Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf

CENTRAL POWER GENERATION CO. LTD
GENCO-II
TRAINING CENTER TPS GUDDU
ADVANCE OPERATOR COURSE
BY
KHALID AYAZ SOOMRO
INSTRUCTOR (INTERN ENGINEERS)
TPS, GUDDU
FIRE AND
SAFETY
FIRE
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion,
releasing heat, light, and various reaction products i.e. toxic gases and smoke.
PRINCIPLE OF FIRE
PRINCIPLE OF FIRE
Fires start when a flammable or a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient
quantity of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas, is exposed to a source of heat or ambient
temperature above the flash point for the fuel/oxidizer mix, and is able to sustain a rate of rapid
oxidation that produces a chain reaction. This is commonly called the fire tetrahedron (three-
dimensional case).
Fire cannot exist without all of these elements in place and in the right proportions
•Oxygen
•Fuel
•Heat
When fire take place, below mentioned three objects
can be observed easily.
• Hot Gases (emission)
• Light
• Heat
The emission gases have different properties regarding
fuel. The visibility of flame light depends on the particles which
have not been burned completely. Hence, they become
visible.
S/No. Name of Gas Symbol % in air
The different gases contain in atmosphere are listed below.
S/No. Name of Gas Symbol % in air
1 Nitrogen N2 78%
2 Oxygen O2 21%
3 Carbon Dioxide CO2 1%
S/No. Name of Gas Flash Point Auto ignition
temperature
1 Gasoline (Petrol) -43 OC 280 OC
2 Furnace Oil (RFO) >60 OC 407 OC
3 Natural Gas >93.3 OC 580 OC
4 Kerosene Oil >37 to 65 OC 229 OC
The flash point of different fuels is listed below.
Flash Point
The flash point indicates how easy a chemical may ignite and burn
•Auto Ignition Temperature
The Auto-Ignition Temperature - or the minimum temperature required to ignite a gas or vapor in
air without a spark or flame
FUEL
Fuels are any materials that store potential energy in forms that can be practicably released and
used for work or as heat energy.
OR
Those materials that are storing energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released
through combustion.
Types of Fuels
•Solid --Wood, Coal, Lignite, Peat etc. Types of Fire and
•Solid --Wood, Coal, Lignite, Peat etc.
•Liquid -- Petroleum, Diesel, Fuel Oils, Alcohols etc.
•Gaseous – Natural Gas, Coal Gas, Hydrogen etc.
Fuel Source Class of Fire Type of Extinguisher (Extinguishing Agent)
Ordinary combustibles
(e.g. trash, wood, paper, cloth)
A Water; chemical foam
Flammable liquids
(e.g. oils, grease, tar, gasoline, paints, thinners)
B Carbon dioxide (CO2); dry chemical; film forming foam
Electricity
(e.g. live electrical equipment)
C CO2; dry chemical
Combustible metals
(e.g. magnesium, titanium)
D
Dry powder (suitable for the specific combustible
metal involved)
Combustible gases
(e.g. Natural Gas, Butane)
E A.B.C powder
Combustible Cooking
(e.g. cooking oils; animal fats, vegetable fats)
F or K Wet chemical (Potassium acetate based)
Types of Fire and
extinguishing
Portable and semi portable fire extinguishers.
Fire Class Extinguisher Type
A Soda Acid
A Water Type
BCDE Carbon Dioxide
AB Foam Type
ABCD Chemical Powder, Dry Type
ABCE B.C.F Halon
BE Carbon Tetrachloride
Fire Safety &
Fire Safety &
Fire Extinguisher Use
Fire Extinguisher Use Objectives
Objectives
• Understand the combustion process and different
fire classes
• Understand fire extinguisher types, operating
procedures
procedures
• Understand basic firefighting concepts:
–R.A.C.E.
–P.A.S.S.
The Combustion Process
• Three components
• Need all three components to
start a fire
• Fire extinguishers remove one
or more of the components.
Fire Classes
A Trash Wood Paper
• wood
• paper
• cloth
• etc.
B Liquids Grease
• gasoline
• oil
• grease
• other solvents
C Electrical Equipment COMBUSTIBLE • magnesium
• computers
• fax machine
• other energized
electrical equip.
COMBUSTIBLE
METALS
• magnesium
• sodium
• potassium
• titanium
• other
flammable
metals
CLASS K FIRES
CLASS K FIRES
K Cooking Media
PRESSURIZED WATER
PRESSURIZED WATER
A Trash Wood Paper
B Liquids Grease
A Trash Wood Paper
B Liquids Grease
• Class “A” fires only
• 2.5 gal. water
(up to 1 minute
discharge time)
• Has pressure gauge
to allow visual
capacity check
• 30-40 ft. maximum
K Cooking Media
• Recently recognized
by NFPA 10
• Fires involving
combustible oils,
lards and fats in
commercial cooking.
C Electrical Equipment
C Electrical Equipment
• 30-40 ft. maximum
effective range
• Can be started and
stopped as
necessary
• Extinguishes by
cooling
cooling burning
material below the
ignition point.
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2
2)
)
A Trash Wood Paper
B Liquids Grease
A Trash Wood Paper
B Liquids Grease
• Class “B” or “C” fires
• 2.5-100 lb. of CO2
(8-30 seconds discharge time)
• Has NO
NO pressure gauge--capacity
verified by weight
• 3-8 ft. maximum effective range
C Electrical Equipment
C Electrical Equipment
• Extinguishes by smothering
smothering burning
materials
• Effectiveness decreases
decreases as
temperature of burning material
increases.
MULTIPURPOSE DRY CHEMICAL
MULTIPURPOSE DRY CHEMICAL
A Trash Wood Paper
B Liquids Grease
A Trash Wood Paper
B Liquids Grease
• Class “A”, “B”, or “C” fires
• 2.5-20 lb. dry chemical
(ammonium phosphate)
8-25 seconds discharge
time)
• Has pressure gauge to
C Electrical Equipment
C Electrical Equipment
• Has pressure gauge to
allow visual capacity
check
• 5-20 ft. maximum
effective range
• Extinguishes by
smothering
smothering burning
materials.
EXTINGUISHER TYPE WORKS BY EFFECTIVE AGAINST
PRESSURIZED
WATER
CARBON DIOXIDE
COOLING
SMOTHERING
Fire Extinguisher Summary
MULTIPURPOSE DRY
CHEMICAL
SMOTHERING
SMOTHERING
Fire Emergency Response
R
A
R
Rescue
escue
A
Alarm
larm
C
E
C
Contain
ontain
E
Extinguish
xtinguish
Fighting the Fire
P
Pull the pin
ull the pin
A
Aim low at
im low at
the base of flames
the base of flames
P
A
S
Squeeze the handle
queeze the handle
S
Sweep side to side
weep side to side
S
S
Before you fight the fire
• Ensure: area is evacuated
• Always sound the alarm
regardless of fire size
• Know locations of extinguishers
• Know locations of extinguishers
in your area and how to use
them
• Know department emergency
procedures and evacuation routes
When fighting the fire remember
• To keep an exit to your Back
• When the fire extinguisher is empty
– Get out!
– Get out!
• When you leave the building
do not go back in!
When not to fight a fire when
• Fire has spread beyond its
point of origin
• Your escape path is
threatened
threatened
• The area is smoke filled
• Your instincts tell you GET
OUT
Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf
P.A.S.S. Method
Pull the pin
This will allow you to
squeeze the handle in
order to discharge
the extinguisher
P.A.S.S. Method
Aim at the base
of the fire
Aiming at the middle
will do no good.
The agent will pass
through the flames
P.A.S.S. Method
Squeeze the
handle
This will release the
pressurized
extinguishing
agent.
P.A.S.S. Method
Sweep side to
side
Cover the entire area
that is on fire.
Continue until fire is
extinguished. Keep
an eye on the area
for re-lighting
Firefighting Decision Criteria
• Know department emergency procedures and evacuation routes
• Know locations of extinguishers in your area and how to use them
• Always sound the alarm regardless of fire size
• Avoid smoky conditions
• Ensure area is evacuated
• Don’t attempt to fight unless:
–Alarm is sounded
–Fire is small and contained
–You have safe egress route (can be reached
without exposure to fire)
–Available extinguishers are rated for size and
type of fire
• If in doubt, evacuate!
“DON’T ATTEMPT TO FIGHT UNLESS YOU ARE TRAINED”
Non-portable Fire Extinguishing Systems
•Mulsi Fire System
•Used to extinguishing the fire occurred at electrical transformer
The MulsiFire system applies water in the form of a conical spray consisting of droplets of water
travelling at high velocity. These droplets bombard oil surface to form a mixture of oil & water. This
mixture significantly cools fire reducing the rate of liquid vaporization, While water droplets are
passing through flame zone, some of the water is formed into steam that dilutes the air feeding
the fire and creates a smothering effect to extinguish the fire.
•Sprinkler System
•Used to extinguishing the fire occurred in cable trenches
A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure, consisting of water supply system,
providing adequate pressure & flow rate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire
sprinklers are connected
•Auto Carbon Dioxide
Used to extinguishing the fire occurred on Turbine & Generator.
The non-portable fire extinguishing systems are often used at large power plants.
WHENEVER FIRE OCCURRED
When you find fire, inform the concern.
Restrict the fire by using extinguishing.
Activate the fire alarm.
Leave your self and exit
Enter low into fire zone.
Remove endanger person
Take control
Fundamentals for extinguishing fire
The below mentioned are basic fundamental rules to extinguishing fire
•Starvation
•Smothering
•Cooling
•Starvation
Removing fuel from fire triangle is called elimination of fire starvation.
•Smothering
Removing oxygen from fire triange is called smothering
•Coolinghazardous fuels i.e. petrol, oil, thinner etc.
•To stop leakage in oil lube,
To decrease the temperature of fuel from ignition point is called cooling
PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES
•To store carefully hydrogen, natural gas lines etc.
•To store carefully hydrogen, natural gas lines etc.
•To observe the increase in bearing temperature of I.D and F.D fans.
•Always observe the oil leakage where steam and oil lines in vicinity.
•Cotton rags should be kept in safe place.
•Whenever oil is used in plant or workshop the excessive quantity should be returned back to
store.
•Where smoking is not allowed, make sure that the rule is followed.
•Always make close watch over electric supply cables and wires.
DIFFERENT SAFETY SIGNS
SAFETY & HEALTH GOALS
The following goals have been established for
XYZ Company:
(1) Provide workers with a safe work environment.
(2) Conduct routine/regular workplace inspections.
(3) Provide Personal Protective Equipment.
(4) Develop and implement safe work procedures and
rules.
rules.
(5) Provide on-going safety training
(6) Enforce safety rules and appropriate discipline.
(7) Provide on-going property conservation practices.
Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf
EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION
The following topics will be covered in the Safety
Orientation Session:
Company History
Safety Program/Policy & Work rules
Responsibilities
Safety Education/Training
Safety Audit/Inspections
Accident Reporting/Investigation Requirements
First Aid & Bloodborne Pathogens
Personal Protective Equipment
Tool & Equipment Use
Material Handling
Lockout-Tagout
Machine Guarding
MVR Requirements
Hazard Communication
Emergency Action
Return-to-work & Light Duty Assignments
All new hires will be provided an opportunity to ask any question that
pertains to their job duties and employment at XYZ Company
SAFETY RULES
All safety rules must be obeyed. Failure to do so will result in strict
disciplinary action.
All injuries must be reported as soon as possible.
No horseplay, alcohol, or drugs allowed on premises.
No alcohol usage allowed during lunch break.
PPE must be worn as prescribed by management.
All tools/equipment must be maintained in good
condition.
condition.
Only appropriate tools shall be used for specific jobs.
All guards must be kept in place.
No spliced electrical cords/wiring allowed.
Only authorized personnel can operate forklift
vehicles.
Smoking allowed only in lunchroom.
Seat belt use required of all drivers/passengers.
SAFETY COMMITTEE
General functions of the Safety Committee can include:
(1) Identifying workplace hazards
(2) Enforcement of Safety Rules
(3) Measuring safety performance
(4) Reducing frequency/severity of injuries
(5) Creating safety policies
(6) Developing and monitoring safety programs
Specific tasks of the Safety Committee can include:
Specific tasks of the Safety Committee can include:
(1) Conducting self-inspections of the workplace
(2) Review employee reports of hazards
(3) Assist in safety training
(4) Creating safety incentive programs
(5) Publish/distribute safety newsletter
(6) Inspect PPE
(7) Post safety posters/slogans on bulletin board
(8) Identify Light Duty Jobs
SAFETY GEARS
Safety gears are used as prime substance to ensure safety to worker. Thus, before working on
electrical system this should be checked and ensure according to rules and regulation of
department.
Kinds of safety gears
•Safety Helmet
It protect worker from head and eye injury, further it protects from heat stroke and dust. Thus, this
should be wear during work hrs. Safety equipment
•Ear Muffs
This protect human ear from excessive noise a work place which can damage hearing efficiency.
Normal noise level is 85~90db. Thus if the noise exceed from above the ear muffs should be used.
•Safety shoes.
At industrial area the safety shoes are used to restrain hazards at wet, oils places or any
place where foot injury is one of most prime cause. These shoes can be used at
chemical plant, However they are called long rubber shoes. They also insulate human
body from electrical shock
•Protective Cloth
Use appropriate protective cloth during decanting of furnace oil, acid tankers and batteries
•Respirator mask
This should be wear, where industrial exhaust i.e. stacks or where any other dangerous gases
contacting human body. If respirators are not used that this will bring deceases like i.e. chest
infection and allergies during respiration.
•Safety glasses
•Safety glasses
The wearing of safety glasses by all shop employees and work on sand blasting etc. Strict
adherence to this policy can significantly reduce the risk of eye injuries
Safety gloves
Through this apparatus worker can be safe during work on acid, handing furnace oil, steam
and hot valves or electrical contacts
Safety belts
This safes the worker from fall down from height. Thus during work on electrical pole or any place
alike that, safety belt must be used.
Safety programs
The below are prime objects to conduct safety programs.
•To point out unsafe practice, so that employees and
appliances are prevented from accident.
