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Embodied and grounded meaning
Kristína Rebrová
Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
Language
phonology,
morphology
syntax
semantics
pragmatics
...
Cognitive Linguistics & Semantics
Kristína Rebrová Embodied...
The nature of thought and language
In the 50’s: brain-computer metaphore
Physical symbol system hypothesis (Newell & Simon...
Amodal Symbols
internal (cognitive) structure does not resemble the perceptual
states from which it originates
Kristína Re...
The mind IS embodied
nature of the (human) mind is largely determined by the form
of the (human) body
cognition arises fro...
Perceptual Symbol Systems (Barsalou,1999)
Perceptual symbols resemble (are a subset of) perceptual
states from which they ...
Effect of changing the reference
Transforming a word or an amodal symbol fails to produce an
analogous transformation in re...
Grounded cognition
grounded = anchored in the physical world (embodied +
embedded)
embodied: agent has a body that provide...
Mental imagery
functional-equivalence hypothesis, supported by
many cognitive psychologists ((Farah, Finke, Kosslyn,
Shepa...
Motor Resonance
partial activation of motor circuits without producing motor
activity
triggered by various modalities: vis...
Motor Resonance
the more closely the observed action maps onto the observer’s
own motor repertoire, the more accurate will...
Mirror Neurons
motor neurons with perceptual properties (visual, auditory)
facilitate (mediate) understanding
understandin...
Differences of the Human MNS
mirror neurons in monkeys
react only when the action is
complete and when the
target is presen...
Roles of Mirror Neurons
understanding of actions and imitation
internal (mental) simulation of the observed action
(moveme...
Role of MNS in the Evolution of Language
a “missing link” between animal
communication and human language
(Arbib, 2005)
ar...
Grounding language in action: neural evidence
Pulvermueler et al. (2001): hearing/reading action verbs
produces somatotopi...
Grounding language in action: behavioral evidence
Glenberg and Kashak (2002): comprehending a sentence that
implies action...
Cognitive Semantics
e.g. Lakoff & Johnson(1980), Lakoff (1987), Langacker
(1987), Lakoff and Johnson (1999), Talmy (2000), .....
Language comprehension is embodied
a sentence can evoke an imagined scene and resulting inferences
Kristína Rebrová Embodi...
Embodied inferences
syntax is not independent of semantics
The scientist walked into the wall.
The hobo drifted into the h...
Image schemas
Johnson (1987), Lakoff (1987)
recurring structures within our cognitive processes which
establish patterns of...
Categorization
Lakoff’s “Woman, Fire and Dangerous Things: What
categories reveal about the mind.”
Categorization is one of...
Categories are no closed containers
classic story:
defining features (individually necessary and jointly sufficient
features)...
Basic level categories
Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
Conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980, 1999)
Classical theories viewed metaphors as novel or poetic linguist...
Affection is Warmth
Subjective Judgment: Affection
Sensory-Motor Domain: Temperature
Example: They greeted me warmly.
Primar...
Important is Big
Subjective Judgment: Importance
Sensory-Motor Domain: Size
Example: Tomorrow is a big day.
Primary experi...
Knowing is Seeing
Subjective Judgment: Knowledge
Sensory-Motor Domain: Vision
Example: I see what you mean.
Primary Experi...
Time is Motion
Subjective Judgment: The passage of time
Sensory-Motor Domain: Motion
Example: Time flies.
Primary Experienc...
Embodiment and Cultural variance
Núñez & Sweetser (2006)
speakers of Aymara face the past and
have their backs to the futu...
Embodiment effects
Activating elderly stereotype causes people to walk slowly and
to perform lexical decision slowly (Dijks...
The end
Thank you for your attention
kristina.rebrova@gmail.com
Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
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Language&Thought@PragoFFest14

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some slides to a talk from a sci-fi convention PragoFFest in Prague in January 2014, topic: embodied thought and language, cognitive linguistics, ...

