Bloom’s taxonomy, developed by education
researcher Benjamin Bloom, is a framework that
can be used to evaluate the different levels of
cognitive learning students achieve as they work
through the course material. This type of
evaluation helps educators target their lessons
so that students learn in the most effective way
possible. It also provides teachers with an easy
way to measure how much students are actually
learning during their time in class.
At the Knowledge level, students can
be asked to memorize facts or
definitions. Common activities might
include flashcards or matching games.
For instance, if the topic is a famous
historical event. Questions like “how
many…? Who was it that…? Can you
name the…?” fall under this category.
At the Comprehension level, students can be
asked to demonstrate their understanding of the
material by summarizing or paraphrasing.
Common activities might include short answer
questions or fill-in-the-blank exercises. For
instance, if it is a chapter from literature.
Questions like, “Can you write in your own
words…? Can you write a brief outline…? What do
you think could have happened next…?” fall under
At the Application level, students can be
asked to use what they have learned in a
new situation. Common activities might
include completing an activity sheet with
multiple choice answers, completing
worksheets, and participating in a role-play.
For instance, if it is a chapter on science.
Questions like “Choose the best statements
that apply… Judge the effects of… What
would result …?” fall under this category.
At the Analysis level, students will explain the logic
behind events. They will critically examine research
papers and provide evidence for their analysis of
text materials. Students will draw conclusions from
past events, and engage in debate about topics like
racism and discrimination. They will also offer
suggestions for possible solutions. For instance, it
is a literature chapter. Questions like, “Which
events could have happened…? If … happened, how
might the ending have been different? How was this
similar to…” fall under this category.
Students at the Synthesis level will study different
elements and ideas and combine them to give
birth to new ideas or structures. They will learn
how to identify common themes and patterns and
draw conclusions from them. For instance,
creating a presentation or project that integrates
two previously studied topics such as Jane
Austen’s Pride and Prejudice with Shakespeare’s
Romeo and Juliet.
At the evaluation stage, students will learn how to
form critical judgments on different topics. They
will learn how to give opinions based on certain
criteria and standards and support them with
logical reasoning and evidence. It is the highest
level of thinking and requires the most complex
mental processes. For instance, if it is a science
experiment. Questions like “What criteria would
you use to assess…? What data was used to
evaluate…? How could you verify…?” fall under this