•To empower the administrative to follow ensure the
regulation of safety code.
•To abide the SOP for safety code.
•To prepare a comprehensive accident reports this
•To prepare a comprehensive accident reports this
contains causes of accident and prevention, so that
other may follow to restrain such accidents.
•Work plan may be made in accordance with safety
rules.
•To conduct safety seminars in-between other power
plants, so that awareness to new technology may be
discussed and this will bring knowledge for safe
operations.
INTRODUCTION TO
POWER
PLANTS
Basic concept of modern power plants
A power station (also referred to as a generating station, power plant, powerhouse or generating
plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Each power station contains one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts
mechanical power into electrical power by creating relative motion between a magnetic field
mechanical power into electrical power by creating relative motion between a magnetic field
and a conductor
HISTORY OF POWER PLANT
The world's first power station was designed and built by Lord Armstrong at Cragside, England in
1868. Water from one of the lakes was used to power Siemens dynamos
The first public power station was the Edison Electric Light Station, built in London, which started
operation in January 1882. This was a project of Thomas Edison, it was called JUMBO.
Types of Power Plants
•Conventional Power Plants.
Those power plants, which can be installed at any where easily i.e. Thermal Power Plants.
•Non-conventional Power Plants.
Those Power Plants, which cannot be installed at any where easily i.e. Wind Electric Power
Power Plant
Power Plant
Conventional
Power Plant
Conventional
Power Plant
Thermal Power Plant
Thermal Power Plant
Hydel Power Plant
Hydel Power Plant
Non-Conventional
Power Plant
Non-Conventional
Power Plant
Nuclear Power Plant
Solar Power Plant
Tidal Power Plant
Nuclear Power Plant
Solar Power Plant
Tidal Power Plant
Geo Thermal Power Plant
Wind Power Plant
Bio-mass Power Plant
Geo Thermal Power Plant
Wind Power Plant
Bio-mass Power Plant
Thermal Power Plant
Thermal Power Plant
Steam Power Plant
Combined Cycle Power Plant
Gas Turbine Power Plant
Diesel Power Plant
Steam Power Plant
Combined Cycle Power Plant
Gas Turbine Power Plant
Diesel Power Plant
Low Head Power Plant
Medium Head Power Plant
High Head Power Plant
Run of River Power Plant
Low Head Power Plant
Medium Head Power Plant
High Head Power Plant
Run of River Power Plant
Nuclear Power Plant
Solar Power Plant
Tidal Power Plant
Nuclear Power Plant
Solar Power Plant
Tidal Power Plant
Geo Thermal Power Plant
Wind Power Plant
Bio-mass Power Plant
Geo Thermal Power Plant
Wind Power Plant
Bio-mass Power Plant
BASIC PARTS OF THERMAL POWER PLANT
•BOILER
•TURBINE
•GENERATOR
A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to
water. Thus, when heat is applied it produces steam and pressure in close vessel.
Types of Boiler
1. Water tube boiler 2. Fire tube boiler
•Water Tube Boiler
In water tube boiler, boiler feed water flows through the tubes and enters the boiler
drum. The circulated water is heated by the combustion gases and converted into steam
at the vapor space in the drum. These boilers are selected when the steam demand as
at the vapor space in the drum. These boilers are selected when the steam demand as
well as steam pressure requirements are high
•Fire Tube Boiler
In fire tube boiler, hot gases pass through the tubes and boiler feed water in the shell side is
converted into steam. Fire tube boilers are generally used for relatively small steam capacities and
low to medium steam pressures
BOILER ZONES
A water tube boiler has three zones
•Radiation zone:
Heat transfer takes place by radiation from the yellow flames. This zone is located in the bottom
and middle portion of the furnace (1200~1400 0C). It consists of combustion chamber, water wall
and radiant super heaters.
•Radiant convection heating zone:
The effect of radiation is reduced in the top portion of Zone-1 where secondary air is introduced.
Here het transfer takes place both by radiation and convection. Temp (800~1200 0C). It consists of
platen super heaters and water wall.
•Convective heating zone (i) and (ii)
It may call high temperature convective heating zone. Heat transfer predominately is convection. It
is located after radiant convective heating part with temperature (800~900 0C. It consists of
convection super heaters, re-heaters and economizer. Convective zone (ii) has temp lower than
800 0C. APH (Air preheater) is located in this zone.
800 0C. APH (Air preheater) is located in this zone.
Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf
BOILER DRUM
Boiler drum earn feed water from economizer. This water goes through the drum to down
comers and thereafter it enters into up riser tubes. The up riser tubes generate saturated
steam which came back into boiler drum and thereafter the steam goes to different super
heaters.
01 Receives feed water
02 Store feed water
03 Distributes the water
04 Contains pressure
05 Receive steam water mixture
06 Provides outlet to saturated steam
07
It performs the process of separation and steam purification at higher pressure with
the aid of baffles and other devices.
08 Produce blow down C.B.D and E.B.D
Function of Boiler Drum
DRUM INTERNALS
DRUM INTERNALS
•Baffle plates
It converts feed water into small particles and when it passes through feed water it separate rust &
unsolvable gases which may remove through boiler vent.
•Steam Separator
It removes heavy pollution from steam. Chemical dozing is also used to remove pollutions.
•Steam purifier
This eliminates remaining pollution and moisture and purify the steam. Further passes the steam
from drum to super heaters.
•Cyclone
The function of cyclone is to eliminate silica and hardness.
•Discharge lines
Discharge lines are used to discharge steam from boiler drum
•C.B.D (Continuous blow down)
To control silica value in drum normally 5~7 T/h and 18 T/h in PBD48t/h
•E.B.D (Emergency blow down)
To meet the emergency for controlling silica value in drum
BOILER FURNACE
The furnace is the place where burning process with a mixture of fuel and air takes place. This
provides space during burning. This also prevents the heat loss during fire because this is a sealed
compartment. Furnace disburses heat to up riser tubes which converts water into steam. This also
prevents to enter cold air into furnace.
The furnace design should be like that which prevent heat losses.
•Burners
Burner is a device, which helps to ignite fuel with the help of air. This device is used for proper
firing. Burner is a prime source to set right the fuel and air mixture, pressure and firing location.
Burner is also called boiler operating parameter due to its importance for calculating boiler
efficiency
•Properties of Burner.
•With the help of burner fuel burns completely.
•Easy to operate
•Maintain fire arc’s direction, so that at heat utilized within furnace.
•It make proper mixture of air and fuel
Super Heaters
It is boiler auxiliary designed to superheat the saturated steam to a specified temperature. It may
reach upto 540 0C.
•Function of Super Heater
•It increases the temp. of saturated steam.
•It is used to dry the steam
•It provides an outlet to superheated steam towards the steam turbine.
Super heater is consisting of a bundle of tubes therein saturated steam passes. This wet steam gets
more heat to convert as super heated steam. Super heaters are installed in all three zones of
boiler.
•Radiant Super heater
•Platen Super heater
•Convective Super heater
The temperature of superheated steam is around 400 to 595 0C. Usually it is around 540 0C. The
allowable difference is around ±5 to 10 0C
allowable difference is around ±5 to 10 0C
•Advantage of super heated steam
•Improve turbine efficiency
•No harm can occurred to turbine blade due to wet steam
•No rust will occur to turbine blade
•Blades does not bend
•Steam temperature control in boiler
•De-super heater
•Atompration
•F.W injection
•Gas recirculation fan
•Fuel increased / decreased
•Air flow control
•Tilting of burner position
•Soot blowing
•Shot blasting
•Shot blasting
Re-heaters
Re-heater can also be termed as super heater. They can also be called as intermediate super
heaters. These are installed in flue gas duct. The get heat through flue gases and rises wet steam
temperature. There is no temperature different in re-heater or super heater. However due no
decrease in steam pressure it is called re-heater. The pressure decreases due to line resistance
•Economizer
Economizer is an accessory of boiler that recovers the waste heat from the flue gas blown out of
the boiler. Thus it actually "economizes" the operational cost or in other words, improves the
efficiency of fuel utilization in the boiler
Economizer is installed in flue gas duct. The economizer tubes get heat from flue gases to raise the
temperature of feed water. This device is also reducing the temperature of flue gases.
Economizers dramatically reduce boiler fuel consumption by efficiently removing waste heat from
the flue gas and returning the heat to the feed water system
•Fuction of economizer
•It increase the temperature of feed water
•Receives heat from flue gases
•Lower the temperature of flue gases
•Reduces the size of boiler
•Increase the efficiency of boiler upto 1% in terms of fuel consumption
•It is water heat recovery device.
The temperature of water which is going to enter in economizer should be higher than freezing point
of water because it will start condensing the flue gases this situation can also be termed as swat of
economizer tubes. The flue gases with a content of sulpher become condense and form sulphuric
acid which is harmful for economizer tubes. Thus, the minimum temperature of feed water in
economizer is set upto 60 0C
•Boiler Water Circulation Types:
•Natural or thermal circulation
•No pump or any device used
•Control or forced circulation
•(FCP) Forced circulation pump is used for circulation
•Once through circulation
•Boiler drum is not present in the circuit (no storage capacity)
•Combined circulation
•It is combination of forced and natural circulation
•Gas Recirculation Fan
Gas recirculation (GRC) is a highly effective technique used for lowering Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)
emissions from burners. In industrial boilers by reticulating used flue gases back into the system. This
process lowers the peak combustion temperature and drops the percentage of oxygen in the
combustion air/flue gas mixture, delaying the formation of NOx caused by high flame temperatures
This fan is installed in the 2nd zone of boiler, however sent the flue gases to 1st zone from this cold
reheat steam converts into hot reheat steam and further increased the temperature upto 540 0C.
This steam is used in IP turbine. The GRC fan is only used whenever reheat temperature did not arise.
•Air pre-heater
Heating combustion air can raise boiler efficiency about 1% for every 40F in temperature increase.
The most common way to preheat the air is with a heat exchanger on the flue exhaust.
Air pre-heater is installed into flue gases duct. The heating element get heat from flue gases and
passes it to the air going into furnace, so that temperature of combustion air increased. This helps
for proper fuel burning.
•Advantages of air pre-heating
•Improved combustion and efficiency use of fuel
•Stabilized fuel ignition which improves low load combustion
•Increased steam generation capacity
•Better utilization of low grade, high ash fuel
•Minimized size of boiler
•Higher thermal efficiency as most of the heat from combustion products in recovered. If flue
gases temp. is decreased upto 100 0F, the efficiency will increase by 25% (particularly in the boilers
where gas, oil or coal is used as fuel)
•Greater load flexibility
•Greater load flexibility
•Greater pre-heat, lower the SO3 in the flue gas and therefore the stack outlet temperature can
be lowered resulting in greater heat utilization.
•Air preheating ensures complete burning of fuel resulting in less slugging and cleaner flue gas and
this reduces boiler outage for cleaning
• Calorifier / steam air heater
This is also called steam air heater. When the machine is operating of fewer load, this device is
used to increase the temperature of flue gases to ensure not getting dew point in air pre heater
and as well in stack.
It is a tubular heat exchanger in which low temperature steam flows in the tubes while air flows in
the shell side in cross current flow.
Normally the temperature of heating steam is about 120~130 0C. This steam is the worked off steam
from the steam turbine. SAH or calorifier is introduced at downstream of F.D Fan.
•Function of calorifier
•It works as heat exchanger, worked off steam from the turbine bleed and transfer it heat to
combustion air, so it helps in better combustion.
•It prevents air pre heaters from reaching the stage of dew point.
•Indirectly, it regulates the temperature of flue gases flowing towards the chimney.
•Soot blower
Flue gas contains numerous compounds. When combustion occurs some of these compounds will
collect and build up on surfaces within the furnace. The buildup will start to affect the overall
performance of the boiler by obstructing the heat transfer. To address this problem, soot blowers
are installed inside the furnace.
To generate steam several boiler use fuel as coal, gas, oil etc. When firing occurs due to higher
viscosity value of fuel comparison to air some un-burnt particles remains and further deposit on the
boiler tubes is called soot.
The soot restrains heat transfer and to tackle this soot blowers are installed, so that flue gases
transfer maximum heat to superheater, economizer and re-heaters etc. Further to improve the
heat transfer either steam or feed water tubes.
•Boiler Safety Valves
The boiler drums are manufactured on a specific pressure. Thus, in case the pressure exceed
beyond the capability of boiler drum can explode and due to explosion, chaotic situation can
occur in shape of fatal accident to human or machinery. Thus, to prevent from this state boiler
safety valves are installed which operates on specific pressure. So whenever pressure exceed from
limit these valve get operated automatically.
•Regulation for safety valve
•On every small boiler one safety valve with minimum size of ½” should be installed. Further if the
surface area is exceeding from 500 ft2 then at least two safety valves should be installed.
•1st valve should operate at 6% of boiler drum maximum pressure and thereafter 2nd valve should
operate on 3% after working pressure of 1st safety valve. Safety valves should be installed without
any extension pipe on the boiler drum.
Usually on modern boilers three safety valves are installed. Two valves on boiler drum and one valve
on life steam line are commonly installed. Both boiler drum valve does not operate on same
pressure.
pressure.
•Boiler Surface
•Water surface
Waer surface include the following parts of boiler
•Economizer 100%
•Boiler drum partially
•Down comers 100%
•Generation tubes partially
•Boiler heating surface
Heating surface is the surface area of boiler tubes exposed to the hot gases of combustion in the
furnace space ir order to transfer heat to the working fluid (FW) to generate steam. Heating
surface include super heaters, re-heaters, de-super heater and furnace.
•Thereare three tyoes of heating surfaces in a boiler
•Radiant heating surface
•Radiant convective heating surface
•Convective heating surface
•Convective heating surface
•Heat transfer surface
All the compnents of boiler, except down comers, includign furnace, super heater, re-heaters, de-
super heaters are heat transfer surfaces
•Advtanges of long flue gases path
•Heat stays in the flue gases path for maximum possible time.
•Different compenets placed in the flue gases path absorb heat from the flue gases.