Publicada em: Tecnologia
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Language&Thought@PragoFFest14

  1. 1. Embodied and grounded meaning Kristína Rebrová Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  2. 2. Language phonology, morphology syntax semantics pragmatics ... Cognitive Linguistics & Semantics Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  3. 3. The nature of thought and language In the 50’s: brain-computer metaphore Physical symbol system hypothesis (Newell & Simon, 1976) Physical symbol system is a machine that produces through time an evolving collection of physical patterns called symbol structures. Arbitrary links from symbolic code to sensori-motor referents Intelligence occurs via reasoning (searching for operators; logical inference) Intelligence = computation - separate from sensors and effectors Intelligence in nature (animals might behave intelligently, but not think so much as humans) Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  4. 4. Amodal Symbols internal (cognitive) structure does not resemble the perceptual states from which it originates Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  5. 5. The mind IS embodied nature of the (human) mind is largely determined by the form of the (human) body cognition arises from bodily interactions with the world cognition shares (neural) mechanisms with perception, action and introspection cognition is embedded in its environment amodal symbols represent knowledge (descriptive knowledge) Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  6. 6. Perceptual Symbol Systems (Barsalou,1999) Perceptual symbols resemble (are a subset of) perceptual states from which they originate Simulation a core form of computation in the brain reenactment of perceptual, motor and introspective states acquired during experience as experience occurs, the brain captures the states across modalities and integrates them with a multimodal representation stored in memory Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  7. 7. Effect of changing the reference Transforming a word or an amodal symbol fails to produce an analogous transformation in reference, whereas transforming a perceptual simulation does. Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  8. 8. Grounded cognition grounded = anchored in the physical world (embodied + embedded) embodied: agent has a body that provides direct sensations and allows actions embedded: situated in an environment that provides stimuli language is grounded in perception and action Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  9. 9. Mental imagery functional-equivalence hypothesis, supported by many cognitive psychologists ((Farah, Finke, Kosslyn, Shepard, Rumelhart,...) visual imagery as functionally equivalent to visual perception shared neural substrates mental rotations (e.g. Shepard, Metzler, 1971) image scaling (Kosslyn, 1975, 1976) image scanning (Kosslyn, Ball, Reiser, 1978; Pinker, 1980) Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  10. 10. Motor Resonance partial activation of motor circuits without producing motor activity triggered by various modalities: visual, auditory, linguistic might provide us with a simulation mechanism - understanding, prediction, empathy EEG mu-rhytm dominant frequencies in the 8–13 and 15–25 Hz bands (alpha like) typical for motor rest desynchronizes/supresses not only when subject produces, but also observes action first indirect evidence of mirror neurons in humans (Cohen-Seat et al.,1954; Gastaut and Bert,1954) Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  11. 11. Motor Resonance the more closely the observed action maps onto the observer’s own motor repertoire, the more accurate will be the observer’s prediction of the course and the result of the action conclusions (see van der Wel et al., 2011) motor preparation enhances the performance in perceptual tasks stimulus-response compatibility (facilitation of reaction on the basis of congruence with the stimulus) ideomotor action: involuntary movement that tends to arise when observing another’s performance influence of familiarity: self-actions vs. actios of others influence of proficiency: more skilled individuals - better judgement (but only for moving percepts) influence of praxis: Triton effect example Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  12. 12. Mirror Neurons motor neurons with perceptual properties (visual, auditory) facilitate (mediate) understanding understanding of the actions “from the inside” (e.g. Rizzolatti and Sinigaglia, 2010) empathy, mind-reading (Gallese et al., 2004) originally discovered in monkeys, recently confirmed in humans Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  13. 13. Differences of the Human MNS mirror neurons in monkeys react only when the action is complete and when the target is present (or obvious) react only to appropriate effectors: monkey/human hands react also when the target is hidden, but there must be sufficient clues present mirror neurons in humans react also to meaningless and intransitive actions react also to various different effectors including tools and robotic arms (Oberman and Ramachandran, 2007; Peeters et al., 2009) encode sole body movements from which the motor acts and actions are built - a parsing mechanism (Rizzolatti and Sinigaglia, 2010) Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  14. 14. Roles of Mirror Neurons understanding of actions and imitation internal (mental) simulation of the observed action (movement) mirror neurons might play a role in understanding of the unknown actions and parsing them to primitives of already known and similar actions understanding of goals experiment with normal and reverse pliers (Umilta et al., 2008) fMRI study with aplasic individuals (born without arms) revealed activation regardless the effector (Gazzola et al., 2007) understanding of emotions Gallese et al. (2004) describe the mirror mechanism as a basic functional mechanism that provides an insight into other minds impairment in insula causes disgust deafness, which extends to the prosody of speech Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  15. 