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Policies and programs of philippine presidents

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Policies and programs of philippine presidents

  1. 1. a. Sergio Osmena b. Manuel Roxas c. Elpidio Quirino d. Ramon Magsaysay e. Carlos. Garcia f. Diosdado P. Macapagal Reporter: Villaceran, Ruth Klaribelle C. BSED 3- English
  2. 2.  Second President of the Commonwealth  Term: August 1, 1944- May 27, 1946  Filipino statesman, founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946.
  3. 3.  Last President of the Commonwealth  Term: May 28, 1946- July 4, 1946  First President of the Third Republic of the Philippines  Term: July 4, 1946- April 15, 1948  Political leader and first president of the independence republic of the Philippines.
  4. 4.  Second President, Third Republic of the Philippines  Term: April 17, 1948- November 10, 1953  Political leader and second president of the Independence Republic of the Philippines.
  5. 5.  Third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines  Term: December 30, 1953- March 17, 1957  Best known for successfully defeating the communist led Hukbalahap (Huk) Movement. Idol of the masses, champion of democracy, and freedom fighter.
  6. 6.  Fourth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines  Term: March 18, 1957- December 30, 1961  Famous for his austerity program and policy. He maintained the strong tradition ties with the United States and sought closer relation with non- communist Asian countries.
  7. 7.  Fifth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines  Term: December 30, 1961 - December 30, 1965  Poet, politician, lawyer, diplomat, statesman, economist and intellectual.  Born to poverty but rose due to diligence and brilliance. Best known as the "Champion of the Common Man."
  8. 8. Name Place of Date of Date of Alma Mater Profession Spouse(s) Religion Age Elected Origin Birth Death as President Sergio Cebu City September October 19, •University Lawyer •Estefania Roman 65 years old Osmena 9, 1878 1961 of San Carlos Veloso Catholic •San Juan de •Esperanza Letran Limjap College •University of Santo Tomas Manuel Roxas, Capiz January 1, April 15, •University Lawyer Trinidad de Roman 54 years old Roxas 1892 1948 of Manila Leon Catholic •University of the Philippines College of Law Elpidio Vigan November February 29, •University Lawyer Alicia Syquia Roman 58 years old
  9. 9. Name Place of Date of Date of Alma Mater Profession Spouse(s) Religion Age Elected Origin Birth Death as President Ramon Iba, August 31, March 17, Jose Rizal Engineer Luz Banzon Roman 46 years old Magsaysay Zambales 1907 1957 University Catholic Carlos P. Talibon, November June 14, •Siliman •Teacher Leonila Roman 61 years old Garcia Bohol 4, 1896 1971 University •Lawyer Dimataga Catholic •Philippine •Poet Law School •Political Economist •Guerilla Leader Diosdado P. Lubao, September April 21, •University •Lawyer •Purita Dela Roman 51 years old Macapagal Pampanga 28, 1910 1997 of the •Professor Rosa Catholic Philippines •Evita •University Macaraeg of Santo Tomas
  10. 10. •Governor of Cebu •October 16 1907-1922 •1904- October 16 1907 •Member of the Philippine House of •Secretary of Public Instruction Representatives from Cebu's 2nd District •1935-1940 •October 16 1907-1922 •Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and •2nd Senate President pro tempore of the Public Welfare Philippines •1941-1944 •1922-1934 •2nd Vice President of the Philippines •Senator of the Philippines from the 10th •November 15 1935 – August 1 1944 Senatorial District •4th President of the Philippines •1922 – 15 November 1935 •2nd President of the Commonwealth •1st Speaker of the Philippine House of •August 1 1944 – May 28 1946 Representatives
  11. 11. •Governor of Capiz •2nd President of the Senate of the •1919–1921 Philippines •2nd Speaker of the Philippine House of •July 9, 1945 – May 25, 1946 Representatives •1922–1933 •1921–1938 •5th President of the Philippines •Secretary of Finance •3rd President of the Commonwealth •August 21, 1941 – December 29, 1941 •1st president of the Third Republic •Senator of the Philippines •May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948 •July 9, 1945 – May 25, 1946
  12. 12. •Member of the Philippine House of •Secretary of Finance Representatives from Ilocos Sur's 1st District •July 25, 1934 – February 18, 1936 •Assumed office •May 28, 1946 – November 24, 1946 •1919 •Secretary of Foreign Affairs •Senator of the Philippines from the First •September 16, 1946 – April 17, 1948 Senatorial District •3rd Vice President of the Philippines •1925–1925 •May 28, 1946 – April 17, 1948 •Senator of the Philippines •6th President of the Philippines •July 9, 1945 – May 28, 1946 •2nd President of the Third Republic •4th President pro tempore of the Senate of •April 17, 1948 – December 30, 1953 the Philippines •July 9, 1945 – May 28, 1946 •Secretary of Interior •1935–1938
  13. 13. •Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Zambales' Lone District •28 May 1946 – 1 September 1950 •Secretary of National Defense •1 September 1950 – 28 February 1953 •1 January 1954 – 14 May 1954 •7th President of the Philippines •3rd President of the Third Republic •30 December 1953 – 17 March 1957
  14. 14. •Member of the Philippine House of •5th Vice President of the Philippines Representatives from Bohol's Third District •December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957 •1925–1931 •1st President of the 1971 Philippine •Governor of Bohol Constitutional Convention •December 30, 1933 – December 30, 1941 •June 1, 1971 – June 14, 1971 •Senator of the Philippines •May 25, 1946 – December 30, 1953 •8th President of the Philippines •Secretary of Foreign Affairs 4th President of the Third Republic •December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957 March 17, 1957 – December 30, 1961
