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Instructional Design and Pedagogy in ECCE

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College of Education and Behavioral Sciences
Department of Psychology
Program: Master of Art in ECCE
Course Title: Instruc...

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www.ju.edu.et
2
Chapter Four: Assessment
and evaluation in early
childhood care and
education
4.1. The concepts of
assessm...

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4.1. The concepts of assessment, evaluation and other related
terms in ECCE
www.ju.edu.et
3
Assessment:
 Assessment is th...

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Instructional Design and Pedagogy in ECCE

  1. 1. College of Education and Behavioral Sciences Department of Psychology Program: Master of Art in ECCE Course Title: Instructional Design and Pedagogy in Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Course Code: ECCE 605 Credit Hours: 4 By Khor Lual Puk Submitted to Dr. Abi Jimma university, Ethiopia Jan,2022 www.ju.edu.et
  2. 2. www.ju.edu.et 2 Chapter Four: Assessment and evaluation in early childhood care and education 4.1. The concepts of assessment, evaluation and other related terms in ECCE 4.2. The purposes of assessment and evaluation in ECCE 4.3. Types of assessment and evaluation applicable to ECCE 4.4. Challenges faced in implementing continuous and summative assessments and evaluations in ECCE 4.5. Strategies to be considered in overcoming/minimizing those challenges CONTENT S:
  3. 3. 4.1. The concepts of assessment, evaluation and other related terms in ECCE www.ju.edu.et 3 Assessment:  Assessment is the process of gathering and interpreting evidence to make judgments about student learning. It is the crucial link between: I. learning outcomes, II. content and teaching and III. learning activities.  Assessment is used by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are at in their learning, where they need to go, and how best to get there.  The purpose of assessment is to improve learning, inform teaching, help students achieve the highest standards they can and provide meaningful reports on students’ achievement.
  4. 4. Cont…… Assessment is a procedure used to determine the degree to which an individual child possesses a certain attribute. Another purpose for assessing an individual child is to gain a better understanding of how the child is progressing within the program. In addition, the collective assessments of children’s academic achievement can be used to measure the effectiveness of programs and its interventions. 4 www.ju.edu.et
  5. 5. Cont….. www.ju.edu.et 5 Evaluation  Evaluation is the process of making judgments about the merit, value, or worth of educational programs, projects, materials, or techniques.  Assessments may be used during the process of educational evaluation in order to make these judgments. Evaluation often includes research-like techniques, for the judgments and conclusions derived from evaluation are based upon evidence (Smith & Glass, 1987).  Evidence can include both systematic as well as unsystematic observations of program outcomes.
  6. 6. Cont….. www.ju.edu.et 6 Measurement: Measurement: is the process of quantifying students learning behaviors (describing it in terms of quantity). It’s means of determining the attributes or dimensions of an object, skill or knowledge.
  7. 7. Cont….. 7 Testing: Test: is one of the tools of assessment which could be the collection of activities or questions. It’s used to examine someone's knowledge of something to determine what he or she knows or has learned. Testing measures the level of skill or knowledge that has been reached.
  8. 8. 4.2. Purposes of assessment and evaluation in ECCE www.ju.edu.et 8 4.2.1. Assessment to Support Learning  It help to promote children’s learning and development, advocates that the process of teaching and the process of assessment are inseparable.  It determine the starting point from which to begin the curriculum process with children. Typically, two aspects are considered within this framework 1. The first aspect determining the type of academic skills and factual knowledge of the child. 2. The second aspect determine children’s current level of developmental functioning.
  9. 9. 4.4.2. Identification of Special Needs www.ju.edu.et 9  Identification is used to identify children’s special problems for the purpose of determining if there is a further need for additional services beyond that which is already provided in their environment. Usually a two-step process is required to identify children with special needs. A. The first step is screening:  This is a very brief assessment to determine whether further assessment need to be warranted.  Screening is only used during the initial stages of special needs identification and referral.
  10. 10. Cont…… www.ju.edu.et 10 B. Secondly, the child is referred to the appropriate specialist or specialists who assess the child in depth using diagnostic assessments. The outcome of the diagnostic procedure is twofold A. First, the assessment procedure should identify the nature of the special need or needs. B. Second, and just as important, the diagnostic procedure should indicate the type of program that will best serve the child’s needs.
  11. 11. 3: Assessing a child’s progress and program evaluation www.ju.edu.et 11  In the third purpose, “monitoring trends/changes and evaluating programs and services” for individual child assessments are combined across groups of children to determine program effectiveness and examined individually over time to examine children’s progress. According to McAfee and Leong (2002), there are three reasons for teachers to track children’s progress. I. To know that what they are doing with children in the classroom results in learning and development. II. To show both families and children that progress is being made. III. By providing evidence of progress to children and families, an increase in motivation on the part of both parents and children may be realized.
  12. 12. Cont…… www.ju.edu.et 12  Teachers should also use ongoing assessment in order “to understand specific children and to gain information on which to base immediate decisions on how to direct, guide, teach, or respond” to the children.  By combining assessment information from the children in the class- room, teachers can also evaluate the effectiveness of their program while it is in progress.  Evaluation with this purpose is often referred to as formative evaluation.  Formative evaluation refers to assessments of quality that are focused on curricular programs that may still be modified.
  13. 13. 4: Accountability www.ju.edu.et 13  Assessing academic achievement to hold individual students, teachers, and schools accountable is the fourth purpose for assessing children in early childhood programs.  Individual assessments can also be combined in order to determine whether or not these standards are being met, thus holding schools to a measure of accountability.
