1. UTTAM MEMORIAL COLLEGE
topic :- Edaphic factor…
Guided by :-
Miss, VIJAYA PATEL ma’am
(Ass. Profe. Of zoology)
Presented by :-
KRISHN KUMAR SAHU
(MSc. Zoology 1st sem.)
2. Definition of Edaphic factor
3. Soil formation
4. Soil profile
5. Composition of soil
6. Classification of soil
7. Physical properties of soil
8. Chemical properties of soil
• Soil :- soil is the mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases and &
microbes it is the upper layer of ground in which plants grow.
• edaphic factors are the soil properties that affect the diversity of
organisms living in the soil environment. These include soil structure,
temperature, pH, and salinity. Some of them are influenced by man,
but most are independent of human activity. These factors influence
the species composition of soil microbial communities, but also their
activity and functionality. The correlations between different abiotic
factors and microbial groups described in this manuscript indicate
both the complexity of the soil environment and its sensitivity to
4. 2. DEFINITION OF EDAPHIC FACTOR:-
• Edaphic, word Taken from Greek, Edaphos = ground (soil).
• Soil, word arise from Latin, Solum = earthy material
• The Factor which is related to the structure and compositions of soil
are called EDAPHIC FACTOR.
• Study of soil, known as a PEDOLOGY./EDAPHOLOGY.
• Soil is very complex medium .a good fertile soil contain mineral
matter organic matter, water and Air .
5. 3.SOIL FORMATION:- whole process complete by 2type
(a) Weathering (b) pedogenesis
Breakdown of large Rocks into the small minerals Particles
the process called Weathering .
Three types of weathering:-
1 PHYSICAL WEATHERING:- breaking down of larger rock into
The smaller minerals particles through the external physical weather. As
• Drying & heating
• Cooling & freezing
• Sand blast
8. B. Pedogenesis:-
• Final process of the soil formation is called pedogenesis,it happens
through the microbes (bacteria and fungi…),time & climatic changing.
9. 4.SOIL PROFILE:-
• Soil profile is a vertical section of soil.
• Soil profile is a vertical section of soil ,which is expended on the upper layer of
soil to lower parental Rocks, called soil profile.
• A soil profile is divided into various layer called HORIZONE .
• Different layer of the soil ,we study in the soil profile.
• .Soil profile consists by 6 HORIZONTAL layer:-
1. “O” horizons (top soil layer)
2. “A” horizons (soil layer)
3. “B” horizons (sub soil layer)
4. “C” horizons (Wheathering rock)
5. “D” horizons (Wheathering solid rocks)
6. “R” horizons (bed rocks)
10. 1. “O”HORIZONS :- fresh upper most layer of the soil, contains organic matter.
2 following layer of “O” HORIZONS Are:-
A.”O”1 Horizons:- upper most layer, consisting of freshy dead organic matter.
As well as dead lives, branches and fallen fruit included.
B.“O”2 Horizons:- just below the “o1” region, microbes are present in this
Layer, like BACTERIA & FUNGI etc.
. 2. “A”HORIZONS
“it is top soil zone of eluviation or leaching layer…” 3 layer are
present in this layer…
A. “A”1 HORIZONS:- Dark coloured,humas layer .
Rich in organic material mixed with minerals &
Rich in bacteria and fungi.
11. B. “A”2 Horizons:-
• Zone of maximum Eluviation .
• less humas.
• Eluvial zone.
C. “ A”3 Horizons:-
• transparent zone .
• Zone of illuviations.
• Dark coloured rigion .
• Root can rich this layer.
4. “C” horizons
• Thick & Wheathred rock.
• Contains caco3 & sulphar .
5. “D” horizons
• Large soil particles.
• Known as a solid Rocks.
12. 6. “R” Horizons:- This is unweathred Bed rocks ,lower-most layer of the soil.
(A). On the basis of their formation – (a) Residual soil (b) transported soil
(A). Residual soil:- Weathering and pedogenesis both process found in same
(B). Transported soil :- weathered material gone away one place to another
. Places by wind, gravity ,rainfall and glacier etc
(B). On the basis of their Nature – (a) sandy soil (b) clay soil (c) loamy soil
(A). Sandy soil:- large particles,many space between molecules & water
absorbing capacity high.
(B). Clay soil:- small particles,few pore/space between molecules,water slow
13. (C ).Loamy soil:- it is mixture of sand &clay contains too much small particles
. Water absorbing capacity high and don’t have space among
molecules ,it is useful soil.
14. 6. COMPOSITIONS OF SOIL :-
1. Minerals matter – 45%
2. Organic matter – 5%
3. Air -- 25 %
4. Water – 25 %
This is the compositions of
15. 7. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL:-
1. Soil texture:- •The relative proportions of the various size of soil
grains.(namely sand, silt, or clay) in a mass of soil.
• The consistency of soil as determined by soil particle size.
• Basically study of various size
Of the soil is called soil texture.
1.Gravel:- 2.0 to 20 mm above.
2. sand:- 0.05 to 2.0 mm.
3. Slit:- 0.002 to 0.05 mm.
4. clay:- 0.002 mm Below.
16. 2. Soil structure :- describes the arrangement of soil. It is determined
by how individual soil granules clump, bind together, and aggregate,
resulting in the arrangement of soil pores between them. Various kind:-
A. Prismitic structure:- columner structure.
B. Blocky structure:- blocked structure.
C. Spherical structure:- Rounded structure.
D. Platy structure:- horizontal thickness.
17. 3. Soil density:- Soil or bulk density is an indicator of soil compaction. This
volume includes the volume of soil particles and the volume of pores among soil
4. Soil porosity:- water absorbing capacity is known as soil porosity
Soil porosity depend on density of soil.
5. Soil colour:- on the 3 basis :- 1. Hue 2. Value.3. chroma.
hue determine colouration, value determine light and darkness of the colour. Chroma
determine the purity of soil.
18. 8. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL :-
1.Chemical composition:- Contains organic and inorganic compound
2. Soil pH:- Soil pH range is between 2.2 – 9.6. some are acidic and some
Alkaline in nature
3. Soil enzymes:- Main source of soil enzymes are microorganism ,soil
animal and soil .
4. Soil humas:- It is the complex organic substances resulting from the breakdown
Of plants material and living animal .the process called HUMIFICATION. Types of
1. Mor :- least decomposed humas & low pH.
2. Moder :- transitional stage of decomposition.
3. Mull :- fully decomposed layer & high pH.
19. 9. CONCLUSION & REFERENCE:-
The edaphic factor includes the physical, chemical, and
biological properties of soil that result from biologic and
geologic phenomena or anthropogenic activities.
Discontinuities in the edaphic factor contribute to the
intriguing patterns of diversity we see in the biotic world.
PD. SHARMA’S BOOK (ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT)
AND BY NET.
20. “There can be no life without soil
and no soil without life.
they have evolved together.”
Charles E. Kellogg