  15. 15. •Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Pampanga's First District •December 30, 1949 – December 30, 1957 •6th Vice President of the Philippines •December 30, 1957 – December 30, 1961 •2nd President of the 1971 Philippine Constitutional Convention •June 14, 1971 – January 17, 1973 •9th President of the Philippines •5th President of the Third Republic •December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965
  16. 16.  Osmeña became president of the Commonwealth on Quezon's death in 1944. He returned to the Philippines the same year with General Douglas MacArthur and the liberation forces. After the war, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth government and the various executive departments. He continued the fight for Philippine independence.  For the presidential election of 1946, Osmeña refused to campaign, saying that the Filipino people knew of his record of 40 years of honest and faithful service. He lost to Manuel Roxas, who won 54 percent of the vote and became president of the independent Republic of the Philippines
  17. 17.  Restoration of the Commonwealth  With the city of Manila already liberated, General of the Army, Douglas MacArthur, on behalf of the United States, turned over the reins of government of the Philippines to Commonwealth President, Sergio Osmeña, on 27 February 1945, amidst brief, but impressive, ceremonies held at the Malacañan Palace. President Osmeña, after thanking the United States through General MacArthur, announced the restoration of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and work out the salvation of the Philippines from the ravages of war.
  18. 18.  Government reorganization  President Osmeña proceeded with the immediate reorganization of the government and its diverse dependencies.  On 8 April 1945, he formed his Cabinet, administering the oath of office to its component members. Later, President Osmeña received the Council of State to help him solve the major problems confronting the nation. Government offices and bureaus were gradually reestablished. A number of new ones were created to meet needs then current. Also restored were the Supreme Court of the Philippines and the inferior courts. The Court of Appeals was abolished and its appellate jurisdiction was transferred to the Supreme Court, the members of which were increased to eleven – one Chief Justice and ten Associate Justice – in order to attend to the new responsibilities. Slowly but steadily, as the liberating forces freed the other portions of the country, provincial and municipal governments were established by the Commonwealth to take over from the military authorities.
  19. 19.  Rehabilitation of the Philippine National Bank  Following the restoration of the Commonwealth Government, the Congress was reorganized. Manuel Roxas and Elpidio Quirino were elected Senate President and Senate President pro tempore respectively. At the House of Representatives, Jose Zulueta of Iloilo was elected Speaker and Prospero Sanidad as Speaker pro tempore. The opening session of the Congress was personally addressed by President Osmeña, who reported on the Commonwealth Government in exile and proposed vital pieces of legislation.  The First Commonwealth Congress earnestly took up the various pending assignments to solve the pressing matters affecting the Philippines, especially in regard to relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction. The first bill enacted was Commonwealth Act No. 672 – rehabilitating the Philippine National Bank.
  20. 20.  People's court  Yielding to American pressure, on 25 September 1945, the Congress enacted C.A. No. 682 creating the People's Court and the Office of Special Prosecutors to deal with the pending cases of "collaboration"
  21. 21.  United Nations Charter  President Osmeña sent the Philippine delegation, which was headed by Carlos P. Romulo, to the San Francisco gathering for the promulgation of the Charter of the United Nations on 26 June 1945. ▪ Other members of the delegation were Maximo Kalaw,Carlos P. Garcia, Pedro Lopez, Francisco Delegado, Urbano Zafra, Alejandro Melchor, and Vicente Sinco.  The 28th signatory nation of the United Nations, the Philippines was one of the fifty-one nations that drafted the UN Charter. Once approved by Philippine delegation, the UN Charter was ratified by the Congress of the Philippines and deposited with the U.S State Department on 11 October 1945.
  22. 22.  Foreign Relations Office  To prepare for the forthcoming independent status of the Philippine, President Osmeña created the Office of Foreign Relations. ▪ Vicente Sinco was appointed as its first Commissioner, with cabinet rank.  In this connection, President Osmeña also entered into an agreement with the United States Government to send five Filipino trainees to the U.S. State Department to prepare themselves for diplomatic service. ▪ They were sent by U.S. State Department to the United States embassies in Moscow and Mexico City and consulates in Saigon and Singapore.
  23. 23.  International banking  On 5 December 1945, President Osmeña appointed Resident Commissioner Carlos P. Romulo as his representative to accept Philippine membership in the International Monetary Fund and in the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which bodies had been conceived in the Bretton Woods Agreement, in which the Philippine had also taken part. Romulo signed said membership on 27 December 1945 on behalf of the Philippines.
