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Disasters and Ecosystem: Philippine Setting

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NSTP Lecture-Presentation (May 22, 2015)
An overview of the link between ecosystem and disaster on the preparedness, prevention & mitigation measures that environment can offer us before, during and after disaster happens.

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Disasters and Ecosystem: Philippine Setting

  1. 1. KENNETH D. BARRIENTOS Instructor/Researcher AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- IBAJAY CAMPUS Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 Choose One.ppt
  2. 2. 1. Define hazard, vulnerability, capacity, risk, elements at risk, disaster, response, relief, rehabilitation, reconstruction, development, mitigation, preparedness and prevention. 2. Be acquainted with Philippines’ Disaster Risk Profile. 3. Familiarize the mandates regarding Disaster Risk Reduction and Management. 4. Find out inter-linkages between ecosystems, natural hazards and disasters and how did they emerge? 5. What are ecosystems and how do humans interact with them? 6. Determine on how can ecosystem mitigate disaster risk. 7. Identify issues and challenges in Philippine DRRM.
  3. 3. Is a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood & services, social & economic disruption or environmental damage. Could be a potentially damaging phenomenon It could be natural or human-induced. But not all hazards become disasters ! Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting
  4. 4. It is a condition or sets of conditions that reduces people’s ability to prepare for, withstand or respond to a hazard. are the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard. This may arise from various physical, social, economic & environmental factors. Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting
  5. 5. Is the combination of all strengths and resources available within the community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk or effects of a disaster. Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting
  6. 6.  The probability that a community’s structure or geographic area is to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of a particular hazard, on account of their nature, construction, and proximity to a hazardous area. Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting R = HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (exposure) CAPACITY
  7. 7. Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting Hazard Vulnerabilityx Disaster Risk Capacity =
  8. 8. Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting Hazard Vulnerabilityx Disaster Risk Capacity =
  9. 9. Elements at Risk Exposed Elements Persons, buildings, crops or other such like societal components exposed to known hazard, which are likely to be adversely affected by the impact of the hazard.
  10. 10. They are serious disruptions on the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources . ~ (RA 10121, Section 3h, 2011) Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 MAN-MADE DISASTERS NATURAL DISASTERS
  11. 11. WHY ARE DISASTER IMPACTS INCREASING? 1. Increased in population 2. Climate change 3. Increased vulnerability due to: • Demographic changes • Increased concentration of assets • Environmental degradation • Poverty • Rapid urbanization and unplanned development 15 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015
  12. 12. 16 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 PHILIPPINES’ DISASTER RISK PROFILE
  13. 13. 17 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 The country is considered one of the most disaster-prone. It ranks 12th among 200 countries most at-risk for tropical cyclones, floods, earthquakes, and landslides in the 2009 Mortality Risk Index of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction  Located along the typhoon belt in the Pacific making it vulnerable to typhoons and tsunami.  Average of 20 typhoons yearly (7 are destructive).
  14. 14. 18 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 TD TS 1 2 3 4 5 Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Intensity Scale Tracks and Intensity of Tropical Cyclones, 1851-2006 1851-2006 TYPHOON SEASON
  15. 15. 19 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015
  16. 16. 20 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015
  17. 17. 21 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015  Located along the Pacific Ring of Fire, between two Tectonic plates (Eurasian and Pacific) which are volcanic and earthquake generators.  22 active volcanoes (5 most active). The Philippines, given its location on the earth is prone to various types of Natural Disasters.
  18. 18. 22 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 Are we prepared? WHAT IF?!
  19. 19. 23 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 EFFECTS OF DISASTERS
  20. 20. 24 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 EFFECTS OF DISASTERS
  21. 21. Response Actions taken immediately following the impact of a disaster when exceptional measures are required to meet the basic needs of the survivors.
  22. 22. Relief Measures that are required in search and rescue of survivors, as well to meet the basic needs for shelter, water, food and health care.
  23. 23. Recovery The process undertaken by a disaster affected community to fully restore itself to pre-disaster level of functioning.
  24. 24. 28
  25. 25. 29
  26. 26. Rehabilitation Actions taken in the aftermath of a disaster to: • assist victims to repair their dwellings; • re-establish essential services; • revive key economic and social activities
  27. 27. Reconstruction Permanent measures to repair or replace damaged dwellings and infrastructure and to set the economy back on course.
  28. 28. Development Sustained efforts intended to improve or maintain the social and economic well-being of a community
  29. 29. Prevention Measures taken to avert a disaster from occurring, if possible (to impede a hazard so that it does not have any harmful effects).
  30. 30. Mitigation Measures taken prior to the impact of a disaster to minimize its effects (sometimes referred to as structural and non-structural measures).
  31. 31. Preparedness Measures taken in anticipation of a disaster to ensure that appropriate and effective actions are taken in the aftermath.
  32. 32. 36 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 MANDATES REGARDING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION EO 335 – Civilian Emergency Administration PD 1566– National Disaster Coordination Council HYOGO Framework for Action 2005-2015 (Building Resilience of Nations & Communities to Disasters)
  33. 33. 37 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 HFA Priorities for Action Ensure that DRR is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning systems. Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels . Reduce the underlying risk factors Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels
  34. 34. 38 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 RA 9729– Climate Change Act 2009 MANDATES CONTINUED… RA 10121– Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System An Act Strengthening The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework, and Institutionalizing the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, appropriating funds thereof and for other purposes (DRRM Act 2010) The law which transforms the Philippines’ Disaster Management System from Disaster Relief and Response towards Disaster Risk Reduction.
  35. 35. 39 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 8th Congress (’89-’92) 9th Co2ngress (’92-’95) 10th Congress (’95-’98) 11th Congress (’98-2001) 12th Congress (2001-2004) 13th Congress (2004-2007) 14th Congress (2007-2010) RA NO. 10121 27 May 2010 • 21 years in the making • 7 Congresses • 4 Administration PD 1566 June 11, 1978
  36. 36. 40 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 Top-down and centralized disaster management Disasters as merely a function of physical hazards Focus on disaster response and anticipation Bottom-up and participatory disaster risk reduction Disaster mainly a reflection of people's vulnerability Integrated approach to genuine social and human development to reduce disaster risk and adoption of IT in DRM The enactment of the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 (also known as Republic Act 10121), aims to achieve a paradigm shift from reactive to proactive approach in disaster risk reduction and management.
  37. 37. 41 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 PARADIGM SHIFT Response Preparedness Mitigation: Risk Reduction / Prevention Rehabilitatio n REACTIVE Emergency/Disaster Management • Executive/Legislative Agenda • Environmental Management • Comprehensive Land Use Plan • Risk proofing • Financial tools • Hazard identification & • Vulnerability Analysis • Capacity Analysis • Public awareness • Public commitment • Community actions • Education & Training • Early Warning • SOP & Plans • ICS Development • Livelihood • Housing • Lifelines • Education • Infrastructure • DANA • Relief • SAR • Incident Command System • Evacuation • Health
  38. 38. 42 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 PARADIGM SHIFT PROACTIVE Emergency/Disaster Risk Management Mitigation: Risk Reduction /Prevention Preparedness Rehabilitation Response
  39. 39. 43 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 PARADIGM SHIFT National Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Framework Disaster Response Proactive Disaster Risk Reduction Emergency Specialists Hazard Scientists Risks Specialists Economic Managers Development Planners Reactive DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
  40. 40. 44 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 Inter-linkages between ecosystems, natural hazards and disasters and how did they emerge During the past decades, many efforts have been made to reduce negative impacts on the environment that have led to climate change, biodiversity loss, as well as soil and water degradation. Ecosystem degradation is a significant factor that can contribute to a hazard becoming a disaster.
  41. 41. 45 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 “Not all storms and other natural hazards need to turn into disasters ~ World Risk Report (2012) Mangroves, Indonesia
  42. 42. 46 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 Ecosystem and Human Interaction Ecosystem is a “dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro- organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit” ~Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) But what is our place in ecosystems? ANTHROPOCENE Human Development +Intelligence +Environmental Interaction +Adaptation +Crafting NEW Ability: FIRE Next Level +++Highest Level of Expectancy +++Highest Living Standards
  43. 43. 47 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015
  44. 44. 48 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 How Ecosystem Mitigate Disasters Mountain forests and vegetation on hillsides can reduce the risk of landslides, rock fall, avalanches and soil erosion. Moreover, forests store water and can reduce the runoff after rainfall events. Thereby they can reduce the risk of floods and droughts. Photo: Mountain forest in Brazil (Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro) © U. Nehren Wetlands and riverine ecosystems are important for flood control as they store water and slowly release it, reducing speed and volume of runoff. Coastal wetlands tidal flats, deltas and estuaries can reduce the height and speed of storm surges and tidal waves. Photo: Wetland in Nicaragua © U. Nehren
  45. 45. 49 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 Coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs, salt marshes, mangroves, and sand dunes can serve as natural buffers against tropical cyclones, storm surges, flooding, other coastal hazards and to some extent tsunamis. Moreover, coastal wetlands buffer against saltwater intrusion and adapt to sea-level rise. Photo: Coral Reef in Belize © N. Bayani Dryland ecosystems can reduce the risks of droughts and desertification, as trees, grasses and shrubs conserve soil and retain moisture. Shelterbelts, greenbelts and other types of living fences act as barriers against wind erosion and sand storms. Photo. Dry forest in Kenya © G. Ndegwa
  46. 46. 50 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 NOTE: 1. Healthy ecosystems are effective in protecting against hazards. Moreover, they can reduce exposure and vulnerability of communities. 2. Depending on the magnitude of the hazard there are limitations to how much protection ecosystems can provide, just as there are limitations to engineered structures”
  47. 47. 51 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 Issues and Challenges in Philippine DRRM System Gaps in functional coordination between stakeholders . Deficient communication and transportation systems Corruption and Gaps in Accountability Insufficient medical capacity Ongoing armed conflict
  48. 48. 52 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 Issues and Challenges in Philippine DRRM System Administration in many schools had not been strict in the implementing drills among students. Parents put emphasis on academic learning rather than disaster drills. School-based disaster drills are only conducted every three months. Poorly built classroom In School… Source: Valenia, L. (2014)
  49. 49. 53 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015
  50. 50. 54 DISASTER…Continued Disasters and Ecosystems: A Philippine Setting AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY- CHARRM Ibajay, Aklan May 22, 2015 Understanding is the first step to acceptance, and only with acceptance can there be recovery. ~J.K. Rowling To exist is to change, to change is to mature, to mature is to go on, creating oneself endlessly ~Henry Bergson Life is a series of natural and spontaneous changes. Don’t resist them; that only creates sorrow. Let realty be reality. Let things flow naturally forward in whatever way they like. ~Lao Tzu Nobody can go back and start a new beginning, but anyone can start today and make a new ending ~Maria Robinson

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