•Ratio of heat absorbed by different compenents placed in the foue gases path
•Water wall 48%
•Super heater 15%
•Air preheater 10%
•Economizer 07%
•Re-heater 08%
•Chimney 12%
Boiler protections
•HP Drum level low
•HP Drum Level High
•Fuel Pressure Low
•Fuel Pressure High
•Furnace pressure low
•Furnace pressure high
•Both f.D fans tripped
•Both I.D fans tripped
•All feed pumps tripped
•Loss of flame
•Control supply failed
Combined Cycle Power Plant
Combining two or more thermodynamic cycle’s such as the Brayton cycle
Combining two or more thermodynamic cycle’s such as the Brayton cycle
and Rankine cycle, results in improved overall efficiency, reducing fuel costs.
Overall efficiency of combine cycle is around 52~65%, whereas gas turbine
efficiency is around 32~36%.
In stationary power plants, a widely used combination is a gas turbine
(operating by the Brayton cycle) burning natural gas or synthesis gas from
coal, whose hot exhaust powers a steam power plant (operating by the
Rankine cycle). This is called a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plant.
Basic concept of modern power plants
The modern power complex consists on Steam and Gas Turbine has three
major concepts.
S/No. Name and History Concept
1 Willian Rankine’s (1845~1865) Thermodynamics Where heat is added in water boiler to convert heat
into work
2 George Brayton (1872)
Thermodynamics
Where heat is added and discharged at constant
pressure
3 Michael Faraday (1831)
discovery of induction in 1831
When a permanent magnet is moved relative to a
conductor, or vice versa, an electromotive force is
created. If the wire is connected through an
electrical load, current will flow, and thus electrical
electrical load, current will flow, and thus electrical
energy is generated
Faraday's iron ring apparatus. Change in the magnetic flux of the left coil
induces a current in the right coil.
Entropy of Rankine Cycle
Where heat is added in water boiler to convert heat into work
Entropy of Braytone Cycle
Where heat is added and discharged at constant pressure
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1- Auxilary power supply 6.6kv (internal/external)source are in
operation.
2- DC power supply are in operation and batteries are in stand by
position .
3- Cooling water circuit (open cycle /close cycle ) are in operation.
4- Lube oil circuit are in operation and turning gear ON.
5- Evacuation / Vacuum circuit are in operation and vacuum in
condensser is >-.8bar
6- Gas turbine ON LOAD
7- Condenset cycle are in operation
8- Feed water cycle are in operation
9- Boiler / HRSG filled up to Narmal Level and circulation ON if nassesary
10 - Steam turbine Sealing system in operation
11- Boiler / HRSG ON by pass operation Mode.
12- Auxilary Steam system in operation
GAS TURBINE PREPERATION / CHECKS BEFORE STARTING
1- Auxilary power supply 6.6kv ON (internal/external)source for all equepment which are in
servece before strating .
2- DC power supplt for control and protection system ON (thrugh Rectifire) and batteries on
stand by position
3- No any PTW are in Panding
4- Clearence from all maintanence sections
5- Check all Mechanical,Instrumentations,and Electrical Equepments are ready for operation
6- Cooling Water circuit are in operation
7- Lube oil circuit are in operation and lube oil Temp >35c and turning Gear On
7- Lube oil circuit are in operation and lube oil Temp >35c and turning Gear On
8-Checke no any Leakage,Vibration,rubbing Noise and over Heating occures
9- Filtter house ready for operation
10-Anounciator pannel clear no any indication persists
11- Fuel (Gas/ Oil) raedy for operation
12-H2/Air cooling and sealing system ON
13- Gas Turbine Ready For operatoin indication ON.
GAS TURBINE STRARTING PROCEDURE
OF GE WITH RELAYS AND SIEMENS WITH SPEED (STARTING PROCEDURE ALMOST SAME )
A- GT Ready for operation indication ON
B-Operation mode selector put on Generator and indication must on Generator
C-Master Control selector ON AUTO
D-Synchronizing Selector put on AUTO/Manual
E-Load selector put on BASE LOAD/PEAK LOAD
F- Fuel slector put on GAS/OIL
G-Give strart pulse to master control and starting sequence start
1- starting sequence progress On and ready to start Light OFF
2-14HR relay Light ON and Starting Divice Energize ( it meanse no Zero speed )
3-14HM relay Light On (it meanse speed at 16%)
- speadtronice signal
-for( GCE) for gas and (LCE )for oil , values on for ignition
-IGNITION SEQUENCE ON and Flame detector light ON
-IGNITION SEQUENCE ON and Flame detector light ON
GCE/LCE values decreased up to warm up value for warm up time before acceleration
4- GCE/LCE values increased for Acceleration speed
5-Accceleration control/speed control light ON
6- 14HA relay light ON (when speed at 50%
-Feild braeker ON for feild flashing
7-14HC relay light ON (when speed at 70%) and Starting Divice Disengage s
8-14HS lrelay light ON -Auxilary Lube oil pump OFF and Axilary Hydrulic pump OFF
9-Starting Sequence Complet light ON
10-m/c Synchronized through AUTO/Manual
-Spnning Reserve Load On (That is 5 to 8MW)
11- GT Laoding start according to gradient select (normal gradient 11MW/minute and fast gradient is
30MW / minute)
NOTE:- During Inital operation Master Control Switch put on Crank,Fire ,and Auto to check the
Leakages, Rubbing Noise,Overheating.from Lubrication,Automizing air,fuel gas manifold ,fuel
oil, flow devider,cumustion chamber /combustors,crossfire tube,Liner
check all these things during start up sequence from diffrent comportments.
COMBUSTORS
GE GAS TURBINE USED COMBUSTORS
SIEMENS GAS TURBINE USED SILO COMBUSTION CHAMBERS EACH CC HAS EIGHT BURNNERS
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GAS TURBINE SUPPORTING SYSTEMS / BOPs
1- A C Auxilary power system
2- DC power system
3- Starting Device (Motor / Diesel Engine) OR SFC Circuit (for
Generator Run As a Motor)as a starting device
4- Lube oil System
5- Cooling Water system(open/close cycle)
6- Filtter Cleaning system
6- Filtter Cleaning system
7- Compresser Washing system
8- Fuel Oil system
9-Fuel Gas system
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2.HRSG
It is also called waste heat boiler (or) waste heat recovery steam generator
The temperature of exhaust flue gases from gas turbine is 540 0C. This has HHV
higher heating value and thereafore these gases are used in HRSG instead of
ruined in atomopsheric air.
Kinds of HRSG
• With respect to tubes
 Vertical tubes type
• With respect to drum
 Single drum type
 Double drum type
 Horizontal Tubes type
• With respect to Pressure
 Single pressure type
 Double pressure type
 Triple pressure type
 Triple drum type
• With respect to Reheater
 With reheater
 Without reheater
• With respect to fired
 Unfired type
 Additional fired type
 Arrangement of HRSG
1st of all super heater has been installed in HRSG to attain maximum heat
and to convert saturated steam into superheated steam, thereafter
evporator tubes are installed therein feed water converts into saturated
steam and in final stage economizer has been placed therein feed water
temp increased upto 250~270 0C.
After transfering heat to feed water these gases are throngn into
atmospheric air which has 160~170 0C temperature.
The HRSG generated superheated steam with temp. 500~540 0C and this
steam is used to operate steam turbine.
steam is used to operate steam turbine.
 Working principal of HRSG
1. To provide sufficent steam to turbine.
2. To supply steam and hot water on commercial basis to offices.
3. To supply seam to sugar, cloth, wood mils
4. To clean the sea water into drinking water / desolination plant
 Parts of HRSG
1. Feed water gate and regulator valve
2. Economizer
3. H.P Drum
4. Evaporator re-circulation pump
5. Evaporator
6. Super heater
7. By-pass damper
8. Isolation Damper
9. Weather damper / stack damper
 Protection of HRSG
1. Drum level low low
2. Drum level high high
3. Live steam temperature > 540
0C
4. Evaporator circulation pump
tripped.
5. G.T Tripped
6. HP Bypass station tripped
7. G.T flue gases pressure high
7. G.T flue gases pressure high
(50mbar alarm…. 70 mbar trip)
8. Vacuum low
9. Pressure rising OR dropping at
the rate >4 bar min (ramp rate
HRSG (STAG) Name plate data
Sr. No. Description Unit G-7 to G-10
01 Manufacturer
HCG (Hollandse Constructive Groep bv leiden – Holland
NEM Boilers & Process Equipment Div.
02 Client General Electric Company USA
03 Job Wapda Guddu –Pakistan
04 Contract No. SYT-098404 D
05 Drawing No. 25894-6001-01 to 04
06 Ambient Air Temperature 26.9 oC
07 Ambient Air Pressure 1.031
08 Number of Gas Turbines 2 / 1
09 Fuel Type Mari
09 Fuel Type Mari
10 Gas Turbine Firing Mode Base
11 Steam Turbine Exhaust Pressure 50.8 mmHg
12 Condenser Cooling Water Source River
13 Gas Turbine Exhaust 1387.9 Flow 536.2 oC Temp.
14 HRSG Inlet 1384 Flow 534 oC Temp.
15 HRSG Stack 1384 Flow 183 oC Temp.
16 Superheated Steam Exit 162.80 / 171.60 518 oC–516.3 oC
17 Steam Turbine Throttle Flow 325.60 / 171.90 515.2 oC–513.5 oC
18 Steam Turbine Exhaust Flow 324.90 / 170.90 38.4 oC
19 Condenser Hot well 325.60 39.5 oC
20 Condenser cooling water inlet flow 26880 27.0 oC
21 Condenser cooling water outlet flow 26880 33.2 / 33.5 oC
22 HRSG drum blow down flow 70
23 HRSG drum blow down pressure 37
24 HRSG drum blow down temperature 245 / 284 oC
HRSG STAR UP pre checks
HRSG READY TO START WHEN FOLLWING CIRCUITS ARE IN OPERATION
1.FW/COND CYCLE ON
2.CW CYCLE ON
3.VACUUM PUMPS ON AND VACUUM >-0.4BAR
4.HP BY PASS STATION RAEDY
5.HP DRUM LEVEL 700mmFILL
6.FW PUMPS 1,2,3 ANY ONE ON
6.FW PUMPS 1,2,3 ANY ONE ON
7.BOILER FEED WATER PRESSURE .80 BAR
HRSG READY FOR START
START PROGRAM
1. SLC HRSG DRAINS ON(MEANS DRAINS ON AUTO)
2. SLC AUXILIARY STEAM ON
3. SLC LIVE STEAM ON
4. SLC HYDR BLR DMPR AUTO
5. BLR OUT DMPR OPEN
6. FW GATE VLV OPEN
6. FW GATE VLV OPEN
7. HP BY PASS ON
8. FW CV AUTO
9. SLC EVAPORATOR CIRC PUMP AUTO SLECT PMP ON
10.SLC ECO PMP AUTO SLECT PMP ON
11.GT LOAD >MIN ie 20MW
12.FLUE GAS TEMP:BEH GT <350C
13.BLR DIEVRTOR DAMPER OPEN 100% FOR 45 SEC FOR PURGGING
14 PURGGING STACK ON MEANS PURGGING COMPLETED
15 DMPR CLOSE AGAINUP 0%
16 FLUE GAS TEMP;>450C WHEN GT LOAD UP TO 60 MW
17 BLR DIVTR DMPR OPEN AGAIN UP 45%
18 LIVE STM FLOW>20%
19 BLR DIVTR DMPR AUTO
HRSG ON BY PASS OPERATION MODE
20 WAITTING FOR LIVE STM TEMP 530C, PRESSURE
>40 BAR,CONDUCTIVITY <.5ms
Steam Turbine
Steam turbine is a prime mover that drives its energy of rotation due to
conversion of heat energy of steam into kinetic energy as it expands
through a series of nozzles mounted on the casing or produced by the fixed
blades.
That machine converts heat energy into mechanical energy called steam
turbine.
Definition of a steam turbine?
A steam turbine is a prime mover that derives its energy of rotation
A steam turbine is a prime mover that derives its energy of rotation
due to conversion of the heat energy of steam into kinetic energy as it
expands through a series of nozzles mounted on the casing or
produced by the fixed blades.
1-Neilson defines it: The turbine is a machine in which a rotary
motion is obtained by the gradual change of the momentum of the
fluid.
2-Graham's definition: The turbine is a prime mover in which a rotary
motion is obtained by the centrifugal force brought into action by changing
the direction of a jet of a fluid (steam) escaping from the nozzle at high
velocity.
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Ts diagram of a typical Rankine cycle operating between pressures of
0.06bar and 50bar
There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. These states are identified
by numbers (in brown) in the above Ts diagram.
 Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As
the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy.
 Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at
constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry
saturated vapor. The input energy required can be easily calculated
saturated vapor. The input energy required can be easily calculated
using mollier diagram or h-s chart or enthalpy-entropy chart also known
as steam tables.
 Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine,
generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the
vapor, and some condensation may occur. The output in this process
can be easily calculated using the Enthalpy-entropy chart or the steam
tables.
 Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is
condensed at a constant temperature to become a saturated liquid.
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Some combined cycle used three cylinder steam
turbine and some are used two cylinder steam turbine
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•Turbine blades
There are two kinds of turbine blades
•Stationary or fixed blades
•Rotating or moving blades
•Stationary or fixed blades
These are also called diaphragm blades and their prime function is to divert the steam toward
moving blades. Steam pressure is much higher on fixed blades as compare to moving blades.
Hence they divert high pressure steam to moving blades.
•Rotating or moving blades
These are installed on the rotor surface and high pressure steam hits them and movement starts. This
rotates the turbine on constant speed.
•Turbine blades have two kinds in respect to their design
•Reaction type
•Impulse type
•Reaction Type Turbine
Pressure continuous drop and volume increased in stator blades and in moving blades pressure
Pressure continuous drop and volume increased in stator blades and in moving blades pressure
remains constant and volume becomes decreased
•Impulse Turbine
Pressure drop & velocity increases in curtus wheel stage after this pressure works in constant position
(some lose) and velocity decreased in every moving blade. In gas turbine 75% energy and pressure
used on 1st stage and the remaining i.e. 25 used on 2nd stages.
