Present status & future prospects in marine aquaculture
1. Present Status & Future
Prospects in Marine Aquaculture
Presented By- Kirit KeneIn Under Guidance-
Mr. D.R. Vahoniya
International Agri-Business Management Institute,
2. Flow of Presentation
• About Indian Fisheries
• Marine Aquaculture & Marine Cultivable Species
• Blue Revolution
• Present Status of Marine Fisheries Resources of India
• Top Aquaculture Producer Countries
• Marine Cultivable Biological Resources
• Site Selection Criteria for Marine Aquaculture
• Financial Facilities in Aquaculture
• Future Prospects
• To Study the current Status & Future Prospects in
• To Study Cultivable Species in Marine Aquaculture
• Indian fisheries and aquaculture is an important
sector of food production.
• It provides nutritional security to the food basket,
contributing to the agricultural exports and engaging
about fourteen million people in different activities.
• With diverse resources ranging from deep seas to
lakes in the mountains and more than 10% of the
global biodiversity in terms of fish and shellfish
species, the country has shown continuous and
sustained increments in fish production since
• Increasing food production especially of animal
protein and achieving self sufficiency in aquatic
• Generating new source of employment in rural area
including part time employment of farmer and small
scale fishery and arresting migration of people from
rural to urban areas.
• Producing food near consumer centre in rural area
thus contributing to improvement of human nutrition.
• Earning foreign exchange through export or saving
foreign exchange through import substitution.
6. Indian Fisheries
• Global position 3rd in Fisheries 2nd in Aquaculture
• Contribution of Fisheries to GDP (%)1.07
• Contribution to Agril. GDP (%)5.30
• Per capita fish availability (Kg.)9.0
• Annual Export earnings (Rs. In Crore)7,200
• Employment in sector (million)14.0
• Present fish Production 6.4 mmt
• Inland3.4 mmt & Marine 3.0 mmt
• Potential fish production 8.4 mmt
• Fish seed production 21,000 million fry Hatcheries1,070
• FFDA -422 & BFDA- 39 Source:- NFDB Hyderabad 6
7. Marine Aquaculture
• Marine Aquaculture is defined as the establishment of
man-made enclosures to raise aquatic life, such as Shell
fish, Finfish & Sea weeds for the Human Consumption
• Cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled
• Aquaculture refers to all forms of active culturing of
aquatic animals and plants, occurring in Marine Waters.
9. Blue Revolution
• The term “Blue revolution" refers to the remarkable emergence of
aquaculture as an important and highly productive agricultural
activity. Aquaculture refers to all forms of active culturing of
aquatic animals and plants, occurring in marine and fresh waters.
• Many Species of freshwater and marine organisms are being
cultivated as highly productive and nutritious crops for
consumption by humans.
• It is the rapid expansion of intensive, commercial aquaculture, It
Came in a decade after the Green Revolution (1970s; chemical-
• Increase global food production and reduce widespread hunger.
15. 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 CAGR
240.20 254.89 291.16 293.15 288.64 3.74
98.97 32.26 83.14 81.93 89.96 1.89
670.51 644.53 623.05 687.44 688.93 0.27
168.54 175.57 218.14 248.73 340.57 7.28
598.06 586.29 583.15 570.01 560.40 1.29
464.09 419.82 395.96 415.77 446.70 0.76
128.14 130.77 135.49 129.33 133.48 0.81
387.25 393.27 365.28 401.13 404.61 0.88
178.10 182.74 189.29 179.00 197.11 2.049
28.60 28.60 32.33 33.00 33.74 3.36
16.35 26.28 14.06 15.88 16.85 0.604
11.75 11.04 12.59 12.37 12.37 1.033
33.61 33.44 34.55 36.10 36.10 1.43
3024.17 2919.50 2978.19 3103.84 3249.46 1.55
1 Andhra Pradesh
8 Tamil Nadu
9 West Bengal
10 A & N Islands
11 Daman & Diu
(In 000’ Tonnes)
le 4- State Wise Marine Fish Production in In
Source- www.indiastat.com 15
16. Marine Cultivable
• Marine Finfish Resources
• In India, culture of Lethrinus, Epinephelus, Mugil
cephalus, Chanos chanos and Etroplus suratensis has
been tried either in monoculture or integrated systems.
