1. ENCM 42034: Marine and Coastal Resources Management
Source: 1. Integrated Coastal Management: South Asia, By Barbara E. Brown (1997) , Chapter 7
2. Ecology of Aquatic Management, Chris Frid and Mike Dobson (2002), pp 143-178 ,
Impacts and the
• One of the largest economic activities
• Employs more than 100 million people
• Contributes 10% to world GNP
• Estimated of 500 million international travelers
each year, and 5 billion local travelers
• Number is increasing with increasing income,
free time, cheaper transport, publicity etc.
3. Tourist arrival: Maldives and Sri Lanka
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
4. Sri Lankan story: Actual and
• Expatriates returned
• Repository of Cultural heritage
• Rich Wildlife
• Services are cheaper
• Beautiful coastline
• Contrasting weather zones
• War site
• Cultural pageants such as Esala
Perahera, Nawam perahera,
• Pilgrimage seasons (i.e. Sri pada)
5. Advantages of Tourism development.
1. It is a growth industry and therefore highly
desirable for the economic development in
countries and regions
2. Tourism help diversify the economy
3. Tourism around protected areas may help to
stimulate economic activity and growth in
isolated rural regions
4. Tourism may act to promote government’s
awareness and implementation of conservation
6. Advantages of Tourism development
5. Provides high employment opportunities
6. Infrastructure development, i.e. roads to
coastal areas and water supply etc..
7. Development of international relationships
8. Country become more popular globally.
9. Locals are exposed to different cultures and
7. Disadvantages of tourism
1. It is an unstable source of income greatly
influenced by uncontrollable factors such as
political instability, weather, civil wars, social
conflicts, and international currency fluctuations.
2. In certain regions, “tourism may destroy tourism”,
3. Importation of costly commodities to develop
tourism often involve substantial ‘leakage’ of
income out of a country back to developed
countries (about 55% of the income)
4. It is inefficient and costly to have capital
equipment and labour idle during the “tourist off-
season of the year”.
5. Negative cultural impacts may result from ill-
conceived tourist expansion
6. Local members of the community are often given
menial jobs because of lack of skills and cultural
7. Popularization of illegal activities such as narcotics,
8. Change of life styles of the local people.
9. Possible environmental pollution etc..
9. • Local members of
the community are
often offered menial
jobs because of lack
of skills and cultural
13. Coastal Tourism
• Most rapidly growing sector of tourism is the
Coastal tourism worldwide.
• Highly developed in the South Asian Maldives.
Maldives India Pakistan Sri Lanka
Average annual growth rate in
tourist arrivals in South Asia over
the period 1980-1992.
What has happened to Sri Lanka???
14. Environmental impacts
1. Coral reef degradation
2. Deteriorating coastal water quality
3. Dumping of solid waste on beaches
4. Illegal fishing practices
5. Coastal erosion etc…
1. Inadequate anchorage and landing facilities for fishing boats
2. Lack of alternate forms of income
3. Increasing traffic noise and congestion
4. Illegally constructed building on beach
5. Inadequate water supply
6. Restricted beach access
7. Increasing density of beach and sanctuary use, etc…
Impacts of coastal tourism
15. 1. Coral Reef Degradation
• Uncontrolled boating activity
• Sedimentation and water
• Coral collection
• Reef walking
• Collection of ornamental fish
from a reef
34. Management options of problems posed
by coastal tourism
Government involvement is eminent
1. All tourism developments should be subjected to
full EIA and IEA procedures
2. Environmental damage both direct (eg. Diver
damage to coral reefs) and indirect (eg. Pollution,
land erosion, and traffic congestion) should be
quickly and correctly identified.
3. Issuing licenses should be made in compliance
with the government (ie. CEA) and the standards
cited by the (WTO) World Tourism Organization
4. Environmental education of tourists, resort
owners/staff and developers to reduce
35. Management of problems posed by
coastal tourism…. Contd/.
5. Careful monitoring of the impacts of tourist
developments and implementing appropriate
legislation at an early stage in the development
6. Codes of practice for environmentally sensitive
tourism developments should be made widely
available to all the interested parties and, should be
adhered to any new initiatives.
7. Conflicts that may arise between the local
community who if fully dependent on fisheries as a
livelihood, and the tourists/tourism developers
should be amicably solved or minimized. Eg.
Lessones from the Maldives ….contd
36. Management of problems posed by
coastal tourism…. Contd/.
..one resort per island, the wide scattering of resorts
throughout several atolls and hence low tourist
density and lack of interaction with local
8. The government involve in the establishment of an
overall tourism zoning plan at the outset of tourism
9. Government regulation and control of resort
building and construction,
10. High environmental awareness by resort owners
and hence commitment to marine conservation.
37. Management of problems posed by
coastal tourism…. Contd/.
11. Ban on the sale of marine curios and on reef fishing at
resort islands and near resorts
12. Promote good code of practice in diving operations
13. Report illegal activities promptly to relevant
14. Initiate environmental awareness programms by
educated persons. i.e. beach cleaning by the
ENCM students at Barbarian reef at Beruwala
15. Beach nourishment on eroding sandy
beaches, eg. Setting up of concrete barriers at the
beach frontage ……………………………………………………..END.