•Main Steam Valve
Usually main steam valve found in 100% opened or closed position from this valve steam enters into
turbine. This is a huge hand wheel valve and the steam line contains bypass valves.
•Quick Closing Valve
These are also called emergency stop valve. Their prime function is to protect the turbine in the
event of emergency initiated through protection system. These valves are also called protection
operated valves. These valves operate on hydraulic system.
Governing or regulating valves
Usually these are called governor and their prime function is to maintain turbine rated speed. To
maintain the speed of turbine i.e. 3000 rpm these valve operate automatically. As we know that
when the load increased on generator the turbine speed decreased and this valve increase it
opening to maintain the speed and when he load decreased on generator the turbine speed
increased and this valve decrease it by closing to maintain the speed.
Thus, this valve maintain the turbine speed in all condition either under rpm or over rpm.
In power plant generator / turbines are rotated on constant speed, so that frequency may not get
In power plant generator / turbines are rotated on constant speed, so that frequency may not get
disturbed. In Pakistan the idle frequency is 50 hz and the formula is as under:
F= p x n / 120
Frequency = no. of poles x speed / phase angle
Thus, if the rotor speed decreased or increased the frequency will be changed simultaneously.
•General Bearings
To endure load of turbine general bearing are used. Oil supply is always disbursed into general
bearing, so that metal can’t be rubbed together. This bearing consist of two parts
•Upper half
•Lower half
Onto this bearing we control lubricating oil temperature along with bearing temperature. This
should be exceeding from OEM recommendations.
•Thrust bearing
These bearings are installed to endure axial movement of turbine shaft. Thus, to prevent the
rotating blades with collapse to stationary blades this bearing is installed. When force is applied on
HP turbine the shaft shifts toward generator that is called “advancing” and when load is
decreased the shaft shifts towards HP turbine that is called “retiring”.
Thus, to prevent from any misshape or dislocation of vital turbine parts thrust pads have been
installed. Usually tilting thrust pads are installed. White metal is applied on that pad, where
hardness is less then bearing material and these pad can tilt their direction and also get
hardness is less then bearing material and these pad can tilt their direction and also get
lubrication.
•Turning Gear
When turbine stops rotating then there is a vital chance that upper half will be hotter than lower
half casing. Thus, if shaft stops rotating a difference will occur in-between upper and lower half of
turbine casing this will lead to shaft sag or bend. Thus, to prevent from sag and bend turning gear
rotates the shaft slowly on constant speed, so that the temperature of shaft remain equal on both
side i.e. upper and lower half of turbine casing.
•Oil System
There is three kind of oil systems are used in thermal power plants. This system is used to lubricate
the bearing and has low pressure. Another oil system is used for sealing of generator which has
medium pressure and the third one is control oil which is usually high pressure.
•Protection of Steam Turbine
•Vacuum loss
•Lube oil pressure low
•Turbine bearing vibration high
•Turbine over speed
•Axial displacement
•Minimum level of hot well
•Maximum level of hot well
•Relative expansion differential expansion
•Wet steam protection
•Lube oil temperature
•Condenser
The prime function of condenser is to condense the
steam which has been coming from LP turbine. The
tubes contain raw water and when steam hits the
surface of tubes steam got condensed.
The condensation is collected in hot well, thus it can
be called main condensate water.
When steam is contacted with tube surface for
condensation it is called surface condenser and
these types of condensers are used in major power
plants.
There is another kind of condenser i.e. jet type
condenser.
In jet type condenser the condensate water is
directly sprayed on the steam, so that the water can
directly sprayed on the steam, so that the water can
take the heat from steam and resultantly steam get
condensed.
•Function of Condenser
A turbine condenser accomplished two jobs. It
condenses steam coming from LP turbine and it
transfer the het contained in steam to circulating
water.
Cleaning of condenser
•Back washing
•CW reverse flow partially
•Brushes
•Plugs
•Rubber balls
•Hard deposit removed by chemical treatment
•Jet washing
•Steam Jet Air Ejector
It prime function is to eliminate non
condensable gases from condenser. This has
been made on different stages. One
separate line of air has been taken to
ejector where pressurized steam applied.
This steam expels through nozzle where
velocity is decreased and pressure is
decreased. This steam takes away non
condensable gases from condenser.
•Deaerator
This has been installed over the speed tank. Its prime function is to remove non-solvable
gases from condensate water. This has been energized by using bleeding steam. A pipeline
with small holes have been installed wherefrom feed pump fall in shape of drops. The baffle
plates are inside under the pipe on which waterfalls. Therefore, non solvable gases get
plates are inside under the pipe on which waterfalls. Therefore, non solvable gases get
eliminated and water emerges into bottom of feed tank
•H.P Heaters
The feed water passes into tubes and take heat
from bleeding steam. In this process bleeding steam
got condensed and heated water goes toward
feed water. The main aspect of H.P heater is to
improve turbine efficiency and to supply hot water
to boiler drum. This saves fuel consumption.
•Condensate Cycle
It is also called heat exchanger. Condenser is the device where steam gets condensed and
collected into hot well. Each unit has three condensate pumps and two pumps in operation while
the 3rd one remains on standby position. 1st their discharge goes to steam jet air ejector then vent
condenser. Thereafter a small line goes for condenser recirculation. The remaining condensate
water travels through main regulator and goes to LP heater No. 1 and 2 and subsequently attained
heat. Then this condensate water goes through gland condenser and thereafter passes through LP
heater No. 3, 4, 5. After passing from all above heater the temperature of condensate water rises
from 50 0C to 140 0C and at final this condensate water goes through non return valve and enters
into a header where two lines have been coupled to deaerator for entering into feed tank
•Feed Water Cycle
When feed water passes through deaerator then non condensable gases separates at that stage
and at that time temperature of feed water is 160 0C. Feed water enters into feed pump through its
suction filter.
Each unit has 03 feed pumps. Two remain in operation while the 3rd one is on standby position.
Suction pressure: 6kg/cm2 and discharge pressure 160 kg/cm2
According to load on machine usually two pumps in operation. The discharge of both pumps enters
into a common header and wherefrom the feed water passes through HP heater No. 1, 2 and
economizer. At this stage feed water gain temperature 240 0C.
These HP heaters can be bypassed and resultantly economizer directly enters into boiler drum.
Feed water can also be re-circulated through discharge recirculation line.
•Main steam cycle
The steam get out through super heater no. 4 and enters into HP turbine at that time its pressure is
130 kg/cm2 and temperature is 540 0C and after exiting from HP turbine it becomes 370 0C with 32
kg/cm2. This steam is sent in re-heaters where its temperature raised upto 520 0C however its
pressure remain unchanged
Thereafter at final the steam enters in LP turbine and performs work and at the end condense in
condenser. Further for starting stopping and emergency controls HP and LP bypass station has been
installed.
HP by pass station by HP turbine whiles the LP by pass station by pass the LP turbine. Moreover, after
bypassing the steam directly enters in condenser.
The turbine consumes 30~40 heat energy and 5 % in leakage while the remaining heat energy
collected in condenser.
Advantage of extractions
•It increase thermal efficiency in feed water
•It reduce the size of turbine and condenser
The Faraday disk was the first
electric generator. The horseshoe-
shaped magnet created a
magnetic field through the disk .
When the disk was turned, this
Generator
The operating principle of electromagnetic generators was
discovered in the years of 1831–1832 by Michael Faraday. The
principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force
is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying
magnetic flux.
He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the
Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc
rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a
small DC voltage.
When the disk was turned, this
induced an electric current
radially outward from the center
toward the rim. The current flowed
out through the sliding spring
contact m, through the external
circuit, and back into the center
of the disk through the axle.
•Generator
Generator is the device which coverts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
•Alternator
Due to generator of voltage in AC it is called alternator
•Turbo Generator
As the generator has been rotated through turbine that why it is called turbo generator
•Synchronous Generator
When generator is coupled with system and it operate according to other generators then this is
called synchronous generator
•Synchronous Condenser
When generator gain power from system to improve power factor it act like a synchronous motor
then this is called synchronous condenser.
•Parts of Generator
Rotor & Stator
Casing & Bearing
Casing & Bearing
Exciter
•Basic working principal of generator
The rotating part is called rotor and stationary
part is called stator. Generator rotor field
winding is energized through DC supply which
is called excitation this produce magnetism to
rotor thus it generates magnetic flux. When
generator rotor starts rotating it cut then stator
winding reacts by cutting the flux.
This product Electromagnetic flux. The EMF
excites the electrons for movement and a flow
of electrons starts. So, it is called terminal
voltage or generator voltage. This excitation
plays main role for generating voltage in
generator i.e. 11kV, 15.75kV or 20~30kV.
•Synchronization
When do different electrical systems are coupled together it is called synchronization or to
connect the generator with system.
There are three main aspects during synchronization
•Generator and system voltage should be same.
•Generator and system frequency should be same.
•Generator and system phase angle should be equal.
Thus, if above three conditions are equal then generator should be synchronized with system
•Advantages of A.C Generator
•Field winding on rotor
•Less insulation
•Weight of rotor less
•Easy to retain centrifugal force
•Size of rotor is smaller
•High voltage on rotor
•Transmission of voltage is easy
•Easy cooling system
•Generator protection system
Being the ultimate device for generating
electricity it value can be rated as most liable.
Thus to prevent from internal and external fault
protection system is installed
Generator faults can be categorized as follows:
Internal faults System reflected faults
1
Certain internal faults on generator are mechanical in
nature such as;
1
Generator differential
protection (Primary)
* Lube oil problem 2 Natural over current relay
* Vibrations 3
Time over current relay
(Secondary)
•Generator protections
•Generator differential protection
•Generator over current
protection
•Stator earth fault protection
•Rotor earth fault protection
* Bearing problems 4 Loss of excitation
* Cooling system problem 5 Reverse power relay
* Prime mover failures 6 Frequency protection
7 Over voltage protection
2 Electrical internal faults 8 Under voltage protection
* Phase to phase fault
* Phase to ground fault
*
Negative phase sequence (or)
Un-balanced current in generator
* Rotor earth fault
•Rotor earth fault protection
•Under excitation protection
•Reverse power protection
generator motoring
•Negative phase sequence
protection… system unbalance
•Over / under frequency
protection
•Breaker pole failure protection
•Synchronous check protection
“When you system supply is dead
and you are the 1st one in the
system.. no need of
synchronization”
•Over excitation
Power Transformer
This is stationary device even though no part of this device is rotating. This operates on the law of
mutual induction. According to faraday’s law if current is supplied in one coil the due to mutual
induction the supply will automatically enters into second coil. Transformer work on this law and
transform the current from high to low voltage or low to high voltage.
The coil in which the current is supplied called “Primary coil” and the receiving coil is called
“Secondary coil”. The transformer can be step up or step down. Transformers are used to reduce
of improve the generator voltage which is further supplied to system.
Parts of Transformer Transformer cooling system
1. Conservation tank
2. Breather
3. Primary winding
4. Secondary winding
5. LT terminal
6. HT terminal
7. Iron core
8. Transformer cover
1. ON,AN (oil natural, air natural)
2. ON,AF (oil natural, air forced)
3. OF,AF (Oil force, air forced)
4. OF,AN (Oil force air natural
•Parts of Transformer
8. Transformer cover
9. Oil cooler
10. Cooling fans
11. Tap changer
Buchhloz relay
•Buchholz relay
This relay has been installed in between conservator tank and transformer. This prevent the
transformer from every of kind of internal fault which can be occur by short circuiting winding and
core terminals. Due to short circuit the oil gets overheated and resultantly gasification will occur.
These gases travels to the conservative tank thereby buchholz relay has been placed. The mercury
switches will get operated which subsequently operate the primary and secondary circuit breaker
and generator breaker got opened. It is also called gas operated relay.
•Differential relay
This relay is operates when uneven current / load of both side terminal i.e. LT and HT. This can be
happen due to shot circuiting and grounding of winding. These types of faults are very harmful
for generator and transformer. When such type of fault occurs this relay is operated elsewhere
this relay will not be operated.
•Transformer Protection
•Earth fault protection
•Overload relay
•Buchholz relay
•Oil and winding temperature high
•Differential relay
•Switch yard
•Bus-bar
These are connecting bar which are connected to various local and distribution feeders and also
intact with supply sources.
OR
Those conductors that receive source supply and distribute to different lines.
•Bus Coupler
Double bus scheme, where two bus bars are installed a provision of bus coupler has been
provided. Therein a bus coupling circuit breaker with two isolators is called bus coupler. Its prime
function is to substantiate the supply on any bus bar without disconnecting with system.
•Feeder
The feeder is used to connect the electricity to consumer. This has vital role is power system
•CT/PT (Current and potential transformer)
These are also called instrument transformer. These are used to measure voltage and current of
different high voltage lines.
different high voltage lines.
•Power Transformer
These are used for set up and set down of voltage
•Isolator
This can be termed as off load switch
•Breaker
This is an on load switching device. This can be opened or closed while sharing load.
•Lightening arrestor
A lightening arrester is a device to protect electrical equipment from over-voltage transients
caused by external (lightning) or internal (switching) events. Also called a surge protection device
(SPD) or transient voltage surge suppressor (TVSS),
Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf
D.C Supply
As we all know that AC supply can’t be stored. Thus the back systems in power houses are used built
on DC supply system. It is a stand by source of electricity available at every movement in shape of
storage batteries in order to protect our main system to damage.
•Importance of DC supply
All the control and protection system is based on DC supply. Usually the AC supply is converted to
DC through rectifier. Further battery bank is also used which is charge through rectifier. This DC
produced by battery bank is used in emergency when AC is not available. Moreover, during
charging the chemical energy converts into electrical energy.
•Different parts of DC supply
•Rectifier
•Battery charger
•Battery cell 24VDC or 220VDC
•Kinds of batteries
•Kinds of batteries
There are so many kinds of batteries; however below mentioned are the one who have been
chosen on their type of material and electrode.
•Lead acid batteries
•Nickel cadmium alkaline batteries
Nickel iron alkaline batteries
•Use of battery if power station
•Control of electrical equipment
•Open / close of breakers
•Position indicators
•Emergency lights
•Field flashing
•Control and protection system
•Emergency pumps
Note: The charge battery has 11% water and 89% sulphuric acid and when it discharged it
become 15% sulphric acid and 15% water.
Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf
Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf
Cooling tower
The prime function of cooling tower is to cold the hot water through its structural design and fans
therein 75% hot water get cold by evaporation whereas 25% hot water get cold through air.
All cooling towers operate on the principle of removing heat from water by evaporating
•Structure
There a fan on the top of each cell of cooling tower and below the fan (fiber) water tubes are
placed which convert the water into small particles. The titling edges are lay down on the side wall
of each cell which prevent the water from fall outside the basin. The fan through the air outside the
tower fan assembly and from this action the process of evaporation or removing heat from water
occurs.
The water in the basin of each cell is called pit (hot basin) and thereafter connected to cold basin
(C.W pump suction). This cold basin water is re-circulated through C.W Pumps. During this process
3% loss occurs which has been compensated / makeup through tube wells.
Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf
•Temperature measurement in cooling tower
To calculate the temperature of atmosphere and water two kinds of meters are used i.e. Dry bulb
and Wet bulb
The atmospheric temperature has been monitored through dry bulb whereas water temperature is
measured through wet bulb.
Thank You for Your
Time and
Attention !!!!
Attention !!!!
REGARDS:
KHALID AYAZ SOOMRO
INSTRUCTOR
TRAINING CENTER GENCOII TPS GUDDU
Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf
Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf
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Presentation of Advance Operator Course new course 2Urdu by Khalid ayaz Soomro.pdf

  • 1. CENTRAL POWER GENERATION CO. LTD GENCO-II TRAINING CENTER TPS GUDDU ADVANCE OPERATOR COURSE BY KHALID AYAZ SOOMRO INSTRUCTOR (INTERN ENGINEERS) TPS, GUDDU
  • 2. FIRE AND SAFETY FIRE Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products i.e. toxic gases and smoke. PRINCIPLE OF FIRE PRINCIPLE OF FIRE Fires start when a flammable or a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient quantity of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas, is exposed to a source of heat or ambient temperature above the flash point for the fuel/oxidizer mix, and is able to sustain a rate of rapid oxidation that produces a chain reaction. This is commonly called the fire tetrahedron (three- dimensional case). Fire cannot exist without all of these elements in place and in the right proportions •Oxygen •Fuel •Heat
  • 3. When fire take place, below mentioned three objects can be observed easily. • Hot Gases (emission) • Light • Heat The emission gases have different properties regarding fuel. The visibility of flame light depends on the particles which have not been burned completely. Hence, they become visible. S/No. Name of Gas Symbol % in air The different gases contain in atmosphere are listed below. S/No. Name of Gas Symbol % in air 1 Nitrogen N2 78% 2 Oxygen O2 21% 3 Carbon Dioxide CO2 1% S/No. Name of Gas Flash Point Auto ignition temperature 1 Gasoline (Petrol) -43 OC 280 OC 2 Furnace Oil (RFO) >60 OC 407 OC 3 Natural Gas >93.3 OC 580 OC 4 Kerosene Oil >37 to 65 OC 229 OC The flash point of different fuels is listed below.
  • 4. Flash Point The flash point indicates how easy a chemical may ignite and burn •Auto Ignition Temperature The Auto-Ignition Temperature - or the minimum temperature required to ignite a gas or vapor in air without a spark or flame FUEL Fuels are any materials that store potential energy in forms that can be practicably released and used for work or as heat energy. OR Those materials that are storing energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released through combustion. Types of Fuels •Solid --Wood, Coal, Lignite, Peat etc. Types of Fire and •Solid --Wood, Coal, Lignite, Peat etc. •Liquid -- Petroleum, Diesel, Fuel Oils, Alcohols etc. •Gaseous – Natural Gas, Coal Gas, Hydrogen etc. Fuel Source Class of Fire Type of Extinguisher (Extinguishing Agent) Ordinary combustibles (e.g. trash, wood, paper, cloth) A Water; chemical foam Flammable liquids (e.g. oils, grease, tar, gasoline, paints, thinners) B Carbon dioxide (CO2); dry chemical; film forming foam Electricity (e.g. live electrical equipment) C CO2; dry chemical Combustible metals (e.g. magnesium, titanium) D Dry powder (suitable for the specific combustible metal involved) Combustible gases (e.g. Natural Gas, Butane) E A.B.C powder Combustible Cooking (e.g. cooking oils; animal fats, vegetable fats) F or K Wet chemical (Potassium acetate based) Types of Fire and extinguishing
  • 5. Portable and semi portable fire extinguishers. Fire Class Extinguisher Type A Soda Acid A Water Type BCDE Carbon Dioxide AB Foam Type ABCD Chemical Powder, Dry Type ABCE B.C.F Halon BE Carbon Tetrachloride
  • 6. Fire Safety & Fire Safety & Fire Extinguisher Use Fire Extinguisher Use Objectives Objectives • Understand the combustion process and different fire classes • Understand fire extinguisher types, operating procedures procedures • Understand basic firefighting concepts: –R.A.C.E. –P.A.S.S.
  • 7. The Combustion Process • Three components • Need all three components to start a fire • Fire extinguishers remove one or more of the components.
  • 8. Fire Classes A Trash Wood Paper • wood • paper • cloth • etc. B Liquids Grease • gasoline • oil • grease • other solvents C Electrical Equipment COMBUSTIBLE • magnesium • computers • fax machine • other energized electrical equip. COMBUSTIBLE METALS • magnesium • sodium • potassium • titanium • other flammable metals
  • 9. CLASS K FIRES CLASS K FIRES K Cooking Media PRESSURIZED WATER PRESSURIZED WATER A Trash Wood Paper B Liquids Grease A Trash Wood Paper B Liquids Grease • Class “A” fires only • 2.5 gal. water (up to 1 minute discharge time) • Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check • 30-40 ft. maximum K Cooking Media • Recently recognized by NFPA 10 • Fires involving combustible oils, lards and fats in commercial cooking. C Electrical Equipment C Electrical Equipment • 30-40 ft. maximum effective range • Can be started and stopped as necessary • Extinguishes by cooling cooling burning material below the ignition point.
  • 10. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2 2) ) A Trash Wood Paper B Liquids Grease A Trash Wood Paper B Liquids Grease • Class “B” or “C” fires • 2.5-100 lb. of CO2 (8-30 seconds discharge time) • Has NO NO pressure gauge--capacity verified by weight • 3-8 ft. maximum effective range C Electrical Equipment C Electrical Equipment • Extinguishes by smothering smothering burning materials • Effectiveness decreases decreases as temperature of burning material increases.
  • 11. MULTIPURPOSE DRY CHEMICAL MULTIPURPOSE DRY CHEMICAL A Trash Wood Paper B Liquids Grease A Trash Wood Paper B Liquids Grease • Class “A”, “B”, or “C” fires • 2.5-20 lb. dry chemical (ammonium phosphate) 8-25 seconds discharge time) • Has pressure gauge to C Electrical Equipment C Electrical Equipment • Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check • 5-20 ft. maximum effective range • Extinguishes by smothering smothering burning materials.
  • 12. EXTINGUISHER TYPE WORKS BY EFFECTIVE AGAINST PRESSURIZED WATER CARBON DIOXIDE COOLING SMOTHERING Fire Extinguisher Summary MULTIPURPOSE DRY CHEMICAL SMOTHERING SMOTHERING
  • 14. Fighting the Fire P Pull the pin ull the pin A Aim low at im low at the base of flames the base of flames P A S Squeeze the handle queeze the handle S Sweep side to side weep side to side S S
  • 15. Before you fight the fire • Ensure: area is evacuated • Always sound the alarm regardless of fire size • Know locations of extinguishers • Know locations of extinguishers in your area and how to use them • Know department emergency procedures and evacuation routes
  • 16. When fighting the fire remember • To keep an exit to your Back • When the fire extinguisher is empty – Get out! – Get out! • When you leave the building do not go back in!
  • 17. When not to fight a fire when • Fire has spread beyond its point of origin • Your escape path is threatened threatened • The area is smoke filled • Your instincts tell you GET OUT
  • 19. P.A.S.S. Method Pull the pin This will allow you to squeeze the handle in order to discharge the extinguisher P.A.S.S. Method Aim at the base of the fire Aiming at the middle will do no good. The agent will pass through the flames
  • 20. P.A.S.S. Method Squeeze the handle This will release the pressurized extinguishing agent. P.A.S.S. Method Sweep side to side Cover the entire area that is on fire. Continue until fire is extinguished. Keep an eye on the area for re-lighting
  • 21. Firefighting Decision Criteria • Know department emergency procedures and evacuation routes • Know locations of extinguishers in your area and how to use them • Always sound the alarm regardless of fire size • Avoid smoky conditions • Ensure area is evacuated • Don’t attempt to fight unless: –Alarm is sounded –Fire is small and contained –You have safe egress route (can be reached without exposure to fire) –Available extinguishers are rated for size and type of fire • If in doubt, evacuate! “DON’T ATTEMPT TO FIGHT UNLESS YOU ARE TRAINED”
  • 22. Non-portable Fire Extinguishing Systems •Mulsi Fire System •Used to extinguishing the fire occurred at electrical transformer The MulsiFire system applies water in the form of a conical spray consisting of droplets of water travelling at high velocity. These droplets bombard oil surface to form a mixture of oil & water. This mixture significantly cools fire reducing the rate of liquid vaporization, While water droplets are passing through flame zone, some of the water is formed into steam that dilutes the air feeding the fire and creates a smothering effect to extinguish the fire. •Sprinkler System •Used to extinguishing the fire occurred in cable trenches A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure, consisting of water supply system, providing adequate pressure & flow rate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected •Auto Carbon Dioxide Used to extinguishing the fire occurred on Turbine & Generator. The non-portable fire extinguishing systems are often used at large power plants. WHENEVER FIRE OCCURRED When you find fire, inform the concern. Restrict the fire by using extinguishing. Activate the fire alarm. Leave your self and exit Enter low into fire zone. Remove endanger person Take control
  • 23. Fundamentals for extinguishing fire The below mentioned are basic fundamental rules to extinguishing fire •Starvation •Smothering •Cooling •Starvation Removing fuel from fire triangle is called elimination of fire starvation. •Smothering Removing oxygen from fire triange is called smothering •Coolinghazardous fuels i.e. petrol, oil, thinner etc. •To stop leakage in oil lube, To decrease the temperature of fuel from ignition point is called cooling PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES •To store carefully hydrogen, natural gas lines etc. •To store carefully hydrogen, natural gas lines etc. •To observe the increase in bearing temperature of I.D and F.D fans. •Always observe the oil leakage where steam and oil lines in vicinity. •Cotton rags should be kept in safe place. •Whenever oil is used in plant or workshop the excessive quantity should be returned back to store. •Where smoking is not allowed, make sure that the rule is followed. •Always make close watch over electric supply cables and wires.
  • 25. SAFETY & HEALTH GOALS The following goals have been established for XYZ Company: (1) Provide workers with a safe work environment. (2) Conduct routine/regular workplace inspections. (3) Provide Personal Protective Equipment. (4) Develop and implement safe work procedures and rules. rules. (5) Provide on-going safety training (6) Enforce safety rules and appropriate discipline. (7) Provide on-going property conservation practices.
  • 27. EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION The following topics will be covered in the Safety Orientation Session: Company History Safety Program/Policy & Work rules Responsibilities Safety Education/Training Safety Audit/Inspections Accident Reporting/Investigation Requirements First Aid & Bloodborne Pathogens Personal Protective Equipment Tool & Equipment Use Material Handling Lockout-Tagout Machine Guarding MVR Requirements Hazard Communication Emergency Action Return-to-work & Light Duty Assignments All new hires will be provided an opportunity to ask any question that pertains to their job duties and employment at XYZ Company
  • 28. SAFETY RULES All safety rules must be obeyed. Failure to do so will result in strict disciplinary action. All injuries must be reported as soon as possible. No horseplay, alcohol, or drugs allowed on premises. No alcohol usage allowed during lunch break. PPE must be worn as prescribed by management. All tools/equipment must be maintained in good condition. condition. Only appropriate tools shall be used for specific jobs. All guards must be kept in place. No spliced electrical cords/wiring allowed. Only authorized personnel can operate forklift vehicles. Smoking allowed only in lunchroom. Seat belt use required of all drivers/passengers.
  • 29. SAFETY COMMITTEE General functions of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Identifying workplace hazards (2) Enforcement of Safety Rules (3) Measuring safety performance (4) Reducing frequency/severity of injuries (5) Creating safety policies (6) Developing and monitoring safety programs Specific tasks of the Safety Committee can include: Specific tasks of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Conducting self-inspections of the workplace (2) Review employee reports of hazards (3) Assist in safety training (4) Creating safety incentive programs (5) Publish/distribute safety newsletter (6) Inspect PPE (7) Post safety posters/slogans on bulletin board (8) Identify Light Duty Jobs
  • 30. SAFETY GEARS Safety gears are used as prime substance to ensure safety to worker. Thus, before working on electrical system this should be checked and ensure according to rules and regulation of department. Kinds of safety gears •Safety Helmet It protect worker from head and eye injury, further it protects from heat stroke and dust. Thus, this should be wear during work hrs. Safety equipment •Ear Muffs This protect human ear from excessive noise a work place which can damage hearing efficiency. Normal noise level is 85~90db. Thus if the noise exceed from above the ear muffs should be used. •Safety shoes. At industrial area the safety shoes are used to restrain hazards at wet, oils places or any place where foot injury is one of most prime cause. These shoes can be used at chemical plant, However they are called long rubber shoes. They also insulate human body from electrical shock
  • 31. •Protective Cloth Use appropriate protective cloth during decanting of furnace oil, acid tankers and batteries •Respirator mask This should be wear, where industrial exhaust i.e. stacks or where any other dangerous gases contacting human body. If respirators are not used that this will bring deceases like i.e. chest infection and allergies during respiration. •Safety glasses •Safety glasses The wearing of safety glasses by all shop employees and work on sand blasting etc. Strict adherence to this policy can significantly reduce the risk of eye injuries Safety gloves Through this apparatus worker can be safe during work on acid, handing furnace oil, steam and hot valves or electrical contacts Safety belts This safes the worker from fall down from height. Thus during work on electrical pole or any place alike that, safety belt must be used.
