECTED TO THE
EXISTING LANDMARK FACADE AT THE 7TH
LEVEL BY THE HORIZONTAL SKYLIGHT
SYSTEM SPANING APPROXIMATELY 40 FT.
The Hearst Tower's construction was a challenging project
due to the need to preserve the Art Deco base while building
the modern tower on top of it. The tower's foundation was
designed to transfer the weight of the new tower to the
existing base. The foundation consists of 16 steel piles that
are driven 90 feet into the bedrock below.
The base of the building was reinforced with new steel and
concrete to support the weight of the new tower. The new
tower was built on top of the existing base with steel braces
connecting the two structures. The diagonal steel frame of
the tower was prefabricated off-site and then assembled on-
site, reducing construction time and minimizing disruption to
the surrounding area.
The glass curtain wall was also prefabricated off-site and then
installed on the building's steel frame. The glass used in the
curtain wall is a low-e glass that reduces the building's energy
consumption by reflecting heat back into the building during
the winter months and blocking heat from entering the
building during the summer months.
Foster's idea was to keep the building's
limestone front in tact while carving out the
centre to create a massive atrium, then
raising the new tower.
massive steel and concrete beams spanning
over it. With its 30-foot-high waterfall and
clerestory windows, the finished nine-story
interior is expected to be one of New York's
most striking rooms.
Foster explains, "The idea was to design a
'urban living room.
The tower's unusual framework is a
"diagrid" of connected triangles that is so
structurally effective that it utilises 20% less
steel than is needed for standard designs.
95 percent of the occupied space is
illuminated by floor to ceiling windows.
8. CURTAIN WALL
"By expressing the structure in a sculptural form and casing it in
stainless steel, the diagrid pattern essential to the tower's core
architecture is traced on the exterior.
Foster writes, "Especially from a distance, the tower's shiny stainless
steel becomes recognisable as its shape. A specially designed,
double-tier monorail scaffold system that could move side to side as
well as up and down was necessary to install the cladding.
Additionally, the installation of windows proved challenging due to
the curvature of the structure. As many as 30 different window
layouts can be found on any given floor, according to Syed Alkarimi,
the architectural coordinator in charge of the facade. Low-E coating
on the double-pane glass allows visible light to pass while reflecting
heat-producing wavelengths. internal laminate
The tower – designed by the architect Norman Foster is 46 stories
tall, standing 182 m (597 ft)
with 80,000 m² (856,000 ft²) of office space. The uncommon
triangular framing pattern (also
known as a diagrid) required 9,500 metric tons (10,480 tons) of
structural steel – reportedly
about 20% less than a conventional steel frame.
Low-emitting glass, light sensors that regulate the amount of
artificial light used based on the amount of natural light available
from the outside, high-efficiency HVAC systems, Energy Star
appliances, and the use of outside air for cooling and ventilation
for 75% of the year are just a few of the features that help the
Hearst Tower achieve its gold LEED rating. Rainwater
About half of the watering requirements are met through
collection and reuse, which also occasionally humidifies and cools
the 10-story atrium.
10. Structure Obstructed views on the west side of the site forced
the architects to move the elevator core from the center to
the west side of the building. However, by doing this, it meant
that the east side of the facade may have been left unstable
and vulnerable to lateral wind forces. The solution was either
a hefty moment frame or a visually and physically lighter
diagrid. The diagrid solution reduces the total amount of steel
by 20 percent (then a conventional steel frame)while
increasing structural rigidity and reducing weight. It also has
the effect of allowing 40 foot spans, maximizing column, free
space and permitting the elimination of corner supports. The
structure utilizes an impressive 85 percent of recycled steel.
11. INNOVATIVE LANDSCAPE AND EXTERIOR DESIGN INCREASES BUILDING
EFFICIENCY BY 26%.
• EFFECTIVE STORM WATER MANAGEMENT REDUCES THE AMOUNT OF
RAINEWATER DUMPING INTO NYC’S SEWER SYSTEM BY 30%.
• 85% OF THE ORIGINAL STRUCTURE WAS RECYCLED FOR THE FUTURE
• ORIGINAL CAST STONE FACADE IS RESTORED. CONSTRUCTION
MATERIALS WERE CHOSEN WITH NO HARMFUL CHEMICALS AND
MANUFACYURED WITH RECYCLED CONTENT.
The Empire State Building is a towering landmark located
in the heart of New York City. It stands at 1,454 feet tall
and was the tallest building in the world upon its
completion in 1931. The Empire State Building has
become an iconic symbol of American architecture,
culture, and perseverance. In this presentation, we will
explore the history, design, construction, and
sustainability of this magnificent building.
The idea for the Empire State Building was first conceived
in the 1920s by John J. Raskob, a businessman and
financier, and Al Smith, a former New York governor. The
original design was for a 50-story building, but it was
later increased to 102 stories. Construction began in 1930
during the Great Depression, and the building was
completed in just 14 months.