  24. 24.  Bell Trade Act  On 30 April 1946, the United States Congress, at last approved the Bell Act, which as early as 20 January had been reported to the Ways and Means Committee of the lower house, having been already passed by the Senate. President Osmeña and Resident Commissioner Ramulo had urged the passage of this bill, with United States High Commissioner, Paul V. McNutt, exerting similar pressure.  The Act gave the Philippines eight years of free trade with the United States, then twenty years during which tariffs would be upped gradually until they were in line with the rest of the American tariff policy. The law also fixed some quotas for certain products: sugar – 850,000 long tons; cordage – 6,000,000 pounds; coconut oil – 200,000 long tons; cigars – 200,000,000 pounds.
  25. 25.  Bell Trade Act  The great aid this legislation meant for the Philippines was coupled with that to be obtained from the recently passed Tydings Damage bill, which provided some nine hundred million dollars for payment of war damages, of which one million had been earmarked to compensate for church losses. The sum of two hundred and forty million dollars was to be periodically allocated by the United States President as a manifestation of good will to the Filipino people. Additionally, sixty million pieces of surplus property were also transferred to the Philippine Government.
  26. 26.  Roxas served as the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in a brief period, from his subsequent election on May 28, 1946 to July 4, 1946, the scheduled date of the proclamation of Philippine Independence.  Roxas prepared the groundwork for the advent of a free and independent Philippines, assisted by the Congress.  OnJune 3, 1946, Roxas appeared for the first time before the joint session of the Congress to deliver his first state of the nation address. Among other things, he told the members of the Congress the grave problems and difficulties the Philippines are set to face and reports of his special trip to the United States–the approval for independence.
  27. 27.  Economy  Among the main remedies proposed was the establishment of the Philippine Rehabilitation Finance Corporation. This entity would be responsible for the construction of twelve thousand houses and for the grant of easy-term loans in the amount of 177,000,000 pesos. Another proposal was the creation of the Central Bank of the Philippines to help stabilize the Philippine dollar reserves and coordinate and the nations banking activities gearing them to the economic progress.  Concentrating on the sugar industry, President Roxas would exert such efforts as to succeed in increasing production from 13,000 tons at the time of the Philippine liberation to an all-high of one million tons.
  28. 28.  Reconstruction after the war  The postwar Philippines had burned cities and towns, ruined farms and factories, blasted roads and bridges, shattered industries and commerce, and thousands of massacred victims. The war had paralyzed the educational system, where 80% of the school buildings, their equipments, laboratories and furniture were destroyed. Numberless books, invaluable documents and works of art, irreplaceable historical relics and family heirlooms, hundreds of churches and temples were burned. The reconstruction of the damaged school buildings alone cost more than Php 126,000,000.
  29. 29.  Reconstruction after the war  The new Republic began to function on an annual deficit of over Php 200,000,000 with little prospect of a balanced budget for some years to come. Manila and other cities then were infested with criminal gangs which used techniques of American gangsters in some activities– bank holdups, kidnapping and burglaries. In rural regions, especially the provinces of Central Luzon and the Southern Tagalog regions, the Hukbalahaps and brigands terrorized towns and barrios.
  30. 30.  Agrarian reform  In 1946, shortly after his induction to Presidency, Manuel Roxas proclaimed the Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933 effective throughout the country.However problems of land tenure continued. In fact these became worse in certain areas. Among the remedial measures enacted was Republic Act No. 1946 likewise known as the Tenant Act which provided for a 70–30 sharing arrangements and regulated share-tenancy contracts.It was passed to resolve the ongoing peasant unrest in Central Luzon.
  31. 31.  Amnesty proclamation  President Roxas, on January 28, 1948, granted full amnesty to all so-called Philippine collaborators, many of whom were on trial or awaiting to be tried, particularly former President Jose P. Laurel (1943–1945). The Amnesty Proclamation did not apply to those "collaborators", who were charged with the commission of common crimes, such as murder, rape, and arson. The presidential decision did much to heal a standing wound that somehow threatened to divide the people's sentiments. It was a much-called for measure to bring about a closer unity in the trying times when such was most needed for the progress of the nation.
  32. 32.  HUKS outlawed  Utterly disgusted with the crimes being committed by HUKBALAHAP or HUKS and in possession of the incontrovertible evidence of the subversive character of the same, President Roxas, on March 6, 1948, in a dramatic gesture, issued a Proclamation outlawing Huks' movement, making it a crime to belong to the same.The declaration was hailed by all responsible and peace-loving elements. The same had become imperative in view of the resurgence of Huk depredations, following the unseating of the seven Communists, led by Huk Supremo Luis Taruc through acts of terrorism.
  33. 33.  Treaty of General Relations  On August 5, 1946, the Congress of the Philippines ratified the Treaty of General Relations that had been entered into by and between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States on July 4, 1946. Aside from withdrawing her sovereignty from the Philippines and recognizing her independence, the Treaty reserved for the United States some bases for the mutual protection of both countries; consented that the United States represent the Philippines in countries where the latter had not yet established diplomatic representation; made the Philippines assume all debts and obligations of the former government in the Philippines; and provided for the settlement of property rights of the citizens of both countries.
