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Welcome to All
The Content is
Observation Method
Presented by-
Khan Md. Mainul Hoque
Training Specialist
National Academy for Educational Management(NAEM)
Ministry of Educ...
Observation involves looking and listening
very carefully. We all watch other people
sometimes, but we don’t usually watc...
Definition
 One of the method of data collection is
observation. Observation is a systematic
watching with a view to spec...
 Data are collected from two sources
(a) Primary
(b) Secondary
Methods of Data Collection
1. Observation Method
2. Questionnaire
3. Interview
4.Interview Schedule
Merits of Observation:
The behavior of human being is exactly
observed
The people who cannot speak (Deaf &
children)
Fe...
Demerits of Observation:
Language barrier
Cultural barrier
Risks involved
Researchers are needed to wait for the
incid...
Con..
Data collection is difficult for private
matters
Peoples opinion thinking, planning cannot
be observed.
Observation will be treated as
scientific method-when
It will be used with the purpose of a
research
It is planned in a ...
Techniques of Observation:
Taking Note: What observed that should
be in written form
Taking photograph: Picture can give...
Guide to doing observation
Do the observation-
Make sure you are properly prepare with
pen, paper and clear idea of what ...
Con..
Look and listen very carefully
Remember not try to influence behavior of
the people you are observing. So be
caref...
Possible answer
 Data collection through natural
environment
 What role people play in different
situation that is obser...
Some subjects what should be careful
1.What the researcher wish to observe
2.How does he write the data
3.What special ...
Types of observation based on
participation
1.Participant observation
2.Non-Participant observation
Participant observation
When the researchers participate for
collecting data.
Participant observation is a structured
ty...
Con..
Its aim is to gain a close and intimate
familiarity with a given group of individuals
(such as a religious, occupat...
Participant Observation
Observer participates actively, for an
extended period of time
May require observer to live or w...
Non Participant Observation
Observer is an spy
Someone who attempts to observe people
without interacting with them
Wit...
Guide to doing observation
If you are doing participant observation
you will have to decide whether to
“Remain hidden”-n...
Research Title
Housing Pattern of the Tribal People of
Bangladesh
Research Title
“Classroom Management Practice of
Secondary Schools of Rural Bangladesh “
Class room observation check list
Teachers Name: Class: Subject:
School:
Class structure Could improve Acceptable Excell...
Con..
Methods
 Provide well designed materials
 Employs non lecture learning
 activities (small group
 discussion, st...
Con..
 Solicit student input
 Involve varieties of students
 Special attention to the
special need students
Comments
Types of observation based on the field of
inquiry
1.Controlled observation
2. Non-controlled observation
Controlled ob...
Unstructured observation
Actively participate by the researchers. Staying
with the observed group or people for a specifi...
Early phase of the research
May become specific to when and where
to observe, what specific aspects of the
setting or be...
How to do unstructured observation
Take a notebook and pen
Note down when you see something
interesting.
Write down the...
Structure Observation
 Objectives and scope of the research are
pre designed. In structure observation the
researchers ar...
Structured Observation
Greater control of sampling
Measurement of error
Permits stronger generalizations and checks
on r...
Observation Method
Observation Method
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Observation Method

Observation is one of the vital methods of data collection. This method is very much relevant to collect the data in ethnographic research. Very expert data researcher is needed to collect data through observation method.

