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aging and its social medical implications

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aging and its social medical implications

  2. 2. AGING The process of becoming older, a process that is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. Or Aging is a sequential or progressive change in an organism that leads to increase risk of debility, disease and death. Senescence consist of these manifestations of the aging process. Kinza Musta
  3. 3. Who Are Elderly? Aging in Society?  Gerontology is a field of science that seeks to understand the process of aging and the challenges encountered as seniors grow older.  Gerontologist investigate age, aging, and the aged. Gerontologists study what it is like to be an older adult in a society and the ways that aging affects members of a society.
  4. 4. SOCIAL GERONTOLOGY  This refers to a specialized field of gerontology that examines the social aspects of aging.  Researchers focus on developing a board understanding of the experiences of people at specific ages, such as mental and physical wellbeing, plus age specific concerns such as the process of dying.  Social gerontologists work as social researchers, counselors, community organizers, and service providers for older adults.
  5. 5. Phases of Aging:  The United states older adult population can be divided into three life-stage subgroups:  The young-old (approximately 65-74)  The middle-old (ages 75-85)  The old-old (over age 85)
  6. 6. Frail Elder: Frail elder is described in literature as the older adults with problems in multiple domains or who is vulnerable , fragile , and lacking resilience. The FRIED definition of frail elderly includes the following factors:  Unintentional weight loss  Self-reported exhaustion  Slow walking speed  Low physical activity  Frail elders are generally older than 65 years and present with deficiencies in at least 2 of the major domains
  7. 7. Following are the major domains : •Physical •Cognitive •Nutritive •Sensory
  8. 8. Successful Aging: The process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables well-being in older age. People age in different ways and at different rates , although there is some consensus of opinion as to normal aging and what may be termed as successful aging.  Exercise tolerance , strength , and balance frequently experience a decline with age , yet regular exercise has been shown to preserve these functions overtime and , in some cases, reverse the usual decline.
  9. 9. Aging Around The World: ■Aging in the population is moderate in outside of East Asia and Europe such as Indonesia and Egypt. ■But aging is rapidly increase in China , Japan , South Korea , Germany , United states of America and many others. ■Research held by the University of Washington according to get research in 2100 2.4 billion are going to be over the age of 65 compared with 1.7 billion under the age of 20.
  10. 10. ■PEW research centre: They surveyed and got a result that at a time when the global population of people ages 65 and older is expected to triple to 1.5 billion by mid century , public opinion on whether the growing number of older people is a problem varies dramatically around the world .
  11. 11. ■Aging in Pakistan: Pakistan is one of the country that potentially stands to benefit from future demographic trends because Pakistan centrally has large shares of children in their populations .
  12. 12. Age Related Changes:  Change in appearance : such as reduction in height, loss of weight ,muscle loss ,loss of bone mass.  Changes in audience ,olfaction ,vision , pulmonary and immune functions  Some aged-related changes also called Farsightedness which may caused by the continuous growth of eyes ,lenses and appears to be universal of human aging.  Number of pathologies increases with age included 2 types of diabetes ,heart diseases ,cancer ,arthritis and kidney disease.