  34. 34.  United States Military Bases  Although Roxas was successful in getting rehabilitation funds from the United States after independence, he was forced to concede military bases (23 of which were leased for 99 years), trade restriction for the Philippine citizens, and special privileges for U.S. property owner and investor.
  35. 35.  Parity Rights Amendment  On March 11, 1947, the Filipino people, heeding Roxas' persuasive harangue, ratified in a nationwide plebiscite the "parity amendment" to the 1935 Constitution, granting United States citizens the right to dispose and utilize of Philippine natural resources, or through parity rights. ▪ The night before the plebiscite day, Roxas narrowly escaped an assassination by a disgruntled Tondo barber, Julio Guillen, who hurled a grenade on the platform at Plaza Miranda immediately after the President addressed the rally of citizens.
  36. 36.  Elpidio Quirino's six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved, and his administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption.
  37. 37.  Economy  Upon assuming the reins of government, Quirino announced two main objectives of his administration: first, the economic reconstruction of the nation and second, the restoration of the faith and confidence of the people in the government. ▪ In connection to the first agenda, he created the President's Action Committee on Social Amelioration or PACSA to mitigate the sufferings of indigent families, the Labor Management Advisory Board to advise him on labor matters, the Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Financing Administration or ACCFA to help the farmers market their crops and save them from loan sharks, and the Rural Banks of the Philippines to facilitate credit utilities in rural areas.
  38. 38.  Social Program  Enhancing President Manuel Roxas' policy of social justice to alleviate the lot of the common mass, President Quirino, almost immediately after assuming office, started a series of steps calculated to effectively ameliorate the economic condition of the people. After periodic surprise visits to the slums of Manila and other backward regions of the country, President Quirino officially made public a seven- point program for social security, o wit:
  39. 39.  Social Program ▪ Unemployment insurance ▪ Old-age insurance ▪ Accident and permanent disability insurance ▪ Health insurance ▪ Maternity insurance ▪ State relief ▪ Labor opportunity
  40. 40.  Social Program  President Quirino also created the Social Security Commission, making Social Welfare Commissioner Asuncion Perez chairman of the same.This was followed by the creation of the President's Action Committee on Social Amelioration, charges with extending aid, loans, and relief to the less fortunate citizens. Both the policy and its implementation were hailed by the people as harbingers of great benefits.
  41. 41.  Agrarian Reform  As part of his Agrarian Reform agenda, President Quirino issued on October 23, 1950 Executive Order No. 355 which replaced the National Land Settlement Administration with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) which takes over the responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Equipment Corporation and the Rice and Corn Production Administration.
  42. 42.  Integrity Board  To cope with the insistent clamor for government improvement, President Quirino created the Integrity Board to probe into reports of graft and corruption in high government places. Vice-President Fernando Lopez was most instrumental, through his courageous exposes, in securing such a decision from President Quirino.
  43. 43.  Quirino's administration excelled in diplomacy, impressing foreign heads of states and world statesmen by his intelligence and culture. In his official travels to the United States, European countries, and Southeast Asia, he represented the Philippines with flying colors. During his six years of administration, he was able to negotiate treaties and agreements with other nations of the Free World. Two Asian heads of state visited Philippines–President Chiang Kai- shek of the Republic of China in July 1949 and President Achmed Sukarno of Indonesia in January 1951.
  44. 44.  In 1950, at the onset of the Korean War, Quirino authorized the deployment of over 7,450 Filipino soldiers to Korea, under the designation of the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea or PEFTOK.
  45. 45.  Korean War  On June 25, 1950, the world was astonished to hear the North Korean aggression against the independent South Korea. The United Nations immediately took up this challenge to the security of this part of the world. Carlos P. Romulo soon stood out as the most effective spokesman for the South Korean cause.  On behalf of our government, Romulo offered to send a Philippine military contingent to be under the overall command of General Douglas MacArthur, who had been named United Nations Supreme Commander for the punitive expedition. The Philippines, thus, became the first country to join the United States in the offer of military assistance to beleaguered South Korea.
  46. 46.  Korean War  President Quirino took the necessary steps to make the Philippine offer. On a purely voluntary basis, the first contingent – the tenth Combat Battalion Team – was formed under Col. Azurin, and dispatched to Korea, where its members quickly won much renown for their military skill and bravery. The name of Captain Jose Artiaga, Jr., heroically killed in action, stands out as a symbol of our country's contribution to the cause of freedom outside native shores. Other Philippine Combat Teams successively replaced the first contingent sent, and they all built a name for discipline, tenacity, and courage, until the truce that brought the conflict to a halt.
  47. 47.  Quirino-Foster Agreement  By the time of the creation of the integrity board, moreover, the Bell Mission, led by Daniel W. Bell, an American banker, and composed of five members, with a staff of twenty workers, following their period of stay in the Philippines, beginning in July 1950, finally submitted its report on October of the same year.
