These are the means by which firms attempt to
inform, persuade, and remind consumers-
directly or indirectly- about the products and
brands they sell.
They represent the voice of the company and its
brands. They are a means by which the firm can
establish a dialogue and build relationships with
Marketing communications allow companies to
link their brands to other people, places, events,
brands, experiences, feelings and things.
The goal is to stimulate a dialogue that
will lead to a succession of purchases.
Every brand contact delivers an
impression that can strengthen or weaken
a customer’s view of a company.
They contribute to brand equity by
creating brand awareness and brand
image in consumer’s memories.
They boost sales, strengthen brand loyalty,
and can act as a catalyst for business
The Changing Marketing
Earlier, companies had limited options to
communicate with the target audiences.
The reach of the print media was confined due to
low literacy levels. They used wall paintings,
leaflets, and local promotional activities.
However, the explosive growth of mass media
has emerged as the most preferred mass
Rising levels of literacy, and consequently
magazine and newspaper readership and
increasing influence of social media have
From the companies perspective, media
planning and budgeting and the measurement of
communication impact have become complex.
From the consumer’s perspective, the
increased number of options means that they
can choose the medium through which they want
to receive communications.
Marketing communications in almost every
medium and form have been on the rise, and
some consumers feel they are increasingly
MARKETING MIX COMMUNICATION
The Marketing Communications Mix is the specific
mix of advertising, personal selling, sales
promotion, public relations, and direct
marketing a company uses to pursue its advertising
and marketing objectives.
The marketing communication mix is the heart of your
marketing strategy around which everything else in
sales and marketing is predicated.
If business consists of creating value and creating
customers, Marketing Communication (MARCOM)
covers exactly how you are going to create customer
by taking your value message to the market.
• Any paid form of non-personal
presentation and promotion of
ideas, goods, or services by an
• Eg: print and broadcast ads,
posters, billboards, leaflets etc.
• Short-term incentives to
encourage the purchase or sale
of a product or service.
• Eg: sampling, coupons, exhibits,
demonstrations, fair and trade
Events and experiences
• Company- sponsored activities
and programs designed to
create daily or special brand-
related interactions with
• Eg: arts, causes, sports, etc.
Public relations and publicity
• Building good relationships with
the company’s various publics
by obtaining favorable publicity,
building up a good "corporate
• Eg: seminars, speeches, etc.
• Direct communications with
carefully targeted individual
consumers to obtain an
• Eg: catalogs, mailings, blogs,
• Online activities and programs
designed to engage customers
or prospects and directly or
indirectly raise awareness,
improve image etc.
• Eg: fax, e-mail, web sites, etc.
Word of mouth marketing
• People- to- people oral, written,
or electronic communications
that relate to the merits or
experiences of purchasing or
during products or services.
• Personal presentation by the
firm’s sales force for the
purpose of making sales and
building customer relationships.
• Eg: samples, sales meetings,
presentations, fairs and trades
Components of Communication
Marketers should understand the fundamental
elements of effective communications. Two
models are useful, these are:
A macro model
A micro model
Decide on media
Steps in developing effective
• Establishing a product or service category as necessary to
remove or satisfy a perceived discrepancy between current
and desired motivational state.
• Fostering the consumer’s ability to recognize and recall the
brand between the category, in sufficient detail to make a
• Helping consumers evaluate the brand’s perceived ability to
meet a currently relevant need.
Brand Purchase Intention
• Moving consumers to decide to purchase the brand or take
purchase related actions.
In determining message strategy, management searches for appeals, themes or ideas that
will tie in to the brand positioning.
These are the ways marketers translate their message into communication.
-Informational appeal elaborates on product attributes and product benefits.
-Transformational appeal elaborates on a product related benefit.
Message delivered by attractive or popular sources can achieve higher attention and
• Personal communication channels let two or more
persons communicate face to face, or person to
audience through a phone, surface mail, or email. They
may be advocate, expert or social channels
• Mass communication are directed to more than one
person and include advertising sale promotion, events
and experiences and public relations.
NON PERSONAL/ MASS COMMUNICATION
• Set budget at what companies think
they can afford.
Percentage of Sales Method
• Set budget at a specified percentage
of current or anticipated sales or of
the sales price.
• More result oriented, variable cost
• No logical basis for choosing the
Competitive Parity Method
• Set the budget to achieve ‘share-of-
voice’ parity with competitors.
• Competitive wisdom& preventing
Objective and Task Method
• Develop budgets by defining specific
objectives and estimating the costs of
performing them. Establish market
• Determine %age of market that should
be reached by advertising and aware
prospects that should be persuaded.
Characteristics of the marketing
• Long-term| trigger sales| reach geographically dispersed customers.
-pervasiveness (several repetitions)
• stronger & quick buyer response| short- run effects
-Ability to be attention getting
Public Relation & Publicity
• Coordinated with other elements of mix
-Ability to reach hard-to-find buyers
Events and Experiences
• Costly yet having many advantages
Direct and Interactive Marketing
• Forms: Direct mail, telemarketing, internet marketing
• Forms both online and offline
• Most effective in later stages, good for building preferences
Factors in setting the Marketing
• Consumer markets spend more on sales promotion and advertising.
• Business markets spend more on personal selling.
