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WORLD TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRESENTED BY Kiran Prasad
IntroductionAgriculture refers to the art ofraising plant life from the soil. Itis not merely tilling of land, butimplies a conscious anddetermined effort on the part ofman to utilise the soil for hisbenefit. It includes all suchhuman efforts as are conduciveto the quick and better growthof vegetable and animalproducts for the benefit of man.It is the most important of allprimary human occupations andis carried out throughout theworld except in the Polarregions.
Types of Agriculture• Intensive Cultivation• Extensive Cultivation1. Intensive Cultivation: In thickly populated countries where cultivable land is limited, man uses this limited land intensively so as to obtain the maximum output. He tries to raise more than one crop from the same field and thus, under this method, the land is under one or the other crop throughout the year. Extra care is, therefore, essential to maintain the fertility of soil. The chief characteristics of this system are:a) Application of a lot of labour and capital to maintain the fertility of the soil.b) Use of scientific fertilizers and improved quality of seeds andc) Provision of water through irrigation. Countries like China, Japan, India, Britain, Holland, Belgium and Germany follow this method of cultivation.2. Extensive Cultivation: The method is generally practised in those countries where land is abundant and the population relatively sparse, e.g. the U.S.A, Argentina, Brazil the U.S.S.R, Australia, etc. Under this method, the farmer generally specializes in one or two major commercial crops and performs farming operations with the help of machines. The chief charateristics of this system are as follows: a) This system is highly capital-intensive. Under this system, all the agricultural operations are performed with the aid of machines. B) Farms are very large in size and spread over hundreds of acres. C) No extra care is required to maintain the fertility of soil and in most cases fertility of soil is replenished through natural processes. D) The farmers specialise in one or two major commercial crops, e.g., wheat is grown extensively in the Prairies of the U.S.A. and Canda. e) The farmers get very large arrgregate outputs, though yield per acre is generally low. F) The countries practising extensive cultivation raise bumper crops and have large surpluses for export.
Production of Different Food Crops The important food crops cultivated in different parts of the worldinclude wheat, rice, maize, rye, oats, millets and barley of these crops wheatand rice are the principal food grains of the world. In 1975, world production ofwheat and rice amounted to 355*2 million tonnes and 343*9 million tonnesrespectively. In the same year, wheat and rice occupied 228*2 million and140*9 million hectares of land respectively or together these two cropsoccupied nearly 40% of the total land area under food crops. Wheat and rice are very rich crops and require exacting conditions fortheir growth. They cannot be cultivated in poor soils and adverse climaticconditions. But the other food crops may be cultivated even under adverseconditions, in relatively poorer soil which are unsuited for wheat or ricecultivation.
WHEAT Wheat is the most important of all grains since it makes the best flour andbread that is the best for the growth of man’s body. It is the staple food of all the whitepeople and is consumed widely in the Soviet Union, the United States of America,Canada, India, China, the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Turkey.
Producing Acres Wheat has a wide range of cultivation. It grows in thetemperate west marginal region, the Mediterranean region, thetemperate continental grassland region, and in the monsoonregion. However, the biggest producer of wheat is the temperatecontinental grassland region because of the most favourableconditions for wheat cultivation prevailing in this region. Mostparts of this region are thinly populated. And hence, land is cheapand abundant. Climate every where is favourable for wheatcultivation.
International Trade The total world exports of wheat in 1975 were about73.5 million metric tons. Wheat is one of the most importantcommodities of international trade. Two major factorsaccount for this large volume of trade in wheat:a) Quality of the grain, it produces best flour and bread which is the best for the growth of human body; andb) Much wheat is raised in semi-arid regions. In these regions, sparse population allows huge surplus for other more densely populated areas. Large-scale mechanisation of wheat farming gives very large outputs to producing countries. Hard wheats are mixed with soft wheats in order to keep the quality of the flour high in international trade.
RICE Rice is by far the most important grain of thetropics. It is the staple food of the people living intropical countries and forms the principal food of 50p.c. of the population of the world.International Trade in Rice The growth of population in rice growingareas has directly stimulated production by adding tothe number of rice farmers and also consumers. FarEast has evidenced a rise in rice consumption of about40 percent over the last twenty years, largely reflectingthe steady population growth. Per capita consumptionof rice has also gone up in various countries. Inindustrial countries of North America and WesternEurope etc.
RYE It is an important grain of temperature lands and is used in making bread andliquors. It has been cultivated in Asia and Europe from times immemorial and has beenused by people of the low income group. It is the staple food of the peasant populationof more than half of Europe.Producing Areas: The principle rye producing countries of the world are: U.S.S.R, Germany,Poland, Czechoslovakia, Turkey, the U.S.A. and Argentina. Europe produces andconsumes nearly 95% of the total world output. The U.S.S.R. alone accounts for nearly45%.
International Trade: Rye is essentially grown for home consumption and thereis very little international trade in rye. Canada, Sweden, Poland,France, the U.S.A, Denmark, and Netherlands are the principalexporters.. The principal importers of rye are the U.S.S.R, Poland,West Germany, Romania, Japan, Bulgaria, U.K, East Germany,Switzerland, Italy and the U.S.A.
MAIZE Maize is an important food crop in the countries where people have alow standard of living as in Central America, South America and some parts ofSouth-East Europe. It is also used in distilleries and in the manufacture of starchand glucose. In U.S.A, it is used for feeding cattle.Areas of Production: U.S.A, U.S.S.R, Brazil, China, Mexico, Romania and Yugoslavia are theprincipal producers.International Trade: Bulk of the maize produced is consumed in the home market and onlyabout 16 per cent of the maize produced is put in the world market for sale. Thechief exporting countries are the U.S.A, Thailand, Argentina, S. Africa, Brazil,Belgium, Korea DPR, France, Singapore and Netherlands.