• Marine Finfishes provides a Nutritional food for human
consumption, it gives the major contribution in the
17. Table 5-Top Species in
Species group 2009 2010 Linear Growth
Carps and other
1,66,73,155 1,83,03,847 8.9
Oysters 43,32,357 46,03,717 5.89
Clams, cockles 34,57,510 41,16,839 16.01
37,63,902 37,39,949 -0.64
Shrimps, prawns 14,95,950 24,76,023 39.58
Salmons, Trouts 17,91,061 19,78,109 9.45
Mussels 17,00,871 18,60,249 8.56
Tilapias and other
14,83,309 18,22,745 18.62
12,89,586 14,65,191 11.98 17
18. Marine Cultivable
Biological resources• Crab resources
• In India, Scylla serrata and Scylla tranquebarica are
highly valued crabs and viable technologies have
been developed for fattening.
• Crab Fattening is practiced by few farmers in Kerala,
Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Crab fattening involves
holding of large-sized crabs that have recently molted
(also known as “water crabs”) for 10-30 days until
they become hard.
19. Marine Cultivable Biological
• A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation
of marine shrimp or prawns for human consumption.
• They play important roles in the foodchain and are important
food sources for larger animals from fish to whales. The
muscular tails of shrimp can be delicious to eat, and they are
widely caught and farmed for human consumption.
• Out of the total aquaculture production, brackishwater shrimp
production contributes about 5%. About 1, 50,000 ha are
under shrimp farming which is about 15% of the total
potential brackishwater area available in the country.
20. Table 6- State wise Shrimp
% of available
West Bengal 4,05,000 50,405 12.44
Orissa 31,600 12,877 40.75
1,50,000 76,687 51.12
Tamil Nadu 56,000 5,286 9.44
Pondicherry 800 130 16.25
Kerala 65,000 14,106 21.70
Karnataka 8,000 1,910 23.87
Goa 18,500 310 1.68
Maharashtra 80,000 1,281 1.60
Gujarat 3,76,000 2,271 0.60
Total 11,90,900 1,65,263 13.882
Source- DAHD, Ministry of Agriculture
21. Marine Cultivable
• Seaweed resources
• Luxuriant growth of several species of green, brown
and red algae occur along the southeast coast of Tamil
Nadu, from Mandapam to Kanyakumari and Gulf of
Mannar islands, Gujarat coast, Lakshadweep, and
Andaman and Nicobar islands.
• Fairly rich seaweed beds are present in the surrounding
area of Mumbai, Ratnagiri, Karwar, Goa, Varkala,
Vizhinjam, and Visakhapatnam and in coastal lakes like
Chilka and Pulicat.
23. Site Selection Criteria for
• Availability of land in a continuous, suitably shaped plot of optimum
size with all facilities.
• The site should have assured & adequate water supply.
• Soil and water of the site must be suitable for fish culture.
• The site should be free from floods.
• The site should have good transport facilities and approach roads.
• The site should have electrical and telephone connections.
• The fish seed should be available easily and in plenty in that area.
• Marketing facilities should be available near the site.
• The site should be away from populated & polluted areas.
• The site should be connected to a drainage system.
• The fishermen or labour should be available near the site.
26. Culture Practices in Marine
Pen Aquacultural Practices
in Marine Aquaculture
Cage Aquacultural Practices
in Marine Aquaculture
Pond Aquacultural Practices
in Marine Aquaculture
27. Financial Facilities in Marine
Aquaculture• National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB)
launches the shrimp & prawn insurance policy.
• In the Insurance Policy the following conditions are
Pollution from external source only
Malicious acts of third parties
Explosion / Implosion
Storm, tempest, cyclone, typhoon, Hurricane,
Tornado, flood, Inundation, volcanic eruption and or other
convulsions of nature.
Air Craft and other aerial devices or articles dropped there
Impact, with any road vehicle.
28. Financial Facilities in
• Credit facilities gives by the public sector institutions &
private sector institutions.
