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Introduction to Human Body Cellular Level.pdf

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Introduction to Human Body Cellular Level.pdf

  1. 1. Disclaimer: The e-content is exclusively meant for academic purposes and for enhancing teaching and learning. Any other use for economic/commercial purpose is strictly prohibited. The users of the content shall not distribute, disseminate or share it with anyone else and its use is restricted to advancement of individual knowledge. The information provided in this e-content is developed from authentic references, to the best of my knowledge. Branch: B. Pharm. Semester: I UNIT: I Subject: Human Anatomy & Physiology-I Topic: Introduction to Human Body, Cellular Level of Organization & Tissue Level of Organization Dr. Akanksha Mishra Assistant Professor Department of Pharmacology Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences University of Lucknow
  2. 2. Definition And Scope Of Anatomy And Physiology • Anatomy (ana- _ up; -tomy _ process of cutting) is the science of body structures and the relationships among them • Whereas anatomy deals with structures of the body, physiology (physio- _ nature; -logy _study of) is the science of body functions—how the body parts work
  3. 3. Levels of Structural Organization Fig.1: Levels of Structural Organization in Human Body
  4. 4. Body Systems Fig.2: Integumentary System Fig.3: Skeletal System Fig.4: Muscular System
  5. 5. Body Systems Fig.5: Nervous System Fig.6: Lymphatic System Fig.7: Respiratory System
  6. 6. Body Systems Fig.8: Endocrine System Fig.9: Cardiovascular System Fig.10: Digestive System
  7. 7. Body Systems Fig.11: Urinary System Fig.12: Reproductive System
  8. 8. Basic Life Processes 1. Metabolism: Sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body • Catabolism: The breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components • Anabolism: The building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components
  9. 9. Basic Life Processes 2. Responsiveness: Body’s ability to detect and respond to changes 3. Movement: motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even tiny structures inside cells 4. Growth: Increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, an increase in the number of cells, or both
  10. 10. Basic Life Processes 5. Differentiation: Development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state 6. Reproduction refers either to: • The formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement, or • The production of a new individual
  11. 11. Homeostasis • Homeostasis (homeo- _ sameness; -stasis _ standing still) is the condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body’s internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body’s many regulatory processes • Homeostasis is a dynamic condition • For example, the level of glucose in blood normally stays between 70 and 110 milligrams of glucose per 100 milliliters of blood
  12. 12. Feedback Systems • The body can regulate its internal environment through many feedback systems • A feedback system or feedback loop is a cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated, and so on • In a feedback system, the response of the system “feeds back” information to change the controlled condition in some way, either negating it (negative feedback) or enhancing it (positive feedback)
  13. 13. Negative Feedback Systems Fig.13: Homeostatic regulation of Blood Pressure by Negative feedback system
  14. 14. Positive Feedback Systems Fig.14: Positive Feedback Control of labor contractions during birth of a baby
  15. 15. Basic Anatomical Terminology
  16. 16. Basic Anatomical Terminology Fig.15: Planes & Sections through different parts of the brain
  17. 17. Basic Anatomical Terminology Fig.16: Directional Terms
  18. 18. Tissue • A tissue is a group of similar cells that work together to perform a specialized function • The science that deals with the study of tissues is called histology
  19. 19. Types of tissue 1. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: covers body surface and lines the body cavities, hollow organs and ducts 2. CONNECTIVE TISSUE: protect and supports the body and its organs 3. MUSCULAR TISSUE: responsible for movement of various body structure 4. NERVOUS TISSUE: detect the changes in internal and external environment and responds by generating nerve impulses
  20. 20. Fig.17: Types of tissues
  21. 21. Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissue Covering & Lining Epithelium Glandular Epithelium
  22. 22. Covering & Lining Epithelium • Based on arrangement of cells: ✓ Simple epithelial: single layer of cells ✓ Stratified epithelial: two or more layer of cells ✓ Pseudostratified epithelium: contain single layer of cells. • Based on shape of cells: ✓ Squamous cells: flattened cells ✓ Cuboidal cells: cube shaped cells ✓ Columnar cells: tall and cylindrical cells ✓ Transitional cells: change shape from cuboidal to flat and back.
  23. 23. Fig.18: Cell Shapes and arrangement of layers for Covering & Lining Epithelium
  24. 24. Glandular Epithelium • Two types: Endocrine glands & Exocrine glands • Structural classification: ✓Unicellular glands (goblet cell) ✓multicellular glands (sweat gland) 1. Based on branching of ducts a.) unbranched ducts (e.g. simple glands) b.) Branched ducts (e.g. compound glands)
  25. 25. … Contd 2. Based on shape of secretary portion • Simple glands ✓Simple tubular ✓Simple branched tubular ✓Simple coiled tubular ✓Simple acinar ✓Simple branched acinar • Compound glands ✓Compound tubular ✓Compound acinar ✓Compound tubuloacinar
  26. 26. Fig.19: Multicellular exocrine glands
  27. 27. Functional classification: • Merocrine glands: form the secretion and release it from the cell • Apocrine glands: accumulate the secretion at the apical surface of the cell., and this apical portion separate from the rest of the cell to form secretion • Holocrine glands: accumulate there secretion at the cytosol of the cell. As the cell mature, it dies and become secretion
  28. 28. CONNECTIVE TISSUE 1. Embryonic connective tissue: • Mesenchyme • Mucous connective tissue 2. Mature connective tissue • Loose connective tissue ✓Areolar connective tissue ✓Adipose tissue ✓Reticular connective tissue • Dense connective tissue ✓Dense regular connective tissue ✓Dense irregular connective tissue ✓Elastic connective tissue
  29. 29. …Contd • Cartilage ✓ Hyaline catilage ✓ Fibrocartilage ✓ Elastic cartilage 3. Bone tissue • Compact bone • Spongy bone 4. Liquid connective tissue • Blood tissue • Lymph Fig.20: Connective Tissues
  30. 30. Muscular Tissue A) Skeletal muscle tissue (striated muscle tissue) B) Smooth (visceral) muscle tissue C) Cardiac muscle tissue
  31. 31. Fig.21: Muscular Tissues
  32. 32. Nervous Tissue • Neuron & Neuroglia Fig.22: Nervous Tissues
  33. 33. Cell Fig.23: Cell: Basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body
  34. 34. Transport Across Plasma membrane
  35. 35. Fig.24: Active Transport
  36. 36. Fig.25: Endocytosis
  37. 37. Fig.26: Pinocytosis
  38. 38. Cell Division
  39. 39. Fig.27: Meiosis
  40. 40. Cell Junctions Fig.28: Cell Junctions
  41. 41. Intercellular Signaling https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26813/ Fig.29: Intracellular Signalling
  42. 42. Reference Tortora, G.J. & Derrickson, B. "Tortora's Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 15th ed. Noida: Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.; 2017.
  43. 43. Thank You