OATS Oats is also an important foodgrain of the world and is used both for humanconsumption and as feed for farm animals. It is also grown as a rotation crop and isrotated with maize and wheat.Producing Areas: The U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., Canada, Poland, France, Germany and U.K are theprincipal products of oats.International Trade: The International Trade in oats is extremely small and normally only 2 to 3per cent of the world production of oats enters the world market. In 1975, only about217 million metric tons out of a total production of 49 million metric tons of oats wereexported. The principal exporters are Australia, Canada, the U.S.A., Swedan, France,the Netherlands and Norway.The importing countries are W. Germany, the U.S.S.R, Switzerland, Poland, Italy, U.K,Hungary, Ecuador, Japan, Belgium and Denmark.
BARLEY Barley is believed to the most ancient of cultivated grains. It is used as afoodgrain and a common feed for horses, cattle and a common feed for horses, cattleand pigs.Producing Areas: Europe , U.S.S.R, North America, AsiaInternational Trade Canada, France, Australia, the U.K. Denmark, the U.S.A and Netherlands arethe principal exporters of barley. In 1975, about 12.6 million metric tons of barleywere put in the world market for export. The respective shares of Canada, France,Australia, the U.K., Denmark, the U.S.A, and the Netherlands in thousand metric tonswere : 3,356, 2.587, 1,749, I,068, 746, 658 and 282. Europe and North CentralAmerican contributed 44.2% and 31.8% respectively;
MILIETS Millet is a short season crop and serves both as human food and as fodderfor cattle.Producing Areas: Millets are largely cultivated in India, U.S.S.R, China, Sudan, Mexico, Japanand Pakistan. India is the second largest producer surpassed only by China producing10 to 11 million metric tons of millets every year.
SUMMARY Food CropsCrop Climate Soils Other factors Producing Exporting Importing T-Temperature countries countries countries R-RainfallWheat Cool and moderately moist Sandy loams and Level land makes it U.S.S.R., U.S.A., U.S.A, Canada, U.K., Japan, India, climate during growing black soils. Needs easy to use China, India, Australia, Brazil, Germany, period, and warm and dry manufacturing machines. France, Canada, Argentina, France, Italy, Holland, climate with sunshine every alternate Australia, Turkey, Sweden, Uruguay. Poland, during harvesting period. year. Italy, W. Germany, Czechoslovakia. T: 1280C to 190C Argentina, (550F to 660F) Romania, U.K, R : 25 to 73 cm Poland, Spain, (10” to 30”) Yugoslavia.Rice Hot and moist climate. Loams with high (i)Level land 90% of the Burma, U.S.A, India, Hong Kong, Flooding in early period of silt and clay (ii)Cheap labour production from Thailand, Khmer Singapore, growth. content. Monsoon Asia, Republic, U.A.R, Malaysia, U.K. T : Average 270C China, India, Brazil, Ecuador, W. Germany, (800F) Bangladesh, Vietnam, Formosa, France, Japan, R : 100 cm to Indonesia, Japan, Spain, Italy Bangladesh. 150 cm Thailand, Burma, (40” to 60”) Brazil, Indo-China, U.A.R., Italy, Spain and U.S.A Rye Cool and moist climate Can be grown in U.S.S.R., Germany, Canada, U.S.A, Netherlands, fertile as well as in Poland, W.Germany, Poland, Sweden, poor lands, Mostly Czechoslovakia, France East and West grown in poor, Turkey, U.S.A. Germany. leached, acid and Argentina. podsol soils.
Crop Climate Soils Other factors Producing Exporting Importing T-Temperature countries countries countries R-RainfallMaize Humid sub-tropical climate Well drained deep U.S.A, U.S.S.R, U.S.A., Argentina, Italy, Japan, U.K. T : 200 to 240C loams. Brazil, China, Romania, Brazil, France, W. In summer Mexico, Romania, Thailand, France, Germany, (680 to 750F) Yogoslavia. South South Africa Netherlands, 7’20 to 13’30C Africa, France, Belgium – In autumn India, Italy, Luxembourg R : 76 to 127 cm Hungary, Thailand. (30” to 50”) Oats Cold damp climate. Also Fairly poor soils. U.S.A, U.S.S.R. Australia, U.S.A, W. Germany, U.K, hot and very wet climate. Canada, France, Canada, U.S.S.R, Switzerland, Italy, Crop of higher latitudes. W. Germany, U.K, Poland Belgium, Holland, Poland, China, France, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, India. Australia.Barley Climatic conditions almost Rich fertile soils. U.S.S.R., France, U.S.A, Canada, W. Germany, similar to wheat Can not grow in Canada, U.S.A, France Denmark, Japan, U.K, T : 13 0C to 190C poor sandy soils. U.K, W. Germany. Argentina, U.K. Netherland (550F to 660F) Denmark, Spain, R : 75 to 100 cm Turkey, East (30” to 40”) Germany, India, Rep. of Korea.Millets Hot and semi-arid climate Poor sandy soils. India, U.S.S.R, Trade almost nil as T : 240C to 290C China, Nigeria, the entire (750F to 850F) Egypt, Uganda, production is R : 50 to 75 cm Mali, Sudan, consumed locally. (20” to 40”) Mexico, Japan and Pakistan.