  48. 48.  Quirino-Foster Agreement  The Report made several proposals, most noteworthy, of which were that the United States should give the Philippines 250,000,000 dollars over a period of five years, but the Philippines, in return, ought to reform its tax structure, enact a minimum wage law for agricultural and industrial labor, initiate social and land reforms, as well as a sound planning for economic development, For all the strong language of the Report, which, in some quarters merited bitter opposition, President Quirino gamely and patriotically, took in the recommendations and sought to implement them.  Thus in November 1950, President Quirino and William Foster, representing the United States Government, signed an agreement by virtue of which the former pledged to obtain the necessary Philippine legislation, in keeping with the Bell Mission Report, while envoy Foster promised the necessary by the same
  49. 49.  Quirino-Foster Agreement  Thus in November 1950, President Quirino and William Foster, representing the United States Government, signed an agreement by virtue of which the former pledged to obtain the necessary Philippine legislation, in keeping with the Bell Mission Report, while envoy Foster promised the necessary by the same Report.
  50. 50.  However, much as he tried to become a good president, Quirino failed to win the people's affection. Several factors caused the unpopularity of his administration, namely:  Unabated rampage of graft and corruption in his government, as revealed in the Tambobong-Buenavista scandal, the Import Control Anomalies, the Caledonia Pile Mess and the Textbook Racket;  Wasteful spending of the people's money in extravagant junkets abroad;  Failure of government to check the Huk menace which made travel in the provinces unsafe, as evidenced by the killing of former First Lady Aurora Quezon and her companions on April 28, 1949 by the Huks on the Bongabong-Baler road, Baler, Tayabas (now part of Aurora province).
  51. 51.  However, much as he tried to become a good president, Quirino failed to win the people's affection. Several factors caused the unpopularity of his administration, namely:  Economic distress of the times, aggravated by rising unemployment rate, soaring prices of commodities, and unfavorable balance of trade. Quirino's vaunted "Total Economic Mobilization Policy" failed to give economic relief to the suffering nation.  Frauds and terrorism committed by the Liberal Party moguls in the 1947, 1949 and 1951 elections.
  52. 52.  In the Election of 1953, Magsaysay was decisively elected president over the incumbent Elpidio Quirino. He was sworn into office wearing the Barong Tagalog, a first by a Philippine president. He was then called "Mambo Magsaysay".  As president, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, that aimed to defeat communist-Marxist movements in South East Asia, South Asia and the Southwestern Pacific.
  53. 53.  During his term, he made Malacañang literally a "house of the people", opening its gates to the public.  One example of his integrity followed a demonstration flight aboard a new plane belonging to the Philippine Air Force (PAF): President Magsaysay asked what the operating costs per hour were for that type of aircraft, then wrote a personal check to the PAF, covering the cost of his flight.  In history, he is the first Philippine president to wear a barong tagalog in his inauguration. He brought back the people's trust to the military and to the government.  His administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption- free; his presidency was cited as the Philippines' Golden Years. Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was at its prime, and the Filipino people were given international recognition in sports, culture and foreign affairs. The Philippines ranked second in Asia's clean and well-governed countries.
  54. 54.  President's Action Body  Ushering, indeed, a new era in Philippine government, President Magsaysay placed emphasis upon service to the people by bringing the government closer to the former.This was symbollically seen when, on inauguration day, President Magsaysay ordered the gates of Malacañan Palace open to all and sundry, who were allowed to freely visit all the dependencies of the presidential mansion. Later, this was regulated to allow weekly visit.
  55. 55.  President's Action Body  True to his electoral promise, President Magsaysay created the Presidential Complaints and Action Committee. This body immediately proceeded to hear grievances and recommend remedial action. ▪ Headed by soft-spoken, but active and tireless, Manuel Manahan, this committee would come to hear nearly sixty thousand complaints in a year, of which more than thirty thousand would be settled by direct action and a little more than twenty five thousand, referred to government agencies for appropriate follow-up.  This new entity, composed of youthful personnel, all loyal to the President, proved to be a highly successful morale booster restoring the people's confidence in their own government.
  56. 56.  Agrarian Reform  President Ramón Magsaysay enacted the following laws as part of his Agrarian Reform Program: ▪ Republic Act No. 1160 of 1954—Abolished the LASEDECO and established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and landless farmers. It was particularly aimed at rebel returnees providing home lots and farmlands in Palawan and Mindanao. ▪ Republic Act No. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954) – governed the relationship between landowners and tenant farmers by organizing share-tenancy and leasehold system. The law provided the security of tenure of tenants. It also created the Court of Agrarian Relations.
  57. 57.  Agrarian Reform  President Ramón Magsaysay enacted the following laws as part of his Agrarian Reform Program: ▪ Republic Act No. 1400 (Land Reform Act of 1955) – Created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA) which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations. ▪ Republic Act No. 821 (Creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration) – Provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent
  58. 58.  HUKBALAHAP  In early 1954, Benigno Aquino, Jr. was appointed by President Ramón Magsaysay to act as personal emissary to Luís Taruc, leader of the Hukbalahap, a rebel group. ▪ Also in 1954, Lt. Col. Laureño Maraña, the former head of Force X of the 16th PC Company, assumed command of the 7th BCT, which had become one of the most mobile striking forces of the Philippine ground forces against the Huks, from Colonel Valeriano. Force X employed psychological warfare through combat intelligence and infiltration that relied on secrecy in planning, training, and execution of attack. The lessons learned from Force X and Nenita were combined in the 7th BCT.