• Most of the credit flows are also from the private non-
institutional sector. i.e. merchants provide finance for
fishing & cultural operations in marine aquaculture.
• Marketing agents, professional money lenders advance
credit against securities of gold & agricultural
• Problems like multiple pond ownership, non
reorganization of land based activity, absence of long-
term leasing policy & non-assurance of seed supplies at
the appropriate time constrained access to credit. 28
29. Role of FAO
• Fish Technologists & Processors in developing
countries, to introduce appropriate technologies for
reducing fish spoilage.
• Fish processors in the fundamentals of quality, use of
ice, hygiene, etc.
• Improves handling practices on fish landing sites &
fish preservation methods.
• Improves fish consumption from low-value resources.
31. Future Prospects in Marine
• Increasing demand: The increasing demand for fish
will require more production, and the supply from
capture fisheries is static.
• Emergence of the sector: Aquaculture has become
recognized as a growth sector of economic importance in
many countries and has attracted the attention of the
private and public sectors.
• Culture-based fisheries: Stocking of reservoirs and
enhancement/rehabilitation of fisheries will gain
importance with time, particularly as cost/benefit
problems are resolved.
32. Future Prospects in Marine
• Growing awareness of sustainability needs:
• There is a rapidly growing awareness of the need
to ensure the sustainability of the sector in the
• Public debate involving all stakeholders, national
and international efforts to arrive at practical
guidelines for sustainable practices.
• Technical efforts to improve the sustainability of
some aquaculture systems, are positive responses
to challenges and will yield constructive results in
the medium and long term.
33. Future Prospects in Marine
• Potential brackish water aquaculture area is widespread along
maritime states of India on both the east and west coasts.
• This area has increased consistently from 1991 till 1996 the year of
white spot viral disease outbreak, After that sustainability and
environmental issues have got the prime emphasis.
• As a result area covered by shrimp farms in the Coastal Regulatory
Zone (CRZ) along the entire coastline has remained almost the same
due to ban imposed by the Supreme Court of India in December, 1996
• The ban permitted shrimp farming only for new farms following
traditional cultural practices under monitoring and supervision of
Aquaculture Authority of India.The major problems faced by this
sector are availability of quality seed and cost-effective feed. In India
large scale brackishwater farming is limited to shrimp.
34. Development Prospects
• Marine Fish production from near shore waters has
reached almost a plateau &, at best, only marginal
increase is predicted from this zone.
• Objectives for future fisheries development include
enhancing fish production & productivity, generating
employment, improving socio-economic conditions of
• Increasing marine products for export, & increasing per
capita availability of fish of about 11kg/yr.
• Developing policy & legal framework with required
safeguards for introduction of exotic varieties would
35. Future Needs
• India’s future fisheries development plans are aimed
at making substantial contributions to double food
• The per capita availability & consumption of fish is to
be increased to a level of 11 kg/year.
• A number of schemes have been initiated by Central
Government for welfare of the fishing community.
• Improvements in database management &
development of linkages in all subsectors a
• India has bright scope in Marine Aquaculture sectors
scope lies in trade of various seeds throughout globe,
developing efforts in policies pertaining to seeds in India.
Increasing the Marketing and distribution system high
crop production growth.
• In Today’s era of developments in Marine Aquaculture
has proved to be a boon for Indian aqua culturist because
it increases the productivity. But still there is need for
expansion of aquaculture in India because it is restricted
to a few states only, so there is great scope for the other
fisheries based industries to enter into this sector.
• India has to develop approaches for the production of
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fishing_in India.(Access Date
%202011-12.pdf (Access Date 22/03/2014).
• Tewari, Deepali, The Agribusiness Book,Luknow,idbc Publishers, page
• De Silva (2003) Culture-Based Fisheries: an under utilized
opportunity in aquaculture development. Aquaculture,221, 221
• KAU Agri-Infotech Portal. (Kerala Agricultural University).
(Access Date 24/03/2014)
• http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/ac230e/AC230E05.htm (Access
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barramundi (Access Date 26/03/2014)
d=153&Itemid=104&lang=en (Access Date 26/03/2014)