  • 32. Safety programs The below are prime objects to conduct safety programs. •To point out unsafe practice, so that employees and appliances are prevented from accident. •To empower the administrative to follow ensure the regulation of safety code. •To abide the SOP for safety code. •To prepare a comprehensive accident reports this •To prepare a comprehensive accident reports this contains causes of accident and prevention, so that other may follow to restrain such accidents. •Work plan may be made in accordance with safety rules. •To conduct safety seminars in-between other power plants, so that awareness to new technology may be discussed and this will bring knowledge for safe operations.
  • 33. INTRODUCTION TO POWER PLANTS Basic concept of modern power plants A power station (also referred to as a generating station, power plant, powerhouse or generating plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Each power station contains one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into electrical power by creating relative motion between a magnetic field mechanical power into electrical power by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor HISTORY OF POWER PLANT The world's first power station was designed and built by Lord Armstrong at Cragside, England in 1868. Water from one of the lakes was used to power Siemens dynamos The first public power station was the Edison Electric Light Station, built in London, which started operation in January 1882. This was a project of Thomas Edison, it was called JUMBO. Types of Power Plants •Conventional Power Plants. Those power plants, which can be installed at any where easily i.e. Thermal Power Plants. •Non-conventional Power Plants. Those Power Plants, which cannot be installed at any where easily i.e. Wind Electric Power
  • 34. Power Plant Power Plant Conventional Power Plant Conventional Power Plant Thermal Power Plant Thermal Power Plant Hydel Power Plant Hydel Power Plant Non-Conventional Power Plant Non-Conventional Power Plant Nuclear Power Plant Solar Power Plant Tidal Power Plant Nuclear Power Plant Solar Power Plant Tidal Power Plant Geo Thermal Power Plant Wind Power Plant Bio-mass Power Plant Geo Thermal Power Plant Wind Power Plant Bio-mass Power Plant Thermal Power Plant Thermal Power Plant Steam Power Plant Combined Cycle Power Plant Gas Turbine Power Plant Diesel Power Plant Steam Power Plant Combined Cycle Power Plant Gas Turbine Power Plant Diesel Power Plant Low Head Power Plant Medium Head Power Plant High Head Power Plant Run of River Power Plant Low Head Power Plant Medium Head Power Plant High Head Power Plant Run of River Power Plant Nuclear Power Plant Solar Power Plant Tidal Power Plant Nuclear Power Plant Solar Power Plant Tidal Power Plant Geo Thermal Power Plant Wind Power Plant Bio-mass Power Plant Geo Thermal Power Plant Wind Power Plant Bio-mass Power Plant
  • 35. BASIC PARTS OF THERMAL POWER PLANT •BOILER •TURBINE •GENERATOR A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. Thus, when heat is applied it produces steam and pressure in close vessel. Types of Boiler 1. Water tube boiler 2. Fire tube boiler •Water Tube Boiler In water tube boiler, boiler feed water flows through the tubes and enters the boiler drum. The circulated water is heated by the combustion gases and converted into steam at the vapor space in the drum. These boilers are selected when the steam demand as at the vapor space in the drum. These boilers are selected when the steam demand as well as steam pressure requirements are high
  • 36. •Fire Tube Boiler In fire tube boiler, hot gases pass through the tubes and boiler feed water in the shell side is converted into steam. Fire tube boilers are generally used for relatively small steam capacities and low to medium steam pressures
  • 37. BOILER ZONES A water tube boiler has three zones •Radiation zone: Heat transfer takes place by radiation from the yellow flames. This zone is located in the bottom and middle portion of the furnace (1200~1400 0C). It consists of combustion chamber, water wall and radiant super heaters. •Radiant convection heating zone: The effect of radiation is reduced in the top portion of Zone-1 where secondary air is introduced. Here het transfer takes place both by radiation and convection. Temp (800~1200 0C). It consists of platen super heaters and water wall. •Convective heating zone (i) and (ii) It may call high temperature convective heating zone. Heat transfer predominately is convection. It is located after radiant convective heating part with temperature (800~900 0C. It consists of convection super heaters, re-heaters and economizer. Convective zone (ii) has temp lower than 800 0C. APH (Air preheater) is located in this zone. 800 0C. APH (Air preheater) is located in this zone.
  • 39. BOILER DRUM Boiler drum earn feed water from economizer. This water goes through the drum to down comers and thereafter it enters into up riser tubes. The up riser tubes generate saturated steam which came back into boiler drum and thereafter the steam goes to different super heaters.
  • 40. 01 Receives feed water 02 Store feed water 03 Distributes the water 04 Contains pressure 05 Receive steam water mixture 06 Provides outlet to saturated steam 07 It performs the process of separation and steam purification at higher pressure with the aid of baffles and other devices. 08 Produce blow down C.B.D and E.B.D Function of Boiler Drum DRUM INTERNALS DRUM INTERNALS •Baffle plates It converts feed water into small particles and when it passes through feed water it separate rust & unsolvable gases which may remove through boiler vent. •Steam Separator It removes heavy pollution from steam. Chemical dozing is also used to remove pollutions. •Steam purifier This eliminates remaining pollution and moisture and purify the steam. Further passes the steam from drum to super heaters. •Cyclone The function of cyclone is to eliminate silica and hardness. •Discharge lines Discharge lines are used to discharge steam from boiler drum •C.B.D (Continuous blow down) To control silica value in drum normally 5~7 T/h and 18 T/h in PBD48t/h •E.B.D (Emergency blow down) To meet the emergency for controlling silica value in drum
  • 41. BOILER FURNACE The furnace is the place where burning process with a mixture of fuel and air takes place. This provides space during burning. This also prevents the heat loss during fire because this is a sealed compartment. Furnace disburses heat to up riser tubes which converts water into steam. This also prevents to enter cold air into furnace. The furnace design should be like that which prevent heat losses. •Burners Burner is a device, which helps to ignite fuel with the help of air. This device is used for proper firing. Burner is a prime source to set right the fuel and air mixture, pressure and firing location. Burner is also called boiler operating parameter due to its importance for calculating boiler efficiency •Properties of Burner. •With the help of burner fuel burns completely. •Easy to operate •Maintain fire arc’s direction, so that at heat utilized within furnace. •It make proper mixture of air and fuel
  • 42. Super Heaters It is boiler auxiliary designed to superheat the saturated steam to a specified temperature. It may reach upto 540 0C. •Function of Super Heater •It increases the temp. of saturated steam. •It is used to dry the steam •It provides an outlet to superheated steam towards the steam turbine. Super heater is consisting of a bundle of tubes therein saturated steam passes. This wet steam gets more heat to convert as super heated steam. Super heaters are installed in all three zones of boiler. •Radiant Super heater •Platen Super heater •Convective Super heater The temperature of superheated steam is around 400 to 595 0C. Usually it is around 540 0C. The allowable difference is around ±5 to 10 0C allowable difference is around ±5 to 10 0C
  • 43. •Advantage of super heated steam •Improve turbine efficiency •No harm can occurred to turbine blade due to wet steam •No rust will occur to turbine blade •Blades does not bend •Steam temperature control in boiler •De-super heater •Atompration •F.W injection •Gas recirculation fan •Fuel increased / decreased •Air flow control •Tilting of burner position •Soot blowing •Shot blasting •Shot blasting Re-heaters Re-heater can also be termed as super heater. They can also be called as intermediate super heaters. These are installed in flue gas duct. The get heat through flue gases and rises wet steam temperature. There is no temperature different in re-heater or super heater. However due no decrease in steam pressure it is called re-heater. The pressure decreases due to line resistance
  • 44. •Economizer Economizer is an accessory of boiler that recovers the waste heat from the flue gas blown out of the boiler. Thus it actually "economizes" the operational cost or in other words, improves the efficiency of fuel utilization in the boiler Economizer is installed in flue gas duct. The economizer tubes get heat from flue gases to raise the temperature of feed water. This device is also reducing the temperature of flue gases. Economizers dramatically reduce boiler fuel consumption by efficiently removing waste heat from the flue gas and returning the heat to the feed water system •Fuction of economizer •It increase the temperature of feed water •Receives heat from flue gases •Lower the temperature of flue gases •Reduces the size of boiler •Increase the efficiency of boiler upto 1% in terms of fuel consumption •It is water heat recovery device. The temperature of water which is going to enter in economizer should be higher than freezing point of water because it will start condensing the flue gases this situation can also be termed as swat of economizer tubes. The flue gases with a content of sulpher become condense and form sulphuric acid which is harmful for economizer tubes. Thus, the minimum temperature of feed water in economizer is set upto 60 0C
  • 45. •Boiler Water Circulation Types: •Natural or thermal circulation •No pump or any device used •Control or forced circulation •(FCP) Forced circulation pump is used for circulation •Once through circulation •Boiler drum is not present in the circuit (no storage capacity) •Combined circulation •It is combination of forced and natural circulation
  • 46. •Gas Recirculation Fan Gas recirculation (GRC) is a highly effective technique used for lowering Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from burners. In industrial boilers by reticulating used flue gases back into the system. This process lowers the peak combustion temperature and drops the percentage of oxygen in the combustion air/flue gas mixture, delaying the formation of NOx caused by high flame temperatures This fan is installed in the 2nd zone of boiler, however sent the flue gases to 1st zone from this cold reheat steam converts into hot reheat steam and further increased the temperature upto 540 0C. This steam is used in IP turbine. The GRC fan is only used whenever reheat temperature did not arise.
  • 47. •Air pre-heater Heating combustion air can raise boiler efficiency about 1% for every 40F in temperature increase. The most common way to preheat the air is with a heat exchanger on the flue exhaust. Air pre-heater is installed into flue gases duct. The heating element get heat from flue gases and passes it to the air going into furnace, so that temperature of combustion air increased. This helps for proper fuel burning. •Advantages of air pre-heating •Improved combustion and efficiency use of fuel •Stabilized fuel ignition which improves low load combustion •Increased steam generation capacity •Better utilization of low grade, high ash fuel •Minimized size of boiler •Higher thermal efficiency as most of the heat from combustion products in recovered. If flue gases temp. is decreased upto 100 0F, the efficiency will increase by 25% (particularly in the boilers where gas, oil or coal is used as fuel) •Greater load flexibility •Greater load flexibility •Greater pre-heat, lower the SO3 in the flue gas and therefore the stack outlet temperature can be lowered resulting in greater heat utilization. •Air preheating ensures complete burning of fuel resulting in less slugging and cleaner flue gas and this reduces boiler outage for cleaning
  • 48. • Calorifier / steam air heater This is also called steam air heater. When the machine is operating of fewer load, this device is used to increase the temperature of flue gases to ensure not getting dew point in air pre heater and as well in stack. It is a tubular heat exchanger in which low temperature steam flows in the tubes while air flows in the shell side in cross current flow. Normally the temperature of heating steam is about 120~130 0C. This steam is the worked off steam from the steam turbine. SAH or calorifier is introduced at downstream of F.D Fan. •Function of calorifier •It works as heat exchanger, worked off steam from the turbine bleed and transfer it heat to combustion air, so it helps in better combustion. •It prevents air pre heaters from reaching the stage of dew point. •Indirectly, it regulates the temperature of flue gases flowing towards the chimney.
  • 49. •Soot blower Flue gas contains numerous compounds. When combustion occurs some of these compounds will collect and build up on surfaces within the furnace. The buildup will start to affect the overall performance of the boiler by obstructing the heat transfer. To address this problem, soot blowers are installed inside the furnace. To generate steam several boiler use fuel as coal, gas, oil etc. When firing occurs due to higher viscosity value of fuel comparison to air some un-burnt particles remains and further deposit on the boiler tubes is called soot. The soot restrains heat transfer and to tackle this soot blowers are installed, so that flue gases transfer maximum heat to superheater, economizer and re-heaters etc. Further to improve the heat transfer either steam or feed water tubes.
  • 50. •Boiler Safety Valves The boiler drums are manufactured on a specific pressure. Thus, in case the pressure exceed beyond the capability of boiler drum can explode and due to explosion, chaotic situation can occur in shape of fatal accident to human or machinery. Thus, to prevent from this state boiler safety valves are installed which operates on specific pressure. So whenever pressure exceed from limit these valve get operated automatically. •Regulation for safety valve •On every small boiler one safety valve with minimum size of ½” should be installed. Further if the surface area is exceeding from 500 ft2 then at least two safety valves should be installed. •1st valve should operate at 6% of boiler drum maximum pressure and thereafter 2nd valve should operate on 3% after working pressure of 1st safety valve. Safety valves should be installed without any extension pipe on the boiler drum. Usually on modern boilers three safety valves are installed. Two valves on boiler drum and one valve on life steam line are commonly installed. Both boiler drum valve does not operate on same pressure. pressure.
  • 51. •Boiler Surface •Water surface Waer surface include the following parts of boiler •Economizer 100% •Boiler drum partially •Down comers 100% •Generation tubes partially •Boiler heating surface Heating surface is the surface area of boiler tubes exposed to the hot gases of combustion in the furnace space ir order to transfer heat to the working fluid (FW) to generate steam. Heating surface include super heaters, re-heaters, de-super heater and furnace. •Thereare three tyoes of heating surfaces in a boiler •Radiant heating surface •Radiant convective heating surface •Convective heating surface •Convective heating surface •Heat transfer surface All the compnents of boiler, except down comers, includign furnace, super heater, re-heaters, de- super heaters are heat transfer surfaces •Advtanges of long flue gases path •Heat stays in the flue gases path for maximum possible time. •Different compenets placed in the flue gases path absorb heat from the flue gases. •Ratio of heat absorbed by different compenents placed in the foue gases path •Water wall 48% •Super heater 15% •Air preheater 10% •Economizer 07% •Re-heater 08% •Chimney 12%
  • 52. Boiler protections •HP Drum level low •HP Drum Level High •Fuel Pressure Low •Fuel Pressure High •Furnace pressure low •Furnace pressure high •Both f.D fans tripped •Both I.D fans tripped •All feed pumps tripped •Loss of flame •Control supply failed Combined Cycle Power Plant Combining two or more thermodynamic cycle’s such as the Brayton cycle Combining two or more thermodynamic cycle’s such as the Brayton cycle and Rankine cycle, results in improved overall efficiency, reducing fuel costs. Overall efficiency of combine cycle is around 52~65%, whereas gas turbine efficiency is around 32~36%. In stationary power plants, a widely used combination is a gas turbine (operating by the Brayton cycle) burning natural gas or synthesis gas from coal, whose hot exhaust powers a steam power plant (operating by the Rankine cycle). This is called a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plant.