• In general, personal selling is used more with complex, expensive,
and risky goods and in markets with fewer and larger sellers (hence,
Business Markets Consumer Markets
• Cost- effectiveness of communication tools vary at different stages of buyer readiness.
• Advertising and publicity play the most important role in the awareness-building stage.
• Customer comprehension is primarily affected by advertising and personal selling.
• Closing and reordering is affected by personal selling and sales promotion.
• There are 5 stages i) awareness ii) comprehension iii) conviction iv) order v) reorder
Source: Fig.16.4, pg.443, marketing management, Philip Kotler (Edition 14), PEARSON
• Cost effectiveness of communication tools vary as with PLC stages.
• Introduction- advertising, events and experiences, and publicity
• Growth- word of mouth and interactive marketing
• Maturity- advertising, events and experiences, and personal selling
• Decline- sales promotion
Measuring Communication Results
• After implementing the plan
• Impact on target audience is to be measured
• Surveyed to ask
Whether they have recalled?
How many times they saw it?
What points do they recall?
MANAGING THE INTEGRATED
Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)
IMC is the application of consistent brand messaging across
both traditional and non-traditional marketing channels and
using different promotional methods to reinforce each other.
The American Marketing Association defines Integrated
Marketing Communications (IMC) as “a planning process
designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a
customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization
are relevant to that person and consistent over time.”
The IMC planning process has been compared to
composing a musical score. In a piece of music, while every
instrument has a specific task, the goal is to have them
come together in a way that produces beautiful music. It’s
the same in IMC, where advertising might be your violin,
Why Integrated Marketing
Five major shifts in the worlds of advertising, marketing and media have caused an
increased interest in (and need for) IMC. These include:
These shifts are forcing organizations to look at the whole marketing picture, re-
aligning their communications and seeing things the way the consumer sees them –
as a constant flow of information from indistinguishable sources. Those who
practice IMC are avoiding duplicate messages, capitalizing on the synergy among
promotional tools, creating more effective marketing programs and maximizing ROI.
A Shift From…
• Traditional Advertising
• Mass Media
• Low Agency Accountability
• Traditional Compensation
• Limited Internet Access
• Digital/Interactive Media
• Specialized Media
• High Agency Accountability
• Performance-Based Compensation
• Widespread Internet Availability
Personal and Non-personal channels to be coordinated through
multiple-vehicle, multiple-stage campaigns to achieve
maximum impact and increase message reach and impact.
IMC concept has been relatively slow to take hold
Large companies have several specialist organizations
They don’t know much about other channels/tools
Global companies use different agencies in different
Still a few agencies have improved by integrating with different
specialist companies – by acquiring them
Offering one-window solutions
The integrated components used by Coca Cola
employed a mass media methodology which included
television advertising, print media and banner ads.
The approach utilized a marketing mix of advertising,
direct marketing, as well as Web based interactive and
social media marketing and sales promotion.
Coca Cola advertising has historically been among the
most prolific in marketing history.
The logo and bottle designs are immediately
recognizable throughout the world, and are integral to the
brand’s image and recognition in the marketplace
Coca Cola has repeatedly been ranked as the number
one soft drink in the world as a direct result of their
aggressive advertising campaigns.
Direct marketing efforts are initiated for exclusivity
i.e., restaurants and movie theatres only offering
Coke products, eliminating any direct competition.
They sponsor sporting events via use of the
company, e.g. baseball fields.
Mobile marketing endeavors send out text
messages in an attempt to personalize promotions.
Viral marketing exertions rely heavily on word-of-
mouth communication from brand loyalists.
Web based interactive marketing is focused on
design and functionality, relying on banners, video
and public relations.
Sales promotion for Coca Cola is aimed at two
strategies, retail and food service.
Retail efforts are directed toward company
partnerships, direct store delivery and point-of-sale
Direct store delivery is a crucial link in the value chain,
and offers mobile advertising with bright red delivery
trucks emblazoned with the brand logo.
POS displays include brand specific coolers for in-
store sales along with vending machines which carry
Food service activities emphasize Coke products in
food pairings, menu optimization, and specialty
Comparative Importance of the Components
Coca Cola’s IMC components reveals a
marketing communications mix which is iconic.
The brand image is immediately recognizable,
right down to the bright red and white lettering of
the names Coke and Coca Cola.
Multi-lingual use in advertisements.
The resultant international presence of Coca Cola
is a direct outgrowth of the marriage of the
advertising, direct marketing, as well as Web
based interactive and social media marketing
and sales promotion efforts that have been
included over the years in their IMC endeavors.
Overall Success of the IMC Approach
In terms of successful outcome, Coca Cola’s IMC approach
has set a standard that offers a point of reference of
desired triumph that is enviable across the industrial
Record-setting sales and revenues, brand visibility and
recognition and positioning on the global market are
indicative of the accomplishment achieved by the company.
Coca Cola products are consumed world-wide as a direct
result of retail and in-store marketing efforts which are
The elements which are expended in regards to the
integrated approach, the comparative importance of the
components, component efficiency, and the overall success
of the IMC approach have combined to create a sensation
• Book- Marketing Management by Philip Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller,
Abraham Koshy & Mithileshwar Jha, PEARSON (14th Edition) (Page.
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