  59. 59.  HUKBALAHAP  With the all out anti-dissidence campaigns against the Huks, they numbered less than 2,000 by 1954 and without the protection and support of local supporters, active Huk resistance no longer presented a serious threat to Philippine security. From February to mid-September 1954, the largest anti-Huk operation, "Operation Thunder-Lightning" was conducted that resulted to the surrender of Luis Taruc on May 17. Further clean up operations of guerillas remaining lasted throughout 1955, diminishing its number to less than 1,000 by year's end.
  60. 60.  SEATO  The administration of President Magsaysay was active in the fight against the expansion of communism in the Asian region. He made the Philippines a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), which was established in Manila on Sept. 8, 1954 during the "Manila Conference". ▪ Members of SEATO were alarmed at the possible victory of North Vietnam over South Vietnam, which could spread communist ideology to other countries in the region. The possibility that a communist state can influence or cause other countries to adopt the same system of government is called the domino theory.
  61. 61.  SEATO  The active coordination of the Magsaysay administration with the Japanese government led to the Reparation Agreement. This was an agreement between the two countries, obligating the Japanese government to pay $800 million as reparation for war damages in the Philippines.
  62. 62.  Defense Council  Taking the advantage of the presence of U.S. Secretary John Foster Dulles in Manila to attend the SEATO Conference, the Philippine government took steps to broach with him the establishment of a Joint Defense Council. Vice-President and Secretary of Foreign AffairsCarlos P. Garcia held the opportune conversations with Secretary Dulles for this purpose. Agreement was reached thereon and the first meeting of the Joint United States-Philippines Defense Council was held in Manila following the end of the Manila Conference. Thus were the terms of the Mutual Defense Pact between the Philippines and the United States duly implemented.
  63. 63.  Laurel- Langey Agreement  The Magsaysay administration negotiated the Laurel-Langley Agreement which was a trade agreement between the Philippines and the United States which was signed in 1955 and expired in 1974. Although it proved deficient, the final agreement satisfied nearly all of the diverse Filipino economic interests.  While some have seen the Laurel-Langley agreement as a continuation of the 1946 trade act, Jose P. Laurel and other Philippine leaders recognized that the agreement substantially gave the country greater freedom to industrialize while continuing to receive privileged access to US markets. ▪ The agreement replaced the unpopular Bell Trade Act, which tied the economy of the Philippines to that of United States economy.
  64. 64.  Bandung Conference  Billed as an all Oriental meet and threatening to become a propaganda springboard for Communism, a Conference was held in Bandung (Java) in April 1955, upon invitation extended by the Prime Ministers of India, Pakistan, Burma, Ceylon, and Indonesia. Although, at first, the Magsaysay Government seemed reluctant to send any delegation, later, however, upon advise of Ambassador Carlos P. Romulo, it was decided to have the Philippines participate in the conference. Ambassador Romulo was asked to head the Philippine delegation.  At the very outset indications were to the effect that the conference would promote the cause of neutralism as a third position in the current cold war between the democratic bloc and the communist group. John Kotelawala, Prime Minister of Ceylon, however, broke the ice against neutralism. He was immediately joined by Philippine envoy Romulo, who categorically states that his delegation believed that "a puppet is a puppet", no matter whether under a Western Power or an Oriental state.
  65. 65.  Bandung Conference  At one time in the course of the conference, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru acidly spoke against the SEATO. Quick to draw, Ambassador Romulo delivered a stinging, eloquent retort that prompted Prime Minister Nehru to publicly apologize to the Philippine delegation. ▪ Records had it that the Philippine delegation ably represented the interests of the Philippines and, in the ultimate analysis, succeeded in turning the Bandung Conference into a democratic victory against the plans of the Communist delegates.
  66. 66.  Reparations agreement  Following the reservations made by Ambassador Romulo, on the Philippines behalf, upon signing the Japanese Peace Treaty in San Francisco on September 8, 1951, for several years of series of negotiations were conducted by the Philippine government and that of Japan. In the face of adamant claims of the Japanese government that it found impossible to meet the demand for the payment of eight billion dollars by the way of reparations, president Magsaysay, during a so-called "cooling off" period, sent a Philippine Reparations Survey Committee, headed by Finance Secretary Jaime Hernandez, to Japan for an "on the spot" study of that country's possibilities.
  67. 67.  Reparations agreement  When the Committee reported that Japan was in a position to pay, Ambassador Felino Neri, appointed chief negotiator, went to Tokyo. On May 31, 1955, Ambassador Neri reached a compromise agreement with Japanese Minister Takazaki, the main terms of which consisted in the following: The Japanese government would pay eight hundred million dollars as reparations. Payment was to be made in this wise: Twenty million dollars would be paid in cash in Philippine currency; thirty million dollars, in services; five million dollars, in capital goods; and two hundred and fifty million dollars, in long- term industrial loans.