  13. 13. Sensory Changes:  Hearing :  loss of ability to hear the high frequency sounds_  Hearing can lead to social isolation  Hearing aids can't address all types of hearing loss.  Vision :  loss of ability to see items  Size of pupil grows smaller with age  Lens of eyes yellow making it more difficult to see red and green colors  Dry eyes are common
  14. 14.  Taste & Smell :  Many older people often complain of food being tasteless  Sense of smell decreases  4. Pain & Touch :  With age skin is not sensitive as in youth  Factors  Loss of elasticity  Reducer of layer
  15. 15. GI Tract  _ Number of gastric cell decreased products of HCL  _ Constipation is more common in older adults due to slowed circulation , reduced the thirst and decrease tone in stomach & intestine  _ Emotions play a significant role in appetite and digestion Muscle &Bones  _ loss of elasticity of connective tissues can cause pain  _ Maintain bone health through diet exercise &getting adequate rest
  16. 16. Changes in Skin  To most people ; condition of skin ,hair and connective tissues represent the indicator of age_  Muscles of face capable of movement , smile ,laughter, frown and surprise are all recorded .  By age of 40; most people bear typical lines of their expressions. Cardiopulmonary System  In the absence of diseases ; the heart tends to maintain its size  Heart valves tend to increase in thickness with age  Bp increase with age
  17. 17. Respiratory System  Airway and tissue become less elastic and more rigid with age  Power of respiratory & abdominal muscles become reduced Skeletomuscular System  _ At the age of 65 : arthritis and allied bones ,muscles conditions are most common disorders
  18. 18. Arthritis  Inflammation and degenerative change in joint  OSTEOARTHRITIS;  gradual wearing away of joint cartilage that results in exposure of rough underlying bone ends  Can damage internal ligament  Weight bearing joint RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS;  A chronic , systematic and inflammatory disease of connective tissue  2-3 times more common among women May occur at age most common onset between 20 & 50
  19. 19. Urinary System  Bladder of elderly person has a capacity of less than young person and contain more urine  Micturation reflex is delayed; usually activated when bladder is half full.
  20. 20. Common Health Problems Of Older Adults Following are the common health problems that older adults usually face:  •Osteoarthritis  •Cardiovascular disease  •Diabetes  •Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  21. 21. OSTEOARTHRITIS: Is also known as degenerative disease. Commonly occur in older person and is characterized by chronic degeneration of cartilage of joints. RISK FACTORS  Age : OA rise after age 50 in men & age 40 in women  Obesity : Is a common cause of OA  Injury : Injuries develop osteoarthritis.
  22. 22. Symptoms:  Pain  Stiffness of joint  Loss of flexibility  Grating sensation  Bone spur  Swelling
  23. 23. Cardiovascular Diseases: Group of disorder of heart and blood vessels including hypertension (high BP) coronary heart disorder (heart attack) TYPES:  Coronary heart disease  Stroke  Peripheral arterial disorder CAUSES:  HTN  Smoking  Diabetes  Obesity  Family history of CVD
  24. 24. Diabetes: Chronic disease by elevated levels of blood glucose. Risk factors:  Obesity  Family history  High BP  Gestational diabetes Symptoms :  Increased thirst  Increased hunger  Increased urination  Feel tired  Weight loss
  25. 25. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders) Chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from lungs. Causes:  Smoking  Asthma  Occupational exposure to dust and chemicals Symptoms:  Breathing difficulty  Mucus production  Cough
  26. 26. Mistreatment and Abuse:  Mistreatment :Treating a person badly , cruelty and unfairly , Improper treatment.  Abuse :Treat with cruelty or violence , regularly and repeatedly. CAUSES OF ABUSE:  Economic inequality  Poverty and unemployment  Lack of social safety
  27. 27. TYPES OF ABUSE:  Physical abuse  Emotional abuse  Sexual abuse EFFECTS OF ABUSE:  Physical injury  Disabling injury  Long lasting depression and anxiety
  28. 28. Fall Prevention in Elderly People: FACTORS: Intrinsic factors: Which includes:  Decreased sensory control  Balance control  Balance control*  MSK impairments Extrinsic factors Which includes:  Environmental factors  Equipment
  29. 29. Causes Of Fall:  Location of fall  Activity prior to fall  Loss of consciousness  Use of walking aid like cane  Environmental factors like slippery floor, rug ● What a PT does in this regard?? He/ she determines if the risk factors are modifiable or not?? If yes, Those factors causing fall in elderly must b altered according to need  Hindrance in between walk must be eliminated  Reduced distance between bed room and rest room  Room arrangements are also considered in this regard
  30. 30. National Institute Of Aging: Offers advices for preventing fall and fractures on its Web site http://wwwniapublications.org And a list of number of suggestions for preventing fall. Interventions:  Identification of individual risk factors contributing to fall  Identification of environmental factors  Use of proper medications and supplements like osteoporosis is the most common issue among elderly population
  31. 31.  Improving physical mobility through exercise programs, gait training,.  Use of walking aids  Educating the patient's family about risk factors and continence promotion and toilet programs
  32. 32. Assessment Of Physical Activity: Physical activity refers to all movement including during leisure time, for transport to get to and from places, or as part of a person's work. Both moderate- and vigorous- intensity physical activity improve health. Current Techniques to Measure Physical Activity:  Accelerometers  Pedometers  Calorimeter
  33. 33. Exercise Programs: Before initiating an exercise program , older adults should be screened for possible signs and symptoms that need medical attention. The fitness levels of older adults vary considerably based on the physical activity and general health of older adults , one needs to assess cardio respiratory functions , muscular strength , Endurance ,flexibility and body composition.