  14. 14. Cont…… www.ju.edu.et 14 Two types of standards are usual in this instance A. Content standards: refer to what should be learned within the various subject areas.  Content standards can also include critical thinking ability, problem solving skills, reasoning, and strategies that are used by children in gathering information (McAfee & Leong, 2002). B. Performance standards: refer to the levels of achievement that are thought to be appropriate for individual grade levels.  They are a means of determining the degree to which content standards have been achieved (Lewis, 1995; Ravitch, 1995).
  15. 15. 4.3.Types of Assessments and Evaluations applicable in ECCE www.ju.edu.et 15 In the first session, we will see the types of assessment that are applicable in Early Childhood Education. 4.3.1. Diagnostic  Is the type of assessment that is normally undertaken before instruction in order to determine the students’ prior knowledge of a particular topic or lesson.  Its purpose is to anticipate/predicts potential learning problems and group/place students in the proper course or unit of study.  NB: Diagnostic assessment diagnoses learning progress during instruction.
  16. 16. Cont.…. www.ju.edu.et 16 Diagnostic assessment evaluates: What level of skills and knowledge the student has already achieved; What skills and knowledge the students can bring with them into the course;  It also evaluate the gaps or weaknesses that are apparent in the student’s knowledge compared to others of a similar age and ability.
  17. 17. Cont.…. www.ju.edu.et 17 Forms of diagnostic assessment: It interviewing the student; Make a discussion with parents/ caregivers/ other educational professionals who have close links to the students; It assess subject-specific skills test or concept tests, and; Close monitoring and tracking of pupil progression.
  18. 18. 4.3.2. Formative www.ju.edu.et 18  It is usually administered during the instructional process to provide feedback to students and teachers on how well the former are learning the lesson being taught.  It uses pre-tests, homework, seatwork, and classroom questions.  Results of formative assessment are used for modifying or adjusting instruction.  NB: Formative assessment monitors learning progress during instruction.
  19. 19. Characteristics of formative assessment: www.ju.edu.et 19 Happens continuously in a classroom environment. Involves both teacher and learner in a process of continuous review and consideration regarding levels of progress. Provides constructive and encouraging feedback, allowing individuals to take responsibility for their own learning. Allows lesson plans to be assessed and adjusted as necessary, making teachers instantly aware of any potential problems or areas of difficulty. 
  20. 20. Cont…. www.ju.edu.et 20 Allows a teacher to plan lessons in line with their pupils’ abilities. Is an exceptional asset to maintain effective and high quality teaching standards. Can be oral or written feedback. May take the form of positive assessment.
  21. 21. 4.3.3. Summative www.ju.edu.et 21  This type of assessment is undertaken to determine student achievement for grading purposes.  It is frequently based on cognitive knowledge, as expressed through test scores and written outputs.  Results of summative assessment can be utilized not only for judging student achievement but also the effectiveness of the teacher and the curriculum.  NB: Summative assessment determines student achievement at the end of instruction.
  22. 22. Characteristics of Summative Assessment www.ju.edu.et 22 Summative assessment sums up the learning; It’s carried out at the end of the unit, semester, school year, or when the pupil is about to leave the school; Takes the form of a monitored test or exam and is more commonly written than oral; and It can be used to monitor the performance of a whole school or group, not just an individual.
  23. 23. 4.4. Challenges faced in implementing continuous and summative assessments and evaluations in ECCE www.ju.edu.et 23 The following are the drawbacks of continuous assessment: Danger of being too impulsive or improvised, and may not always provide an accurate degree of reliable objectivity. Can be damaging to pupils’ self esteem if not used appropriately or sensitively. Can be difficult to set and maintain rigid assessment standards if there is little or no ‘paper work’ to back it up.
  24. 24. Cont.…….. www.ju.edu.et 24 Can be imposing if the teacher guides the class too much often, or if the class relies on the teacher too much – ‘spoon feeding’. It can sometimes appear as if the teacher is favoring some students over others, especially if they commend or reprimand particular students more than others.
  25. 25. Cont.….. www.ju.edu.et 25 In contrary, the following are the drawbacks of summative assessment and evaluation:  Attainment levels are rigid and not usually open to reviews; the grade achieved is irrefutable.  Exams can only assess the pupil’s performance on that day, regardless of performance levels outside of the exam situations.  School – based summative assessment is time – consuming and means a lot of work for the teacher to ensure it is completed to a high standard.  Ranking and scaling pupils can be damaging to their
  26. 26. 4.5. Strategies to be considered in overcoming/minimizing those challenges www.ju.edu.et 26 The followings are the most common skills educators and child care professionals want to keep an eye on in order to overcome the challenges throughout the year includes the following: Checking to see if the whole class is sure about what has been asked of them. Engaging students through direct or ‘hands-up’ questioning. Walking around the classroom to monitor students’ progress. Guiding a student or whole class through a task
  27. 27. Cont….. www.ju.edu.et 27  Establishment of a classroom culture that encourages interaction and the use of assessment tools.  Establishment of learning goals, and tracking of individual student progress toward those goals.  Use of varied instruction methods to meet diverse student needs.  Use of varied approaches to assessing student understanding.  Feedback on student performance and adaptation of instruction to meet identified needs.  Active involvement of students in the learning
  28. 28. Cont….. www.ju.edu.et 28 Finally, It’s crucial for educators to administer these assessments and evaluations in the right environment and communicate with parents about what a preschool assessment is approachable. You can reassure those family members that your assessments won’t be a stressful experience for their children. Instead of giving the children grades or making an assessment pass/fail, the assessments and evaluation should simply observe a child’s skills.
  29. 29. www.ju.edu.et 29 www.ju.edu.et

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