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Elements of space making

Theory of architecture II

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Elements of space making

  1. 1. ELEMENTS OF SPACE MAKING Yatin Pandya  Floor  Column  Wall  Door  Window  Stair  Roof  Definition  Anatomy  Evolution  Attributes  Spatial Roles  Applications  Design Considerations K E T H E E S W A R A N M . A R C H THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE -II Sem II.
  2. 2. FLOOR Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  3. 3. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR The floor is essentially a horizontal plane, providing a firm Datum, a resting plane for all objects in that space. As the base plane, the floor is a single entity with references only to the gravity, the ‘downward’ force. Where levels are involved, the relative positions of other base planes get perceived as above or below the reference plane KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  4. 4. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR TYPOLOGICALVARIATIONS With respect to FORM With respect to MATERIALTREATMENT UNMODULATED MODULATED NATURAL MAN-MADE KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  5. 5. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR SINCE HUMAN STARTED LOCOMOTION, BALANCE OF BODY BECAME A CRITERION DEVELOPMENT HAPPENED ON PLAINS DEMARCATION OF DOMAIN CREATION OF PLINTH (Horizontal surface provides the most secure and stable surface for habitation) Mythology, in most cultures, refer to a time when the world was completely covered with water- a flat plate or a swirling sphere. The land emerged from this primordial ocean, generating life. Allusion to this is seen in the metaphorical depictions in buildings throughout history. Aquatic creatures symbolic of the sea Imitation of water, temples of Greek Golden temple,Amritsar KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  6. 6. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR 1. HORIZONTALITY 2. SUPPORT AND STABILITY The floor distinctly defined in two dimensional plane as in x-axis and y-axis The Zen Garden, China Acropolis of Athens, Greece Floor giving gravity control for solid footing and a stabilized plane for movement KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  7. 7. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR 1. FLOOR FOR DEFINITION OF SPACE 2. DATUM AND REFERENCE 3. FLOORING AS MOVEMENT GUIDE 4. FLOOR TO EXPRESSTHRESHOLD 5. FLOOR FOR COMMUNICATION KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  8. 8. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR 1. FLOOR FOR DEFINITION OF SPACE floor modulated to satisfy different utilitarian Functions within the unit, part section of Bhunga house Spaces made conspicuous by various expressions Carved marble flooring, Lotus fountain Red fort, Delhi A perceptible change in the flooring strongly delineates and demarcates a difference in the zone. Eg- colours, textures, materials, elevations and depressions, accessories such as rugs and carpets. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  9. 9. Tholos at Delphi, Greece Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR 2. DATUM AND REFERENCE Nehru pavilion, New Delhi Floor becomes an ultimate reference node, Ensembling the spaces together enhanced in different ways Due to its flatness floor automatically provides a reference to all the elements that come above it or below it.This aspect of common reference makes it the datum, the unifying factor in the organization of space. •Floor emerges from beneath •Floor as plinth KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  10. 10. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR 3. FLOORING AS MOVEMENT GUIDE Mughal garden, Red fort, New Delhi The floor being the datum upon which all movement of both persons and goods take place, it can be effectively used to accentuate movement patterns By variations in level and surface of the horizontal plane, movement pattern is generated Katsura palace, Kyoto KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  11. 11. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR 4. FLOOR TO EXPRESSTHRESHOLD Traditional tatami flooring in house interior, KyotoThe floor beyond being a plinth, signifies a threshold and offers a transition from ambiguous surrounding to contained volumes. It is often hinted by raising the floor plane by a small interval and lowering it again. •A transition into different realms is distinctly identified in the floor •Texture and level change denote threshold Series of flat stepping-stones in a house, Osaka KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  12. 12. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR 5. FLOOR FOR COMMUNICATION Water channel at Jahaz Mahal, Mandu Floors are walked over and this constant function demands constant visual reference to the plane underfoot.This provides the floor with a high potential for superimposing signs and symbols as they effectively get registered. •Water channels serving dual purpose of supplying water and aesthetic expression Maze at Chartres Cathedral, France •Superimposing signs and symbols to welcome and reflect individual identification KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  13. 13. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR FALLINGWATER, PENNSYLVANIA The treatments of the floor reflect continuity between inside and outside by dissolving the strong boundaries of these two realms •Floor as planes The floor planes become extension of the landscape elements creating a homogeneity with the environment •Floor becomes an element communicating its coherence with nature KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  14. 14. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR FALLINGWATER, PENNSYLVANIA Demarcation •Floor as datum and reference Floor enhancing the natural richness of water and stone •Floor defining spaces of myriad characteristics •Floor as a movement guide Sense of unity Defining spaces above & below KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  15. 15. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. FLOOR Floor modulating to make a visual impact Floor for communication through textural variation Floor adding to dignity of the space Floor as backdrop for other elements Floor defining different zones of circulation KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  16. 16. COLUMN Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  17. 17. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. COLUMN A column is essentially a slender vertical supporting element, Loaded from the top and transferring the load axially to the base. It is free-standing except for the structure above it and the anchorage at the base. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  18. 18. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. TYPOLOGICALVARIATIONS OBELISK COLUMN PIER PILASTER COLUMN Free-standing, non-structural Thick shaft, structural Series of vertical Structural elements Protruding from wall, Structural elements KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  19. 19. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. In early ages, Connection between Man and God, Columns of Sun, Peru Column depicted as the charioteer of God, Expressing strength, support and security, VitthalTemple, Hampi EARTH - a flat plane floating over water SKY- a solid plane MOUNTAINS- points on earth on which sky rested COLUMN The notional proximity to the celestial beings led to the practice of sages and wise men going up the mountains for penance.These expressions of strength, celestial connection and verticality were manifested as the column- the man-made equivalent of mountains. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  20. 20. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. COLUMN Carved out support Wooden column Elaborate decoration modern- RCC, steel Piers, pillasters monumentality and symbolism KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  21. 21. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Greek Doric EUROPEAN ORDERS Greek Ionic Greek Corinthian RomanTuscan Roman Composite KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  22. 22. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. CENTRALITY Commanding space with its off-centre placement Qutub Minar, Delhi St. Peter’s Bascilica,Vatican City Commanding space with its central placement COLUMN A column marks a locus- a central position in space. Due to this, other elements which form a part of the ensemble gravitate towards the column. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  23. 23. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 2. VERTICALITY Columns together adding visual composition to space Eiffel tower, Paris Ashok Stambh, Sarnath Penetrating forcibly upwards with its dynamism COLUMN In principle, a point extruded upwards, the column assumes verticality and guides vision upwards from the horizontal plane, lending it an upward thrust and imparting dynamism to the space. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  24. 24. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 3. DIRECTIONALITY Single column Diwan-i-Khas, Fatehpur Sikri Church of St. Lorenzo, Italy Multiple columns COLUMN As with points generating a line, columns placed linearly guide direction. Two columns Jami masjid, Champaner KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  25. 25. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 4. RHYTHM Columns stipulating Rhythm through their placement City Palace, Udaipur COLUMN Linear repetition of columns with changing distances give rise to a rhythm, a sense of continuity and consistency determined by their spacing and frequency of occurrence. Diwan-i-am, Fatehpur Sikri KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  26. 26. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. COLUMNS AS FOCUS OF SPACE Columns creating focus, as a point in space The Jaipur Column, Delhi A free-standing column, as a point in space, commands centrality and as a graphical element adds vitality to the composition. COLUMNKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  27. 27. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 2. COLUMN FOR SPACE DEFINITION Stonehenge, Great Britain DEFINITION BYVOLUME Three or more columns not placed along the same line, act as vertices of an invisible polygon. SUB-DIVISION OF SPACE Amdavad ni Gufa,Ahmedabad COLUMN In composite arrangement, columns sub-divide the main volumes and also help in defining them. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  28. 28. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 3. COLUMN AS MOVEMENT GUIDE Free-standing column A series of columns when placed along a line, creates an imaginary plane binding them, setting up strong perspectives and establishing direction, inviting movement along them. COLUMN Enveloping space, Creating enclosure Sense of direction Creating movement KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  29. 29. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 4. COLUMNS AS MODULATOR OF FACADE Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome Columns when exposed as an elevational element, compose and modulate the façade due to their rhythm, verticality as well as sculptural quality. COLUMN Lion Guard, Mahabalipuram KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  30. 30. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. JOHNSON WAX HEADQUARTERS,WISCONSIN by Frank LloydWright Columns creating significantly individual sub-units harmonize the overall Volume by strong presence in their form and position •Column as an image-maker Designed as a flower, columns create a jungle of concrete trees COLUMNKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  31. 31. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. •Expression of verticality COLUMN •Column as a focus of space •Column defining spaces and sub-spaces •Intercolumniation creating rythm KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  32. 32. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Placement of column forming sub-spaces Colunms help to define the space within Diverse patterns created by various rhythms Various forms of column according to Transformation of load COLUMN Column with aura, creating verticality KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  33. 33. WALL Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  34. 34. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. WALL The wall is a vertical plane, which defines an enclosure. One of its primary purposes through time, even before the column, is that of taking structural load of the roof KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  35. 35. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. TYPOLOGICALVARIATIONS STRAIGHT CURVED LINEAR WALLKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  36. 36. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Cave dwelling Bushmen Skerm Tower dwelling Right- angled dwellings Cluster dwelling, Sudan •Living spaces scooped from living rocks •Free-standing strcutures •Circular planning •Technological development resolved corners •Technology further lead to rectilinear load-bearing masonry walls. WALLKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  37. 37. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. VERTICALITY 2. PLANARITY Wall is essentially an extrusion of the line along z-axis, enclosing volumes Wall demarcating spaces with its planarity WALLKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  38. 38. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. WALL FOR DEMARCATINGTERRITORY 2. ENCLOSINGVOLUME 3. SUBDIVISION OF SPACE 4. DISPLAY AND STORAGE ELEMENT 5. PROTECTIVE BARRIER 6. MOVEMENT GUIDE WALL 7. FORM GIVER AND FAÇADE MODULATOR 8. COMMUNICATOR AND ENCODER OF MESSAGES KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  39. 39. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. WALL FOR DEMARCATINGTERRITORY Citadel, Zincirli Wall as an element defining extent The wall, as a vertical plane, defines and delineates extent of the horizontal surface.With opacity, it becomes a termination of realms WALLKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  40. 40. Colosseum, Rome Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 2. ENCLOSINGVOLUME Textile Mill Owners’Association,Ahmedabad The inherent verticality of the wall makes it command volume and the attribute of planarity helps contain this in. •Wall creates a sensual quality to the space within •Wall creating a sense of inside/ outside WALLKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  41. 41. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 3. SUBDIVISION OF SPACE Textile Mill Owners’Association,Ahmedabad Based on different kinds of activity patterns, uses and requirements, large spaces need to be subdivided into smaller pockets, performing specific roles. Katsura palace, Kyoto WALLKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  42. 42. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 4. DISPLAY AND STORAGE ELEMENT Wall as niche Though walls convey the idea of planes, their construction technique and material used requires them to possess some thickness.This depth affords the provision of small niches, alcoves and shelves within the wall. Interior wall of Kutch house WALL Wall as display element KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  43. 43. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 5. PROTECTIVE BARRIER Fort wall of Jaisalmer, Rajasthan As planes possessing height, walls entrap space when they close in on themselves.This, combined with the property of being a physical barrier bestows upon it the responsibility of protection. •Walls serving the purpose of defense Anthill Mosque, Central Africa WALLKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  44. 44. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 6. MOVEMENT GUIDE Hindusthan Lever Pavillion, New Delhi Being a physical barrier, walll does not allow penetration through it. Combined with its planarity through stretched planes, it guides movement along its length. •Wall modulated to form movement guide Indian Institute of Management,Ahmedabad •Massing of the wall defines the movement zone WALLKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  45. 45. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Uniersity of Jodhpur, Rajasthan The wall plane- as the external envelope of interior space, perpendicular to the line of sight becomes the single most conspicuous element forming the façade of any structure. National Diary Development Board, New Delhi WALL 7. FORM GIVER AND FAÇADE MODULATOR KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  46. 46. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Bhunga house, KutchAs a vertical plane, most evident in the cone of vision, walls as barriers became the most potent communication elements capable of encoding communication. Temple Plinth WALL 8. COMMUNICATOR AND ENCODER OF MESSAGES KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  47. 47. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. •Enclosing volume •Unifying and Sub-dividing spaces WALL BARCELONA PAVILION by MiesVan Der Rohe •Wall element demarcating spaces •Pattern of movement path KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  48. 48. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. BARCELONA PAVILION by MiesVan Der Rohe •Barrier protecting interior from exterior environment Plan- walls creating a spatial hierarchy •Element communicating the overall spatial quality WALLKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  49. 49. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Inclined walls also contain volume Shapes create sense of attraction and repulsion Texture defining interior and exterior spacesModifying wall for utilitarian needs Variation in heights explores sense of separation WALL Wall defining movement KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  50. 50. DOOR Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  51. 51. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. DOOR A door is essentially a puncture through a plane allowing for a passage through it. Door acts as entry and exit. Thus, door connotes as aspect of passage beween two realms KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  52. 52. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. TYPOLOGICALVARIATIONS GATEWAY DOOR WITH SHUTTER DRAWBRIDGE DOORKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  53. 53. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Thorny plants, stones Removable barriers Automated glazed doors Defense & grandeur Solid door tied to frame Evolution of domestic doors essentially for security and defense with changing forms and functions of shutters and openings. Further they were elaborated to mark entry point and visual composition. DOORKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  54. 54. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. PENETRABILITY 2. DIFFERENTIATION DOOR Vernacular dwelling,Africa Door with small inset Door as puncture in the barrier Differentiating indoor and outdoor KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  55. 55. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. DOOR AS POINT OF ACCESS 2. DOOR ASTHRESHOLD 3. GUIDETO MOVEMENT 4. IMAGE-MAKER 5. MODULATOR OF FAÇADE DOORKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  56. 56. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. DOOR AS POINT OF ACCESS Dwelling unit Gateway to house As a definite point highlighting the penetrability within the wall, the door manifests a puncture within a plane, allowing physical permeation perpendicular to the wall plane. Gateway to city Gateway to country Gateway to sacred place Toran,VadnagarGateway of India, Mumbai Teen Darwaza,Ahmedabad DOORKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  57. 57. Brihadeeshwarar temple,Tanjore Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 2. DOOR ASTHRESHOLD Being access points to one realm from the other, doors establish the sense of transition of moving from one to another realm- from public to private, in to out, sacred to profane etc differentiated by the wall plane •Symbolic motifs •Elements of door with variation in jamb or mass DOOR •Door on elevated plane KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  58. 58. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 3. GUIDETO MOVEMENT As the only nodes in volume allowing penetration, doors in a room determine the direction and scheme of circulation within it. DOORKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  59. 59. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 4. IMAGE-MAKER Amdavad ni Gufa,AhmedabadThe main door, especially, denoting the entry into a built form from the outside has, through time, been accorded the highest priority both by the vernacular and the master- builders. Gopurams, Srirangam Door embellishments DOORKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  60. 60. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 5. MODULATOR OF FAÇADE Just as any void scooped out of solid mass automatically relates to the mass, the door too becomes an integral element of the façade aesthetics. Barn,Wiltshire DOORKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  61. 61. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. •Modulator of façade •Door as a penetrable plane ASSEMBLY BUILDING, CHANDIGARH by Le Corbusier •Door as image-maker •Door commanding space around DOORKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  62. 62. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. •Door depicting icons and symbols •Door as a threshold DOOR ASSEMBLY BUILDING, CHANDIGARH by Le Corbusier KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  63. 63. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Door emphasized by additional elements Position creating movement zone Node of differentiation between 2 realmsVisual access and circulation Node for entry and exit Play of transparency and opacity DOORKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  64. 64. WINDOW Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  65. 65. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. WINDOW The window is defined as an opening in the wall made to facilitate ventilation, light and view. Windows to buildings, are as eyes to the face. They act as visual links between the inside and the outside world. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  66. 66. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. TYPOLOGICALVARIATIONS PERFORATION (JALI) BAYWINDOW CASEMENT DORMER WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  67. 67. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Aperture on rocks Shaft for air and light Automated glazed doors Decoration element Narrow openings WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  68. 68. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. APERTURE FOR LIGHT 2. PASSAGE FOR AIR School of Architecture,Ahmedabad Window illuminating & enlightening the space within Air movement conditioning the space within WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  69. 69. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. WINDOW AS COMMUNICATION LINK 2. SCALING ELEMENT 3. FAÇADE MODULATOR 4. IMAGE-MAKER WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  70. 70. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. WINDOW AS COMMUNICATION LINK In to out Windows, as openings in the wall, owing to their transparency, form the visual interface with the exteriors communicating with the outdoors. Jali- one way communicationIndise- outside interaction WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  71. 71. Coleshill house, Berkshire Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 2. SCALING ELEMENT As a puncture in the contiguous surface, windows become visual reference.They break the surface continuity ans sub- scale the mass. •Windows scaling the space inside a built form •Windows sub-scaling the space outside WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  72. 72. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 3. FAÇADE MODULATOR From the exterior, the primary elements constituting a buildings façade are the roof and the wall.Windows, as elements, which adorn the wall, play a significant role in its modulation. Centre for development studies, Thiruvananthapuram WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  73. 73. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 4. IMAGE-MAKER Chaitya window,Ajantha cavesWindows frame views and also gets framed within the façade surface. Often buildings get recognized and identified through the image portrayed by these characteristic windows. Newar window, Nepal IIM,Ahmedabad WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  74. 74. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. •Modulator of façade •Window as scaling element INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT,AHMEDABAD by Louis I. Khan •Aperture for air, light and view •Window as an eye to the world WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  75. 75. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Alternative placement of window for easy air flow Diffusing the light Modulating facadeFraming of views Scaling element WINDOWKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  76. 76. STAIR Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  77. 77. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. STAIR The stairway is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. Stairs may be straight, round, or may consist of two or more straight pieces connected at angles. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  78. 78. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. TYPOLOGICALVARIATIONS Straight flight Dog- legged Stairwell Spiral Helical Ladder Ramp Escalator Elevator STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  79. 79. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Climbing on ropes ladders Technology ornamentation Building as stair STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  80. 80. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. MOVEMENT INVOLUME Movement in space and orientation STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  81. 81. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. STEP AS PEDESTAL 2. STEP AS SEAT 3. STEP ASTHRESHOLD 4. MOVEMENT GUIDE 5. PHYSICAL LINK 6. SPACE MODULATOR 7. DISPLAY AND STORAGE 8. VENTILATION SHAFT 9. STAIR AS DEVICES/ INSTRUMENT STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  82. 82. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. STEP AS PEDESTAL Asiatic Library, Mumbai Step as an element to negotiate tehh plinth becomes the most obvious feature of the building.A series of steps negotiates the plinth, a pedestal upon which the building rests, to reach up to the building from the base. Rudabai stepwell,Adalaj STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  83. 83. Theatre Aspendos,Turkey Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 2. STEP AS SEAT Steps as seat Stairs consist of comfortable negotiable small platforms for ascent. These platforms if modulated accordingly also can double up as seating since they recreate the ambience of a theatre at a smaller scale. STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  84. 84. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 3. STEP ASTHRESHOLD IIM,AhmedabadAs buildings are raised on the plinth, steps form the natural link to negotiate these level differences. Thus, steps become a threshold in linking and dissociating two realms. Steps & Plinth, Jaisalmer STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  85. 85. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 4. MOVEMENT GUIDE Halisa Kuva, Gandhinagar The stair assumes nodality as the confluence of horizontal and vertical movements.This junctional pause point attracts movement towards it and the space within which it is located. Guggenheim Museum, NewYork STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  86. 86. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 5. PHYSICAL LINK Sangath,AhmedabadThe stair physically connects two different horizontal planes and in the process, it also disciplines and directs movement. London Zoo STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  87. 87. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 5. SPACE MODULATOR School of architecture,Ahmedabad The diagonal stretch across the volume and its influence upon the horizontal as well as vertical perspectives can be exploited for enhancing or delineating subspaces. Mahabat Maqbara, Junagadh STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  88. 88. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Vertical surfaces adjacent to the floors are generally useful for storage.The vertical surface stretching from floor to ceiling culd be used as storage or display based on its position in the overall configuration of space below it. 7. DISPLAY AND STORAGE STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  89. 89. IIS, Infosys, Noida Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. IIM,Ahmedabad The stair cuts across the multiple levels of the volume.As a result it becomes a link volumetrically connecting the spaces.This aspect inherent to any stair combined with its resolution as stackedcore creates a vertical shaft 8. VENTILATION SHAFT STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  90. 90. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. RamaYantra, Jantar Mantar, JaipurThe aspects of verticality, simultaneous displacement in vertical as well as horizontal axis and the stair being composed of modular components has made the stair as an indispensable element to take readings. 9. STAIR AS DEVICES/ INSTRUMENT MishreYantra, Jantar Mantar, Jaipur STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  91. 91. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. The ramp 3. Lift shaft TEXTILE MILL OWNERS’ ASSOCIATION,AHMEDABAD by Le Corbusier FIVE MODES OF TRANSITION 2. Dog- legged stair 4. Stair from second floor to mezzanine 5. Stair from mezzanine to terrace STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  92. 92. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Storage External stair as extension of public realm Stair as seats & landing extended for multi-useWidth varying according to use Proportion Stair being the node in a building STAIRKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  93. 93. ROOF Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  94. 94. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. ROOF Basically, the term roof signifies a shelter, denoting space and implying volume. The position of this element is such that it manifests as the first effort to form a finite datum as enclosure. KETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  95. 95. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. TYPOLOGICALVARIATIONS FLAT CURVED FOLDED PLATE MEMBRANEINCLINED SPACE FRAME ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  96. 96. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Rock-cut dwellings Temporary materials Technology ornamentation Permanent materials ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  97. 97. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. OVERHEAD PLANE 2. SHELTER Open air theatre roof, Bad Herseld Providing a tree like shelter for the space below ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  98. 98. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. ROOF AS SPATIAL ENCLOSURE 2. MODULATOR OFVOLUME 3. ENCODER OF SYMBOLS 4. IMAGE MAKER ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  99. 99. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. ROOF AS SPATIAL ENCLOSURE Matri Mandir,Auroville The roof, canopy ceiling provides an enclosing surface, which defines and limits interior space especially and demarcates between the notions of ‘in’ and ‘out’. Venkateshwara University Auditorium,Tirupati ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  100. 100. Beehive, northern Syria Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 2. MODULATOR OFVOLUME Mahadev Temple, KhajurahoThe plastic quality of the roof form determines the three-dimensional habitable volume contained below. Modulation of this roof profile and height affords posibility of getting diverse volumes both in sizes and shapes. ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  101. 101. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 3. ENCODER OF SYMBOLS Bahai Temple, Delhi Being detached from the ground(living zone) and notionally unreachable, inaccessibly nearer to the sky, the roof form within and without takes on connotations and treatments as befitting a celestial and fantastic realm, of an intangible metaphysical nature Shikara of Angkorvat temple ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  102. 102. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 4. IMAGE MAKER Pagoda, China The roof being the topmost part of the edifice, forms the crown, the most conspicuous elements in the skyline of a city and easily recognizable from afar. Inuit Igloo, Russia ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  103. 103. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. 1. Spatial enclosure 3. Modulator of volume ASSEMBLY BUILDING, CHANDIGARH by Le Corbusier 2. Image maker 4. Roof as symbol 5. Element of light & ventilation 6. Encoder of symbols ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH
  104. 104. Definition | Anatomy | Evolution | Attributes | Spatial Role | Application | Design-Cons. Volume and Scale Roof providing shelter- its primary notion Storage space or Mezzanine/Alcove Image Maker Roof as outer skin, structure Public, semi-private and private spaces ROOFKETHEESWARAN M.ARCH

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