  68. 68.  Reparations agreement  When the Committee reported that Japan was in a position to pay, Ambassador Felino Neri, appointed chief negotiator, went to Tokyo. On May 31, 1955, Ambassador Neri reached a compromise agreement with Japanese Minister Takazaki, the main terms of which consisted in the following: The Japanese government would pay eight hundred million dollars as reparations. Payment was to be made in this wise: Twenty million dollars would be paid in cash in Philippine currency; thirty million dollars, in services; five million dollars, in capital goods; and two hundred and fifty million dollars, in long- term industrial loans.
  69. 69.  Reparations agreement  On August 12, 1955, President Magsaysay informed the Japanese government, through Prime Minister Ichiro Hatoyama, that the Philippines accepted the Neri- Takazaki agreement. In view of political developments in Japan, the Japanese Prime Minister could only inform the Philippine government of the Japanese acceptance of said agreement on March 15, 1956. The official Reparations agreement between the two government was finally signed at Malacañan Palace on May 9, 1956, thus bringing to a rather satisfactory conclusion this long drawn controversy between the two countries.
  70. 70.  At the time of the sudden death of President Ramon Magsaysay, Vice President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos P. García was heading the Philippine delegation to the SEATO conference then being held at Canberra, Australia. Having been immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice President García enplaned back for Manila. Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacañan Palace to assume the duties of President. Chief Justice Ricardo Paras, of the Supreme Court, was at hand to administer the oath of office. President García's first actuations dealt with the declaration of a period of mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for the late Chief- Executive Magsaysay.
  71. 71.  Outlawing Communism  After much discussion, both official and public, the Congress of the Philippines, finally, approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines. Despite the pressure exerted against the congressional measure, President Carlos P. García signed the said bill into law as Republic Act No. 1700 on June 19, 1957. With this legislative piece, the sustained government campaign for peace and order achieved considerable progress and success. ▪ Republic Act No. 1700 was superseded by Presidential Decree No. 885, entitled "Outlawing Subversive Organization, Penalizing Membership Therein and For Other Purposes." In turn, Presidential Decree 885 was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1736, and later superseded by Presidential Decree No. 1835, entitled, "Codifying The Various Laws on Anti-Subversion and Increasing the Penalties for Membership in Subversive Organization." This, in turn, was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1975. On May 5, 1987, Executive Order No. 167 repealed Presidential Decrees Nos. 1835 and 1975 as being unduly restrictive of the constitutional right to form associations. ▪ On September 22, 1992, Republic Act No. 1700, as amended, was repealed by Republic Act No. 7636.
  72. 72.  Filipino First Policy  President García exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country. In a speech during a joint session of the Senate and the House of Representatives on September 18, 1946, President Garcia said the following: ▪ We are called upon to decide on this momentous debate whether or not this land of ours will remain the cradle and grave, the womb and tomb of our race – the only place where we can build our homes, our temples, and our altars and where we erect the castles of our racial hopes, dreams and traditions and where we establish the warehouse of our happiness and prosperity, of our joys and sorrows
  73. 73.  Austerity Program  In the face of the trying conditions of the country, President García initiated what has been called "The Austerity Program". García's administration was characterized by its austerity program and its insistence on a comprehensive nationalist policy. On March 3, 1960, he affirmed the need for complete economic freedom and added that the government no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests (especially American) in the national economy. He promised to shake off "the yoke of alien domination in business, trade, commerce and industry." García was also credited with his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts.
  74. 74.  Austerity Program  The main points of the Austerity Program were: ▪ The government would tighten up its controls to prevent abuses in the over shipment of exports under license and in under-pricing as well. ▪ There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter shipments. ▪ Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items. ▪ The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum. ▪ An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to reduce the importation of gasoline and spare parts. ▪ The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the payment- burden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to pay. ▪ There would be an intensification of food production.  The program was hailed by the people at large and confidence was expressed that the measures proposed would help solve the standing problems of the Republic.
  75. 75.  Bohlen–Serrano Agreement  During his administration, he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years.
  76. 76.  In the 1961 presidential election, Macapagal ran against Garcia's re-election bid, promising an end to corruption and appealing to the electorate as a common man from humble beginnings.  He defeated the incumbent president with a 55% to 45% margin. His inauguration as the president of the Philippines took place on December 30, 1961.
  77. 77.  Republic Act No. 3512 – An Act Creating A Fisheries Commission Defining Its Powers, Duties and Functions, and Appropriating Funds Therefor.  Republic Act No. 3518 – An Act Creating The Philippine Veterans' Bank, and For Other Purposes.  Republic Act No. 3844 – An Act To Ordain The Agricultural Land Reform Code and To Institute Land Reforms In The Philippines, Including The Abolition of Tenancy and The Channeling of Capital Into Industry, Provide For The Necessary Implementing Agencies, Appropriate Funds Therefor and For Other Purposes.  Republic Act No. 4166 – An Act Changing The Date Of Philippine Independence Day From July Four To June Twelve, And Declaring July Four As Philippine Republic Day, Further Amending For The Purpose Section Twenty-Nine Of The Revised Administrative Code.  Republic Act No. 4180 – An Act Amending Republic Act Numbered Six Hundred Two, Otherwise Known As The Minimum Wage Law, By Raising The Minimum Wage For Certain Workers, And For Other Purposes.