15. Role of MNS in the Evolution of Language a “missing link” between animal communication and human language (Arbib, 2005) area F5 and Broca’s area are anatomical homologues and share functional properties crucial for development, production and understanding of communication gestures the evolution of the manual gestural system, facilitated by the action-execution – action-observation matching property of neurons in Broca’s area paved the way to the evolution of the open vocalization system present in humans (speech) (Rizzolatti and Arbib, 1998) Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  16. 16. Grounding language in action: neural evidence Pulvermueler et al. (2001): hearing/reading action verbs produces somatotopic activation in the primary motor cortex EEG study, movement vs. lexical decision task kick (leg), pick (arm), lick (face) Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  17. 17. Grounding language in action: behavioral evidence Glenberg and Kashak (2002): comprehending a sentence that implies action in one direction interferes with real action in the opposite direction John gave you a pizza. You gave a pizza to John. Also with abstract transfer sentences (Glenberg et al., 2008) Mary told you a story. You told a story to Mary. Works also with rotation movement: Zwaan and Taylor (2006) John increased the speakers volume. Mary opened a jar of pickles. Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  18. 18. Cognitive Semantics e.g. Lakoff & Johnson(1980), Lakoff (1987), Langacker (1987), Lakoff and Johnson (1999), Talmy (2000), ... semantic structure is conceptual structure conceptual structure is embodied meaning representation is encyclopaedic meaning-construction is conceptualisation Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  19. 19. Language comprehension is embodied a sentence can evoke an imagined scene and resulting inferences Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  20. 20. Embodied inferences syntax is not independent of semantics The scientist walked into the wall. The hobo drifted into the house. The smoke drifted into the house. Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  21. 21. Image schemas Johnson (1987), Lakoff (1987) recurring structures within our cognitive processes which establish patterns of understanding and reasoning formed from our bodily interactions, from linguistic experience, and from historical context Boundary Contact Container Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  22. 22. Categorization Lakoff’s “Woman, Fire and Dangerous Things: What categories reveal about the mind.” Categorization is one of the most basic ability of living beings. Even amoeba categorizes the things into food and nonfood. Animals categorize food predators, possible mates, members of their own species, etc. Why do we need categorization? reducting complex rich sensory input generalization, prediction How do we form concepts and categories? Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  23. 23. Categories are no closed containers classic story: defining features (individually necessary and jointly sufficient features) Boolean membership - clear-cut boundaries prototype theory: family resemblances (Wittgenstein, 1953) Fuzzy sets (Zadeh,1965): a degree of membership prototypicality: some members are more typical of a category than others Rosh(1973): Prototypes of a category are the clearest cases of category membership defined operationally by people’s judgment of goodness of membership in the category Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  24. 24. Basic level categories Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  25. 25. Conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980, 1999) Classical theories viewed metaphors as novel or poetic linguistic expressions outside the realm of ordinary everyday language. Metaphor has is in many cases central to understanding the meaning of many abstract concepts. Many concepts that are important to us are either abstract or not well-defined in our experience (emotions, thoughts, time, etc.) We need to mediate access to them through the concepts that we understand more clearly (spatial orientation, objects, etc.) Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  26. 26. Affection is Warmth Subjective Judgment: Affection Sensory-Motor Domain: Temperature Example: They greeted me warmly. Primary Experience: Feeling warm while being held affectionately. Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  27. 27. Important is Big Subjective Judgment: Importance Sensory-Motor Domain: Size Example: Tomorrow is a big day. Primary experience: As a child, important things in your environment are often big, e.g., parents, but also large things that exert a force on you Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  28. 28. Knowing is Seeing Subjective Judgment: Knowledge Sensory-Motor Domain: Vision Example: I see what you mean. Primary Experience: Getting information through vision Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  29. 29. Time is Motion Subjective Judgment: The passage of time Sensory-Motor Domain: Motion Example: Time flies. Primary Experience: Experiencing the passage of time as one moves or observes motion Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  30. 30. Embodiment and Cultural variance Núñez & Sweetser (2006) speakers of Aymara face the past and have their backs to the future Nayra = past (eye, sight, or front) Q”ipa = future (behind, back) Q”ipüru = tomorrow = q”ipa + uru (some day behind one’s back) every language has a system of markers which forces the speaker to pay attention to some aspects of the information being conveyed and not others Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  31. 31. Embodiment effects Activating elderly stereotype causes people to walk slowly and to perform lexical decision slowly (Dijksterhuis and Bargh 2001) Engaging the smiling musculature produces positive affect (Strack et al. 1988) Standing upward and stretching arms helps to gain self-confidence, watch Amy Cuddy’s Ted talk: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y4386jSnFEU Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning
  32. 32. The end Thank you for your attention kristina.rebrova@gmail.com Kristína Rebrová Embodied and grounded meaning

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