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SBC_450_Hereditary eye dysfunction.pptx 1.ppt

  1. Hereditary eye dysfunction
  2. Hereditary eye dysfunction  The four most common eye conditions leading to loss of vision or blindness are:  Cataracts.  Diabetic retinopathy.  Glaucoma.  Age-related macular degeneration.
  3. An ocular opacity, partial or complete, of one or both eyes, on or in the lens or capsule, especially an opacity impairing vision or causing blindness. The subsequent cloudy appearance of the eye resulted in the origin of the name cataract SURES - IN HOUSE CLINIC
  4. Signs and symptoms of cataracts include • Clouded, blurred or dim vision • Increasing difficulty with vision at night • Sensitivity to light and glare • Need for brighter light for reading and other activities • Seeing "halos" around lights • Frequent changes in eye glass or contact lens prescription • Fading or yellowing of colors • Double vision in a single eye
  5. Causes  Most cataracts develop when aging or injury changes the tissue that makes up your eye's lens.  Some inherited genetic disorders that cause other health problems can increase your risk of cataracts.  Cataracts can also be caused by other eye conditions, past eye surgery or medical conditions such as diabetes.  Long-term use of steroid medications, too, can cause cataracts to develop.
  6. Management  Vision may be improved by: Using different eyeglasses ------ Magnifying lenses  Cataract Surgery Draw back: High pressure in the eye • Blood collection inside the eye • Infection inside the eye  Intake of dietary antioxidants prevent cataract formation by blocking the oxidative modification of the lens Vitamins A, C and E  Phacoemulsification: The most common method of removal. Phaco involves a small incision on the side of the cornea
  7. DIABETIC RETINOPATHY RISK FACTORS 1. Duration of diabetes 2. Poor control of Diabetes 3. Hypertension 4. Nephropathy 6. Obesity and hyperlipidemia 7. Smoking 8. Pregnancy
  8. Pathogenesis  Microangiopathy which has features of both microvascular leakage and occlusion  Larger vessels may also be involved  Loss of pericytes results in distention of weak capillary wall producing microaneurysms which leak.  Blood-retinal barrier breaks down causing plasma constituents to leak into the retina – retinal oedema, hard exudates  Basement membrane thickening, endothelial cell damage, deformed RBCs, platelet stickiness and aggregation  Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is produced by hypoxic retina  VEGF stimulates the growth of shunt and new vessels
  9. Classification of DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR) I Non-proliferative DR (NPDR)  Mild  Moderate  Severe  Very severe II. Proliferative DR (PDR) III. Clinically significant macular oedema (CSME) - May exist by itself or along with NPDR and PDR
  10. Refractive Errors Hyperopia (Far Sightedness)  Object focuses behind the retina  Able to see only far objects Signs and symptoms:  blurred vision, Squinting, Eye rubbing, Headaches Treatment: Convex lens Myopia (Near Sightedness)  Object focuses in front of the retina  Able to see only close objects Symptoms and Signs: Blurred vision, squinting, eye rubbing, headaches Treatment  Concave lens and Radical keratotomy
  11. Refractive Errors Cont….. Astigmatism  Abnormal shaped cornea (egg shape instead of spherical)  Object is partially clear & other blurred  Symptoms and Signs: blurred vision, squinting, eye rubbing, headaches Treatment  Concave lens and Radical keratotomy Presbyopia  Mechanism Rigidity of the lens (old age) unable to focus  Symptoms and Signs: Blurred vision, squinting, eye rubbing, headaches  Treatment: Lens transplant