  34. 34. Functional Fitness: The physical capacity of a the individual to meet ordinary and unexpected demands of daily life safely and effectively. Following are the functional test that are performed to measure functional fitness.  Continuous scale physical functional Performance Test (CS-PFP)  Physical Performance test (PPT)  The Senior Fitness test
  35. 35. Social Implications of Aging:  A pattern of life changes that occur as one grows older  Refers to a persons habits & roles relative to social expectations  Increase population of older people means that there is an increased demand of health & social care Social implication & Social issues affecting elderly:  Old age accompanied by role change or often role loss  Many people can expect transformation in occupation, family or community roles & sometimes number of many different roles declines..
  36. 36. Social and psychological problems of seniors: LONLINESS:  New York Times , 25th March 2009 quoted , Loneliness leads to poorer physical & mental health.  Negative & unpleasant feeling ( Tiwari Indian psychiatric) Loneliness is reported to be more dangerous than smoking. Factors cause loneliness  unpleasant experience  discrepancy b/w level of his/her needs & social contacts  Migration of people.  Personality factors  Mental distress  Low self esteem  poor coping strategies
  37. 37. Interventions:  Keeping self busy  Feeling sharing  Helping others  Joining of groups of self interest  Collecting good thought  Staying in contact with family & friends
  38. 38. Social isolation: Aging basically a state in which individual lacks a sense of,  Belonging socially  Engagement with others  Social contacts  Quality & Fulfilling of relationship Intervention  Make groups or friends ,meet regularly (Weekly)  Educational & Social activities
  39. 39. Retirement and Mental Health: There are many studies in 1995,2002 & 2003 to support the indication that Retirement and mental health are positively associated with social implications of aging  Retirement cause mental & physical health disorders  Increase difficulties associated with mobility & Daily activities  Increase illness conditions declines mental health  Increase probability of suffering financial problems
  40. 40.  Frustration with ongoing medical problems & Increase numbers of medication  Increased probability of having at least one diagnosed condition & Taking a drug for such condition  Increased probability of suffering from clinical depression  Inability to manage DLA independently  Difficulty in coping And accepting physical change of aging  Feeling inadequate from inability to continues to work
  41. 41. Medical Implications of Aging The good news is that with the age comes dignity & Greater understanding of life and human conditions But some health care or medical issues are also  Inter-Relate with the procedure of aging.  Multiple Pathology  Hearing loss  Dementia  HTN  BP  Heart disease & many more
  42. 42. Strategies to promote successful Aging •Exercise Regularly • Don't smoke • Get enough sleep • Avoid chronic stress • Maintain healthy weight • Eat healthy diet On the Basis of SOCIOLOGY following are the strategies to promote Successful AGING:
  43. 43. Social Support:  Refers various sources of help  Resources to obtained social relationship with family , friends and other care providers Types of social support:  Emotional support  Instrumental support , helps with activities of daily living  Financial support  Appraisal support , help with decision making strategies  Helping elderly to identify meaningful ways to stay involved in different activities to stay healthy