  • 53. Basic concept of modern power plants The modern power complex consists on Steam and Gas Turbine has three major concepts. S/No. Name and History Concept 1 Willian Rankine’s (1845~1865) Thermodynamics Where heat is added in water boiler to convert heat into work 2 George Brayton (1872) Thermodynamics Where heat is added and discharged at constant pressure 3 Michael Faraday (1831) discovery of induction in 1831 When a permanent magnet is moved relative to a conductor, or vice versa, an electromotive force is created. If the wire is connected through an electrical load, current will flow, and thus electrical electrical load, current will flow, and thus electrical energy is generated Faraday's iron ring apparatus. Change in the magnetic flux of the left coil induces a current in the right coil.
  • 54. Entropy of Rankine Cycle Where heat is added in water boiler to convert heat into work
  • 55. Entropy of Braytone Cycle Where heat is added and discharged at constant pressure
  • 57. 1- Auxilary power supply 6.6kv (internal/external)source are in operation. 2- DC power supply are in operation and batteries are in stand by position . 3- Cooling water circuit (open cycle /close cycle ) are in operation. 4- Lube oil circuit are in operation and turning gear ON. 5- Evacuation / Vacuum circuit are in operation and vacuum in condensser is >-.8bar 6- Gas turbine ON LOAD 7- Condenset cycle are in operation 8- Feed water cycle are in operation 9- Boiler / HRSG filled up to Narmal Level and circulation ON if nassesary 10 - Steam turbine Sealing system in operation 11- Boiler / HRSG ON by pass operation Mode. 12- Auxilary Steam system in operation
  • 58. GAS TURBINE PREPERATION / CHECKS BEFORE STARTING 1- Auxilary power supply 6.6kv ON (internal/external)source for all equepment which are in servece before strating . 2- DC power supplt for control and protection system ON (thrugh Rectifire) and batteries on stand by position 3- No any PTW are in Panding 4- Clearence from all maintanence sections 5- Check all Mechanical,Instrumentations,and Electrical Equepments are ready for operation 6- Cooling Water circuit are in operation 7- Lube oil circuit are in operation and lube oil Temp >35c and turning Gear On 7- Lube oil circuit are in operation and lube oil Temp >35c and turning Gear On 8-Checke no any Leakage,Vibration,rubbing Noise and over Heating occures 9- Filtter house ready for operation 10-Anounciator pannel clear no any indication persists 11- Fuel (Gas/ Oil) raedy for operation 12-H2/Air cooling and sealing system ON 13- Gas Turbine Ready For operatoin indication ON.
  • 59. GAS TURBINE STRARTING PROCEDURE OF GE WITH RELAYS AND SIEMENS WITH SPEED (STARTING PROCEDURE ALMOST SAME ) A- GT Ready for operation indication ON B-Operation mode selector put on Generator and indication must on Generator C-Master Control selector ON AUTO D-Synchronizing Selector put on AUTO/Manual E-Load selector put on BASE LOAD/PEAK LOAD F- Fuel slector put on GAS/OIL G-Give strart pulse to master control and starting sequence start 1- starting sequence progress On and ready to start Light OFF 2-14HR relay Light ON and Starting Divice Energize ( it meanse no Zero speed ) 3-14HM relay Light On (it meanse speed at 16%) - speadtronice signal -for( GCE) for gas and (LCE )for oil , values on for ignition -IGNITION SEQUENCE ON and Flame detector light ON -IGNITION SEQUENCE ON and Flame detector light ON GCE/LCE values decreased up to warm up value for warm up time before acceleration 4- GCE/LCE values increased for Acceleration speed 5-Accceleration control/speed control light ON 6- 14HA relay light ON (when speed at 50% -Feild braeker ON for feild flashing 7-14HC relay light ON (when speed at 70%) and Starting Divice Disengage s 8-14HS lrelay light ON -Auxilary Lube oil pump OFF and Axilary Hydrulic pump OFF 9-Starting Sequence Complet light ON 10-m/c Synchronized through AUTO/Manual -Spnning Reserve Load On (That is 5 to 8MW) 11- GT Laoding start according to gradient select (normal gradient 11MW/minute and fast gradient is 30MW / minute)
  • 60. NOTE:- During Inital operation Master Control Switch put on Crank,Fire ,and Auto to check the Leakages, Rubbing Noise,Overheating.from Lubrication,Automizing air,fuel gas manifold ,fuel oil, flow devider,cumustion chamber /combustors,crossfire tube,Liner check all these things during start up sequence from diffrent comportments.
  • 62. GE GAS TURBINE USED COMBUSTORS SIEMENS GAS TURBINE USED SILO COMBUSTION CHAMBERS EACH CC HAS EIGHT BURNNERS
  • 64. GAS TURBINE SUPPORTING SYSTEMS / BOPs 1- A C Auxilary power system 2- DC power system 3- Starting Device (Motor / Diesel Engine) OR SFC Circuit (for Generator Run As a Motor)as a starting device 4- Lube oil System 5- Cooling Water system(open/close cycle) 6- Filtter Cleaning system 6- Filtter Cleaning system 7- Compresser Washing system 8- Fuel Oil system 9-Fuel Gas system
  • 66. 2.HRSG It is also called waste heat boiler (or) waste heat recovery steam generator The temperature of exhaust flue gases from gas turbine is 540 0C. This has HHV higher heating value and thereafore these gases are used in HRSG instead of ruined in atomopsheric air. Kinds of HRSG • With respect to tubes  Vertical tubes type • With respect to drum  Single drum type  Double drum type  Horizontal Tubes type • With respect to Pressure  Single pressure type  Double pressure type  Triple pressure type  Triple drum type • With respect to Reheater  With reheater  Without reheater • With respect to fired  Unfired type  Additional fired type
  • 68. 1st of all super heater has been installed in HRSG to attain maximum heat and to convert saturated steam into superheated steam, thereafter evporator tubes are installed therein feed water converts into saturated steam and in final stage economizer has been placed therein feed water temp increased upto 250~270 0C. After transfering heat to feed water these gases are throngn into atmospheric air which has 160~170 0C temperature. The HRSG generated superheated steam with temp. 500~540 0C and this steam is used to operate steam turbine. steam is used to operate steam turbine.  Working principal of HRSG 1. To provide sufficent steam to turbine. 2. To supply steam and hot water on commercial basis to offices. 3. To supply seam to sugar, cloth, wood mils 4. To clean the sea water into drinking water / desolination plant
  • 69.  Parts of HRSG 1. Feed water gate and regulator valve 2. Economizer 3. H.P Drum 4. Evaporator re-circulation pump 5. Evaporator 6. Super heater 7. By-pass damper 8. Isolation Damper 9. Weather damper / stack damper  Protection of HRSG 1. Drum level low low 2. Drum level high high 3. Live steam temperature > 540 0C 4. Evaporator circulation pump tripped. 5. G.T Tripped 6. HP Bypass station tripped 7. G.T flue gases pressure high 7. G.T flue gases pressure high (50mbar alarm…. 70 mbar trip) 8. Vacuum low 9. Pressure rising OR dropping at the rate >4 bar min (ramp rate
  • 70. HRSG (STAG) Name plate data Sr. No. Description Unit G-7 to G-10 01 Manufacturer HCG (Hollandse Constructive Groep bv leiden – Holland NEM Boilers & Process Equipment Div. 02 Client General Electric Company USA 03 Job Wapda Guddu –Pakistan 04 Contract No. SYT-098404 D 05 Drawing No. 25894-6001-01 to 04 06 Ambient Air Temperature 26.9 oC 07 Ambient Air Pressure 1.031 08 Number of Gas Turbines 2 / 1 09 Fuel Type Mari 09 Fuel Type Mari 10 Gas Turbine Firing Mode Base 11 Steam Turbine Exhaust Pressure 50.8 mmHg 12 Condenser Cooling Water Source River 13 Gas Turbine Exhaust 1387.9 Flow 536.2 oC Temp. 14 HRSG Inlet 1384 Flow 534 oC Temp. 15 HRSG Stack 1384 Flow 183 oC Temp. 16 Superheated Steam Exit 162.80 / 171.60 518 oC–516.3 oC 17 Steam Turbine Throttle Flow 325.60 / 171.90 515.2 oC–513.5 oC 18 Steam Turbine Exhaust Flow 324.90 / 170.90 38.4 oC 19 Condenser Hot well 325.60 39.5 oC 20 Condenser cooling water inlet flow 26880 27.0 oC 21 Condenser cooling water outlet flow 26880 33.2 / 33.5 oC 22 HRSG drum blow down flow 70 23 HRSG drum blow down pressure 37 24 HRSG drum blow down temperature 245 / 284 oC
  • 71. HRSG STAR UP pre checks HRSG READY TO START WHEN FOLLWING CIRCUITS ARE IN OPERATION 1.FW/COND CYCLE ON 2.CW CYCLE ON 3.VACUUM PUMPS ON AND VACUUM >-0.4BAR 4.HP BY PASS STATION RAEDY 5.HP DRUM LEVEL 700mmFILL 6.FW PUMPS 1,2,3 ANY ONE ON 6.FW PUMPS 1,2,3 ANY ONE ON 7.BOILER FEED WATER PRESSURE .80 BAR HRSG READY FOR START
  • 72. START PROGRAM 1. SLC HRSG DRAINS ON(MEANS DRAINS ON AUTO) 2. SLC AUXILIARY STEAM ON 3. SLC LIVE STEAM ON 4. SLC HYDR BLR DMPR AUTO 5. BLR OUT DMPR OPEN 6. FW GATE VLV OPEN 6. FW GATE VLV OPEN 7. HP BY PASS ON 8. FW CV AUTO 9. SLC EVAPORATOR CIRC PUMP AUTO SLECT PMP ON 10.SLC ECO PMP AUTO SLECT PMP ON 11.GT LOAD >MIN ie 20MW 12.FLUE GAS TEMP:BEH GT <350C 13.BLR DIEVRTOR DAMPER OPEN 100% FOR 45 SEC FOR PURGGING
  • 73. 14 PURGGING STACK ON MEANS PURGGING COMPLETED 15 DMPR CLOSE AGAINUP 0% 16 FLUE GAS TEMP;>450C WHEN GT LOAD UP TO 60 MW 17 BLR DIVTR DMPR OPEN AGAIN UP 45% 18 LIVE STM FLOW>20% 19 BLR DIVTR DMPR AUTO HRSG ON BY PASS OPERATION MODE 20 WAITTING FOR LIVE STM TEMP 530C, PRESSURE >40 BAR,CONDUCTIVITY <.5ms
  • 74. Steam Turbine Steam turbine is a prime mover that drives its energy of rotation due to conversion of heat energy of steam into kinetic energy as it expands through a series of nozzles mounted on the casing or produced by the fixed blades. That machine converts heat energy into mechanical energy called steam turbine. Definition of a steam turbine? A steam turbine is a prime mover that derives its energy of rotation A steam turbine is a prime mover that derives its energy of rotation due to conversion of the heat energy of steam into kinetic energy as it expands through a series of nozzles mounted on the casing or produced by the fixed blades. 1-Neilson defines it: The turbine is a machine in which a rotary motion is obtained by the gradual change of the momentum of the fluid. 2-Graham's definition: The turbine is a prime mover in which a rotary motion is obtained by the centrifugal force brought into action by changing the direction of a jet of a fluid (steam) escaping from the nozzle at high velocity.
  • 76. Ts diagram of a typical Rankine cycle operating between pressures of 0.06bar and 50bar There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. These states are identified by numbers (in brown) in the above Ts diagram.  Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy.  Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. The input energy required can be easily calculated saturated vapor. The input energy required can be easily calculated using mollier diagram or h-s chart or enthalpy-entropy chart also known as steam tables.  Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur. The output in this process can be easily calculated using the Enthalpy-entropy chart or the steam tables.  Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant temperature to become a saturated liquid.
  • 78. Some combined cycle used three cylinder steam turbine and some are used two cylinder steam turbine
  • 80. •Turbine blades There are two kinds of turbine blades •Stationary or fixed blades •Rotating or moving blades •Stationary or fixed blades These are also called diaphragm blades and their prime function is to divert the steam toward moving blades. Steam pressure is much higher on fixed blades as compare to moving blades. Hence they divert high pressure steam to moving blades. •Rotating or moving blades These are installed on the rotor surface and high pressure steam hits them and movement starts. This rotates the turbine on constant speed. •Turbine blades have two kinds in respect to their design •Reaction type •Impulse type •Reaction Type Turbine Pressure continuous drop and volume increased in stator blades and in moving blades pressure Pressure continuous drop and volume increased in stator blades and in moving blades pressure remains constant and volume becomes decreased •Impulse Turbine Pressure drop & velocity increases in curtus wheel stage after this pressure works in constant position (some lose) and velocity decreased in every moving blade. In gas turbine 75% energy and pressure used on 1st stage and the remaining i.e. 25 used on 2nd stages.
  • 81. •Main Steam Valve Usually main steam valve found in 100% opened or closed position from this valve steam enters into turbine. This is a huge hand wheel valve and the steam line contains bypass valves. •Quick Closing Valve These are also called emergency stop valve. Their prime function is to protect the turbine in the event of emergency initiated through protection system. These valves are also called protection operated valves. These valves operate on hydraulic system. Governing or regulating valves Usually these are called governor and their prime function is to maintain turbine rated speed. To maintain the speed of turbine i.e. 3000 rpm these valve operate automatically. As we know that when the load increased on generator the turbine speed decreased and this valve increase it opening to maintain the speed and when he load decreased on generator the turbine speed increased and this valve decrease it by closing to maintain the speed. Thus, this valve maintain the turbine speed in all condition either under rpm or over rpm. In power plant generator / turbines are rotated on constant speed, so that frequency may not get In power plant generator / turbines are rotated on constant speed, so that frequency may not get disturbed. In Pakistan the idle frequency is 50 hz and the formula is as under: F= p x n / 120 Frequency = no. of poles x speed / phase angle Thus, if the rotor speed decreased or increased the frequency will be changed simultaneously.