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Observation Method

  1. 1. Welcome to All
  2. 2. The Content is Observation Method
  3. 3. Presented by- Khan Md. Mainul Hoque Training Specialist National Academy for Educational Management(NAEM) Ministry of Education Bangladesh
  4. 4. Observation involves looking and listening very carefully. We all watch other people sometimes, but we don’t usually watch them in order to discover particular information about their behavior. This is what observation in social science.
  5. 5. Definition  One of the method of data collection is observation. Observation is a systematic watching with a view to specific objectives.  According to P.V Young “Observation may be defined as systematic viewing coupled with consideration of the seen phenomena.”
  6. 6.  Data are collected from two sources (a) Primary (b) Secondary
  7. 7. Methods of Data Collection 1. Observation Method 2. Questionnaire 3. Interview 4.Interview Schedule
  8. 8. Merits of Observation: The behavior of human being is exactly observed The people who cannot speak (Deaf & children) Few groups are available they don’t wish to disclose their own affairs Observation is needed for knowing the religious and social function
  9. 9. Demerits of Observation: Language barrier Cultural barrier Risks involved Researchers are needed to wait for the incident or behavior Observation mainly depends on the duration
  10. 10. Con.. Data collection is difficult for private matters Peoples opinion thinking, planning cannot be observed.
  11. 11. Observation will be treated as scientific method-when It will be used with the purpose of a research It is planned in a systematic way Observed data will be coded in a systematic way Observation might be controlled for measuring reliability or validity of data
  12. 12. Techniques of Observation: Taking Note: What observed that should be in written form Taking photograph: Picture can give more information Preparing Map: Observed people are living in which area Schedule: What should be observed that have a specific limit.
  13. 13. Guide to doing observation Do the observation- Make sure you are properly prepare with pen, paper and clear idea of what you are looking for  Make sure that you make the notes as the observation is occurring or immediately afterwards-you don’t want to forget what happened
  14. 14. Con.. Look and listen very carefully Remember not try to influence behavior of the people you are observing. So be careful how you take notes
  15. 15. Possible answer  Data collection through natural environment  What role people play in different situation that is observed  Actual data can be perceived  Through this method it is possible to collect data on social life
  16. 16. Some subjects what should be careful 1.What the researcher wish to observe 2.How does he write the data 3.What special measure should be taken for right observation 4. What should be relationship between the observer and the groups
  17. 17. Types of observation based on participation 1.Participant observation 2.Non-Participant observation
  18. 18. Participant observation When the researchers participate for collecting data. Participant observation is a structured type of research strategy. It is a widely used methodology in many disciplines, particularly, cultural anthropology
  19. 19. Con.. Its aim is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their cultural environment,
  20. 20. Participant Observation Observer participates actively, for an extended period of time May require observer to live or work in that area Assumes that observer will become accepted member of the group or community Historically field research has been associated most strongly with participant observation.
  21. 21. Non Participant Observation Observer is an spy Someone who attempts to observe people without interacting with them Without their knowledge that they are being observed Used most routinely by psychologists studying children and animals.
  22. 22. Guide to doing observation If you are doing participant observation you will have to decide whether to “Remain hidden”-not tell anyone that you are observing them “Be Open”-Tell people that you are observing them
  23. 23. Research Title Housing Pattern of the Tribal People of Bangladesh
  24. 24. Research Title “Classroom Management Practice of Secondary Schools of Rural Bangladesh “
  25. 25. Class room observation check list Teachers Name: Class: Subject: School: Class structure Could improve Acceptable Excellent Nobserved Review previous days course content Gives ovrviews of days course Content Summarize course content covered Directs students preparation for next class Comments
  26. 26. Con.. Methods  Provide well designed materials  Employs non lecture learning  activities (small group  discussion, student led activities)  Invite class discussion  Deliver well planned-lecture Comments
  27. 27. Con..  Solicit student input  Involve varieties of students  Special attention to the special need students Comments
  28. 28. Types of observation based on the field of inquiry 1.Controlled observation 2. Non-controlled observation Controlled observation : Create an artificial environment and observe the human behaviour.Peoples behaviour are not controlled but the environment is controlled. Non controlled observation: Peoples behaviour are observed without creating any artificial environment
  29. 29. Unstructured observation Actively participate by the researchers. Staying with the observed group or people for a specific period of time. The researchers mix with the group or the people and collect data . Merits: 1.Actual data collection is possible Demerits 1.Time consuming 2. Biasness might be occurred.
  30. 30. Early phase of the research May become specific to when and where to observe, what specific aspects of the setting or behavior to observe, and how to make and record observations.
  31. 31. How to do unstructured observation Take a notebook and pen Note down when you see something interesting. Write down theories as you form them. Don’t jump to conclusions straight away. Look for more evidence. Ask people to confirm things
  32. 32. Structure Observation  Objectives and scope of the research are pre designed. In structure observation the researchers are more conscious about their observation. What should be observed that is predetermined.
  33. 33. Structured Observation Greater control of sampling Measurement of error Permits stronger generalizations and checks on reliability and validity This is more like a survey, where every respondent is asked the same set of questions. But in this case, questions are not asked. Instead, particular types of behavior are looked for and counted

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