  78. 78.  Economy  In his inaugural address, Macapagal promised a socio-economic program anchored on "a return to free and private enterprise", placing economic development in the hands of private entrepreneurs with minimal government interference.  Twenty days after the inauguration, exchange controls were lifted and the Philippine peso was allowed to float on the free currency exchange market. The currency controls were initially adopted by the administration of Elpidio Quirino as a temporary measure, but continued to be adopted by succeeding administrations. The peso devalued from P2.64 to the US dollar, and stabilized at P3.80 to the dollar, supported by a $300 million stabilization fund from the International Monetary Fund.
  79. 79.  Socio-economic program  The removal of controls and the restoration of free enterprise was intended to provide only the fundamental setting in which Macapagal could work out economic and social progress.A specific and periodic program for the guidance of both the private sector and the government was an essential instrument to attain the economic and social development that constituted the goal of his labors.
  80. 80.  Socio-economic program  Such a program for his administration was formulated under his authority and direction by a group of able and reputable economic and business leaders the most active and effective of which was Sixto Roxas III. From an examination of the planned targets and requirements of the Five-Year program – formally known as the Five-Year Socio-Economic Integrated Development Program – it could be seen that it aimed at the following objectives. ▪ immediate restoration of economic stability; ▪ alleviating the plight of the common man; and ▪ establishing a dynamic basic for future growth.
  81. 81.  Land reform  Like Ramon Magsaysay, President Diosdado Macapagal came from the masses. He savored to call himself the "Poor boy from Lubao". ▪ Ironically, he had little popularity among the masses.This could be attributed to an absence of charismatic appeal of his stiff personality.  But despite this, Macapagal had certain achievements.Foremost of these was the Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 (Republic Act No. 3844) which provided for the purchase of private farmlands with the intention of distributing them in small lots to the landless tenants on easy term of payment.
  82. 82.  Anti-corruption drive  One of Macapagal's major campaign pledges had been to clean out the government corruption that had proliferated under former President Garcia.  The administration also openly feuded with Filipino businessmen Fernando Lopez and Eugenio Lopez, brothers who had controlling interests in several large businesses.  The administration alluded to the brothers as "Filipino Stonehills who build and maintain business empires through political power, including the corruption of politicians and other officials".[13] In the 1965 election, the Lopezes threw their support behind Macapagal's rival, Ferdinand Marcos, with Fernando as Marcos' running mate.
  83. 83.  Independence Day  Macapagal appealed to nationalist sentiments by shifting the commemoration of Philippine independence day.  On May 12, 1962, he signed a proclamation which declared Tuesday, June 12, 1962, as a special public holiday in commemoration of the declaration of independence from Spain on that date in 1898.  The change became permanent in 1964 with the signing of Republic Act No. 4166.For having issued his 1962 proclamation, Macapagal is generally credited with having moved the celebration date of the Independence Day holiday. ▪ Years later, Macapagal told journalist Stanley Karnow the real reason for the change: "When I was in the diplomatic corps, I noticed that nobody came to our receptions on the Fourth of July, but went to the American Embassy instead. So, to compete, I decided we needed a different holiday.
  84. 84.  Sabah Claim  On September 12, 1962, during President Diosdado Macapagal's administration, the territory of North Borneo, and the full sovereignty, title and dominion over the territory were ceded by the then reigning Sultan of Sulu, HM Sultan Muhammad Esmail E. Kiram I, to the Republic of the Philippines.  The cession effectively gave the Philippine government the full authority to pursue their claim in international courts.  The Philippines broke diplomatic relations with Malaysia after the federation had included Sabah in 1963.  It was revoked in 1989 because succeeding Philippine administrations have placed the claim in the back burner in the interest of pursuing cordial economic and security relations with Kuala Lumpur.  To date, Malaysia continues to consistently reject Philippine calls to resolve the matter of Sabah's jurisdiction to the International Court of Justice. Sabah sees the claim made by the Philippines' Moro leader Nur Misuari to take Sabah to International Court of Justice (ICJ) as a non-issue and thus dismissed the claim.
  85. 85.  Maphilindo  Maphilindo was described as a regional association that would approach issues of common concern in the spirit of consensus. However, it was also perceived as a tactic on the parts of Jakarta and Manila to delay, or even prevent, the formation of the Federation of Malaysia. Manila had its own claim to Sabah (formerly British North Borneo), and Jakarta protested the formation of Malaysia as a British imperialist plot.  The plan failed when Sukarno adopted his plan of konfrontasi with Malaysia. The Konfrontasi, or Confrontation basically aims at preventing Malaysia to attain independence. The idea was inspired onto President Sukarno by the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), or literally the Indonesian Communist Party. The party convinced President Sukarno that the Formation of Malaysia is a form of neo-colonization and will later affect tranquility in Indonesia. The subsequent development of ASEAN almost certainly excludes any possibility of the project ever being revived.
  86. 86.  Vietnam War  Before the end of his term in 1965, President Diosdado Macapagal persuaded Congress to send troops to South Vietnam. However this proposal was blocked by the opposition led by Senate President Ferdinand Marcos who deserted Macapagal's Liberal Party and defected to the Nacionalista Party.