  • 82. •General Bearings To endure load of turbine general bearing are used. Oil supply is always disbursed into general bearing, so that metal can’t be rubbed together. This bearing consist of two parts •Upper half •Lower half Onto this bearing we control lubricating oil temperature along with bearing temperature. This should be exceeding from OEM recommendations. •Thrust bearing These bearings are installed to endure axial movement of turbine shaft. Thus, to prevent the rotating blades with collapse to stationary blades this bearing is installed. When force is applied on HP turbine the shaft shifts toward generator that is called “advancing” and when load is decreased the shaft shifts towards HP turbine that is called “retiring”. Thus, to prevent from any misshape or dislocation of vital turbine parts thrust pads have been installed. Usually tilting thrust pads are installed. White metal is applied on that pad, where hardness is less then bearing material and these pad can tilt their direction and also get hardness is less then bearing material and these pad can tilt their direction and also get lubrication. •Turning Gear When turbine stops rotating then there is a vital chance that upper half will be hotter than lower half casing. Thus, if shaft stops rotating a difference will occur in-between upper and lower half of turbine casing this will lead to shaft sag or bend. Thus, to prevent from sag and bend turning gear rotates the shaft slowly on constant speed, so that the temperature of shaft remain equal on both side i.e. upper and lower half of turbine casing. •Oil System There is three kind of oil systems are used in thermal power plants. This system is used to lubricate the bearing and has low pressure. Another oil system is used for sealing of generator which has medium pressure and the third one is control oil which is usually high pressure.
  • 83. •Protection of Steam Turbine •Vacuum loss •Lube oil pressure low •Turbine bearing vibration high •Turbine over speed •Axial displacement •Minimum level of hot well •Maximum level of hot well •Relative expansion differential expansion •Wet steam protection •Lube oil temperature •Condenser The prime function of condenser is to condense the steam which has been coming from LP turbine. The tubes contain raw water and when steam hits the surface of tubes steam got condensed. The condensation is collected in hot well, thus it can be called main condensate water. When steam is contacted with tube surface for condensation it is called surface condenser and these types of condensers are used in major power plants. There is another kind of condenser i.e. jet type condenser. In jet type condenser the condensate water is directly sprayed on the steam, so that the water can directly sprayed on the steam, so that the water can take the heat from steam and resultantly steam get condensed. •Function of Condenser A turbine condenser accomplished two jobs. It condenses steam coming from LP turbine and it transfer the het contained in steam to circulating water.
  • 84. Cleaning of condenser •Back washing •CW reverse flow partially •Brushes •Plugs •Rubber balls •Hard deposit removed by chemical treatment •Jet washing •Steam Jet Air Ejector It prime function is to eliminate non condensable gases from condenser. This has been made on different stages. One separate line of air has been taken to ejector where pressurized steam applied. This steam expels through nozzle where velocity is decreased and pressure is decreased. This steam takes away non condensable gases from condenser. •Deaerator This has been installed over the speed tank. Its prime function is to remove non-solvable gases from condensate water. This has been energized by using bleeding steam. A pipeline with small holes have been installed wherefrom feed pump fall in shape of drops. The baffle plates are inside under the pipe on which waterfalls. Therefore, non solvable gases get plates are inside under the pipe on which waterfalls. Therefore, non solvable gases get eliminated and water emerges into bottom of feed tank
  • 85. •H.P Heaters The feed water passes into tubes and take heat from bleeding steam. In this process bleeding steam got condensed and heated water goes toward feed water. The main aspect of H.P heater is to improve turbine efficiency and to supply hot water to boiler drum. This saves fuel consumption.
  • 86. •Condensate Cycle It is also called heat exchanger. Condenser is the device where steam gets condensed and collected into hot well. Each unit has three condensate pumps and two pumps in operation while the 3rd one remains on standby position. 1st their discharge goes to steam jet air ejector then vent condenser. Thereafter a small line goes for condenser recirculation. The remaining condensate water travels through main regulator and goes to LP heater No. 1 and 2 and subsequently attained heat. Then this condensate water goes through gland condenser and thereafter passes through LP heater No. 3, 4, 5. After passing from all above heater the temperature of condensate water rises from 50 0C to 140 0C and at final this condensate water goes through non return valve and enters into a header where two lines have been coupled to deaerator for entering into feed tank
  • 87. •Feed Water Cycle When feed water passes through deaerator then non condensable gases separates at that stage and at that time temperature of feed water is 160 0C. Feed water enters into feed pump through its suction filter. Each unit has 03 feed pumps. Two remain in operation while the 3rd one is on standby position. Suction pressure: 6kg/cm2 and discharge pressure 160 kg/cm2 According to load on machine usually two pumps in operation. The discharge of both pumps enters into a common header and wherefrom the feed water passes through HP heater No. 1, 2 and economizer. At this stage feed water gain temperature 240 0C. These HP heaters can be bypassed and resultantly economizer directly enters into boiler drum. Feed water can also be re-circulated through discharge recirculation line.
  • 88. •Main steam cycle The steam get out through super heater no. 4 and enters into HP turbine at that time its pressure is 130 kg/cm2 and temperature is 540 0C and after exiting from HP turbine it becomes 370 0C with 32 kg/cm2. This steam is sent in re-heaters where its temperature raised upto 520 0C however its pressure remain unchanged Thereafter at final the steam enters in LP turbine and performs work and at the end condense in condenser. Further for starting stopping and emergency controls HP and LP bypass station has been installed. HP by pass station by HP turbine whiles the LP by pass station by pass the LP turbine. Moreover, after bypassing the steam directly enters in condenser. The turbine consumes 30~40 heat energy and 5 % in leakage while the remaining heat energy collected in condenser. Advantage of extractions •It increase thermal efficiency in feed water •It reduce the size of turbine and condenser
  • 89. The Faraday disk was the first electric generator. The horseshoe- shaped magnet created a magnetic field through the disk . When the disk was turned, this Generator The operating principle of electromagnetic generators was discovered in the years of 1831–1832 by Michael Faraday. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.
  • 90. •Generator Generator is the device which coverts mechanical energy into electrical energy. •Alternator Due to generator of voltage in AC it is called alternator •Turbo Generator As the generator has been rotated through turbine that why it is called turbo generator •Synchronous Generator When generator is coupled with system and it operate according to other generators then this is called synchronous generator •Synchronous Condenser When generator gain power from system to improve power factor it act like a synchronous motor then this is called synchronous condenser. •Parts of Generator Rotor & Stator Casing & Bearing Casing & Bearing Exciter •Basic working principal of generator The rotating part is called rotor and stationary part is called stator. Generator rotor field winding is energized through DC supply which is called excitation this produce magnetism to rotor thus it generates magnetic flux. When generator rotor starts rotating it cut then stator winding reacts by cutting the flux. This product Electromagnetic flux. The EMF excites the electrons for movement and a flow of electrons starts. So, it is called terminal voltage or generator voltage. This excitation plays main role for generating voltage in generator i.e. 11kV, 15.75kV or 20~30kV.
  • 91. •Synchronization When do different electrical systems are coupled together it is called synchronization or to connect the generator with system. There are three main aspects during synchronization •Generator and system voltage should be same. •Generator and system frequency should be same. •Generator and system phase angle should be equal. Thus, if above three conditions are equal then generator should be synchronized with system
  • 92. •Advantages of A.C Generator •Field winding on rotor •Less insulation •Weight of rotor less •Easy to retain centrifugal force •Size of rotor is smaller •High voltage on rotor •Transmission of voltage is easy •Easy cooling system •Generator protection system Being the ultimate device for generating electricity it value can be rated as most liable. Thus to prevent from internal and external fault protection system is installed Generator faults can be categorized as follows: Internal faults System reflected faults 1 Certain internal faults on generator are mechanical in nature such as; 1 Generator differential protection (Primary) * Lube oil problem 2 Natural over current relay * Vibrations 3 Time over current relay (Secondary) •Generator protections •Generator differential protection •Generator over current protection •Stator earth fault protection •Rotor earth fault protection * Bearing problems 4 Loss of excitation * Cooling system problem 5 Reverse power relay * Prime mover failures 6 Frequency protection 7 Over voltage protection 2 Electrical internal faults 8 Under voltage protection * Phase to phase fault * Phase to ground fault * Negative phase sequence (or) Un-balanced current in generator * Rotor earth fault •Rotor earth fault protection •Under excitation protection •Reverse power protection generator motoring •Negative phase sequence protection… system unbalance •Over / under frequency protection •Breaker pole failure protection •Synchronous check protection “When you system supply is dead and you are the 1st one in the system.. no need of synchronization” •Over excitation
  • 93. Power Transformer This is stationary device even though no part of this device is rotating. This operates on the law of mutual induction. According to faraday’s law if current is supplied in one coil the due to mutual induction the supply will automatically enters into second coil. Transformer work on this law and transform the current from high to low voltage or low to high voltage. The coil in which the current is supplied called “Primary coil” and the receiving coil is called “Secondary coil”. The transformer can be step up or step down. Transformers are used to reduce of improve the generator voltage which is further supplied to system.
  • 94. Parts of Transformer Transformer cooling system 1. Conservation tank 2. Breather 3. Primary winding 4. Secondary winding 5. LT terminal 6. HT terminal 7. Iron core 8. Transformer cover 1. ON,AN (oil natural, air natural) 2. ON,AF (oil natural, air forced) 3. OF,AF (Oil force, air forced) 4. OF,AN (Oil force air natural •Parts of Transformer 8. Transformer cover 9. Oil cooler 10. Cooling fans 11. Tap changer
  • 95. Buchhloz relay •Buchholz relay This relay has been installed in between conservator tank and transformer. This prevent the transformer from every of kind of internal fault which can be occur by short circuiting winding and core terminals. Due to short circuit the oil gets overheated and resultantly gasification will occur. These gases travels to the conservative tank thereby buchholz relay has been placed. The mercury switches will get operated which subsequently operate the primary and secondary circuit breaker and generator breaker got opened. It is also called gas operated relay.
  • 96. •Differential relay This relay is operates when uneven current / load of both side terminal i.e. LT and HT. This can be happen due to shot circuiting and grounding of winding. These types of faults are very harmful for generator and transformer. When such type of fault occurs this relay is operated elsewhere this relay will not be operated.
  • 97. •Transformer Protection •Earth fault protection •Overload relay •Buchholz relay •Oil and winding temperature high •Differential relay
  • 98. •Switch yard •Bus-bar These are connecting bar which are connected to various local and distribution feeders and also intact with supply sources. OR Those conductors that receive source supply and distribute to different lines. •Bus Coupler Double bus scheme, where two bus bars are installed a provision of bus coupler has been provided. Therein a bus coupling circuit breaker with two isolators is called bus coupler. Its prime function is to substantiate the supply on any bus bar without disconnecting with system. •Feeder The feeder is used to connect the electricity to consumer. This has vital role is power system •CT/PT (Current and potential transformer) These are also called instrument transformer. These are used to measure voltage and current of different high voltage lines. different high voltage lines. •Power Transformer These are used for set up and set down of voltage •Isolator This can be termed as off load switch •Breaker This is an on load switching device. This can be opened or closed while sharing load. •Lightening arrestor A lightening arrester is a device to protect electrical equipment from over-voltage transients caused by external (lightning) or internal (switching) events. Also called a surge protection device (SPD) or transient voltage surge suppressor (TVSS),
  • 100. D.C Supply As we all know that AC supply can’t be stored. Thus the back systems in power houses are used built on DC supply system. It is a stand by source of electricity available at every movement in shape of storage batteries in order to protect our main system to damage. •Importance of DC supply All the control and protection system is based on DC supply. Usually the AC supply is converted to DC through rectifier. Further battery bank is also used which is charge through rectifier. This DC produced by battery bank is used in emergency when AC is not available. Moreover, during charging the chemical energy converts into electrical energy. •Different parts of DC supply •Rectifier •Battery charger •Battery cell 24VDC or 220VDC •Kinds of batteries •Kinds of batteries There are so many kinds of batteries; however below mentioned are the one who have been chosen on their type of material and electrode. •Lead acid batteries •Nickel cadmium alkaline batteries Nickel iron alkaline batteries •Use of battery if power station •Control of electrical equipment •Open / close of breakers •Position indicators •Emergency lights •Field flashing •Control and protection system •Emergency pumps Note: The charge battery has 11% water and 89% sulphuric acid and when it discharged it become 15% sulphric acid and 15% water.
  • 103. Cooling tower The prime function of cooling tower is to cold the hot water through its structural design and fans therein 75% hot water get cold by evaporation whereas 25% hot water get cold through air. All cooling towers operate on the principle of removing heat from water by evaporating •Structure There a fan on the top of each cell of cooling tower and below the fan (fiber) water tubes are placed which convert the water into small particles. The titling edges are lay down on the side wall of each cell which prevent the water from fall outside the basin. The fan through the air outside the tower fan assembly and from this action the process of evaporation or removing heat from water occurs. The water in the basin of each cell is called pit (hot basin) and thereafter connected to cold basin (C.W pump suction). This cold basin water is re-circulated through C.W Pumps. During this process 3% loss occurs which has been compensated / makeup through tube wells.
  • 105. •Temperature measurement in cooling tower To calculate the temperature of atmosphere and water two kinds of meters are used i.e. Dry bulb and Wet bulb The atmospheric temperature has been monitored through dry bulb whereas water temperature is measured through wet bulb.
  • 106. Thank You for Your Time and Attention !!!! Attention !!!! REGARDS: KHALID AYAZ SOOMRO INSTRUCTOR TRAINING CENTER GENCOII TPS GUDDU