14. Architecture and Design Style
Roughly between 1920 and 1939, the Art Deco style was
also very influential. It was also called the Modernist style
as it focused on elements unique to the 20th century over
stylistic traditions of the past. The use of modern
materials like steel for structure and glass as façade glazing
was at its peak. Art Deco incorporates elements from
architectural traditions from around the world into an
The construction of the Empire State Building was a
massive undertaking that required innovative techniques
and materials. The building's steel frame was erected at a
rate of four and a half stories per week, and the entire
structure was completed in record time. The building also
incorporated new safety features, such as a high-speed
elevator system and fireproofing materials.
The inspiration behind the façade detail is clearly from the
pre-World War II architecture in New York. The façade is
also clad in Indian limestone panels which gives the
building its signature blonde color. Above the main
entrance of the building is a transom. The triple-height
transom window has geometric patterns. There is the
golden letters ‘EMPIRE STATE’ placed over the 5th-floor
The Empire State Building's structural system
consists of a steel frame and a concrete core. The
building's tapered shape helps to distribute wind
loads evenly, and the concrete core provides added
strength and stability. The building also features a
unique setback design, which allows for more
natural light to reach the streets below.
The substructure of the Empire State Building is made
up of a foundation and a basement. The foundation is
made up of concrete and extends 55 feet (16.8 meters)
below the ground. It is designed to support the weight
of the entire building, which is approximately 365,000
tons. The basement of the building houses the
mechanical and electrical equipment that is needed to
operate the building.
18. The superstructure of the Empire State Building is the
visible part of the building that rises above the
ground. It consists of 102 floors, with the top floor
being 1,250 feet (381 meters) above ground level. The
superstructure is made up of steel, with the exterior
covered in limestone and granite. The building has a
unique Art Deco design, with setbacks on the upper
floors that create a distinctive silhouette.
The superstructure is divided into three main sections
- the base, the shaft, and the spire. The base is the
first 12 floors of the building and is designed to
provide a stable foundation for the upper floors. The
shaft is the central part of the building, which rises
from the base to the 86th floor. The spire is the top
section of the building, which extends from the 86th
floor to the top of the building.
Steel weighing 60,000 Tonnes
10 Million Marble Bricks of Various Types
16.7 m below ground level for the
Steel braced frame with semi-rigid
connections makes up the tower's
The glass, steel and aluminum spire at
the top was originally part of a radical
(blimps and dirigibles) would use it as
a mooring post, loading and
and cargo. There would even be
customs offices in the building to
process visitors and
imports. However, several tests
revealed that the wind conditions in
New York City were
too severe to allow safe airship
docking. The spire gives the
completed building a height of
20. SERVICES AND SUSTAINBILITY
The Empire State Building features a range of
services, including restaurants, observation decks,
and retail stores. The building is also home to a
number of businesses and organizations, making it a
hub for commerce and culture.
Sustainability and Environmental Considerations:
In recent years, the Empire State Building has
undergone a significant sustainability retrofit. This
included the installation of energy-efficient lighting,
HVAC systems, and windows, resulting in a 38%
reduction in energy usage. The building also
features an extensive recycling program and has
earned LEED Gold certification.
Sustainable Design: Both buildings have incorporated sustainable design
features. The Hearst Building is the first commercial office building in New York
City to receive a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Gold
rating, while the Empire State Building underwent a major renovation in 2009
to become more energy-efficient.
Structural Steel: Both buildings have a structural steel framework. The Empire
State Building's frame is made of steel, while the Hearst Building's frame is
made of composite steel and concrete.
Art Deco Style: Both buildings were designed in the Art Deco style, a popular
architectural style in the early 20th century. This style is characterized by
geometric shapes, bold colors, and intricate ornamentation.
Use of Glass: Both buildings feature extensive use of glass in their design. The
Empire State Building has 6,514 windows, while the Hearst Building has a
curtain wall made of glass and stainless steel.
Height: Both buildings were once among the tallest buildings in New York City.
When it was completed in 1931, the Empire State Building was the tallest
building in the world, while the Hearst Building, completed in 2006, is 46
stories tall and reaches a height of 597 feet (182 meters).
Architecture: Constructed in the Art Deco style, the Empire State
Building was finished in 1931 and has a streamlined, symmetrical
façade with elaborate ornamentation and decorative embellishments.
In contrast, Hearst Tower, a contemporary, green skyscraper with a
striking diagrid façade constructed of steel and glass, was finished in
The Empire State Building was one of the first skyscrapers to use a
steel frame construction technique, enabling it to be taller and more
structurally sound than earlier masonry or concrete structures.
Additionally, the structure has a distinctive stepped-back shape that
lets in more natural light and airflow. Hearst Tower, on the other hand,
employs a diagrid system, which is effective and sustainable.
Sustainability: While the Empire State Building was not originally
designed with sustainability in mind, in recent years it has undergone
significant renovations to become more energy efficient and
environmentally friendly. It has received LEED Gold certification for its
sustainability efforts, including the installation of energy-efficient
windows, improved insulation, and the use of renewable energy
sources. Hearst Tower, on the other hand, was designed with
sustainability as a primary goal, featuring many environmentally
friendly features such as rainwater harvesting, a gray water system,
and a unique diagrid façade that reduces the need for artificial