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Meat Fabrication

  1. MEAT FABRICATION  Process of cutting carcasses into standard wholesale (primal) and retail cuts
  2. GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF MEAT FABRICATION 1. Tender meat is separated from tough meat 2. Thick portion must be separated from the thin portion 3. Muscles must be cut across the meat fiber/grain 4. Cheap parts must be separated from the expensive parts
  4. PRIMAL CUTS OF BEEF AND CARABEEF CARCASSES Front quarter 1. Chuck –pot roast, ground beef 2. Rib/prime cut – dry-heat cooking 3. Brisket – corned beef 4. Plate/short plate – carne asada 5. Shank/foreshank – osso buco
  5. PRIMAL CUTS OF BEEF AND CARABEEF CARCASSES Hind quarter 1. Shortloin –dry-heat cooking 2. Sirloin– roasting & barbecuing 3. Tenderloin – grilling & broiling 4. Flank or navel – braising 5. Round – moist-heat cooking (i.e. crockpot)
  6. PRIMAL CUTS OF MUTTON AND CHEVON CARCASSES Front quarter 1. Neck 2. Shoulder 3. Party Rack 4. Shank
  7. PRIMAL CUTS OF MUTTON AND CHEVON CARCASSES Hind quarter 1. Loin 2. Eye of loin 3. Tenderloin 4. Chump 5. Leg
  8. PRIMAL CUTS OF PORK CARCASSES 1. Jowl – sausages, bacon 2. Boston butt – sausages, lard 3. Picnic shoulder – cured or smoked 4. Loin – dry-heat cooking (roasting) 5. Spareribs - grilling (slowly over low temp) 6. Side - braising 7. Ham – serrano ham, prosciutto 8. Foot – pickled, Mexican menudo
  10. MEAT PROCESSING  Includes all processes utilized in altering fresh meat  Except for simple grinding, cutting and mixing  Necessary from the standpoint of preservation because through processing - Stability or shelf life of meat products are prolonged - Prevent early meat spoilage
  11. MEAT PROCESSING  Leads to the production of flavorful and nutritious products  Provides both convenience and variety of choices  Product marketability of meat processed is also enhanced
  12. TYPE OF PROCESSED MEAT 1. CURED meat  Process by the application of salt with or without sugar, with or without nitrate and may or may not be smoked  However, smoking further improved the palatability and stability or shelf life or cured meat  i.e. ham, bacon, tocino and tapa
  13. 3 MAJOR CURING AGENT SALT Dehydrates the meat through OSMOSIS Inactivates the spoilage of cured meat due to microorganism damage SUGAR Lowers the pH of the cured meat products when it forms LACTIC ACID enhanced the flavor of the cured products NITRATE Color-fixing agent responsible for the production of pinkish cured meat color Inhibits the growth of “Clostridium botulinum” and other putrefactive bacteria
  14. TYPE OF PROCESSED MEAT 2. SAUSAGES  Meat products that are ground, salted and usually seasoned  It is also stuffed in casing/formed in molds  classified into ground and emulsion-type sausages  Both types can be chilled, cured, smoked, dried, cooked and frozen
  15. CLASSIFICATION OF SAUSAGES A. GROUND sausages  Show discrete particles of meat  i.e. longganisa, chorizo de bilbao B. EMULSIFIED-TYPE sausages  Fat is emulsified and stabilized by the lean components  i.e. frankfurters, wieners, bologna
  16. TYPE OF PROCESSED MEAT 3. RESTRUCTURED meat products  Generally made from flaked, ground or sectioned beef or pork which is shaped into roasts, steaks or loaves.  i.e. smoked sliced beef, boneless hams
  17. BY-PRODUCTS OF MEAT ANIMALS  product of considerably less value than the major product (meat/carcass)  i.e. hide, skin, fat, bone and internal organs  In other countries (temperate) - major products – hide, skin, milk, draft - by-products – meat/carcass
  19. EDIBLE BY-PRODUCTS  VARIETY meat - products originating from organs and body parts other than carcass - liver, heart, tongue, etc.  TRIPE – comes from the lining of the stomach of ruminant animals (rumen, reticulum and omasum)  SWEETBREAD – thymus gland
  20. INEDIBLE BY-PRODUCTS  Tallow, hides, skins and inedible organs are the most higher-valued inedible by-products  Cattle/buffalo hides – 80% of the worlds leather products  HIDE –beef hide weighing > 15 kg  SKIN - beef hide weighing < 15 kg  SHEEP PELTS – skins from sheep with a wool left on it
  21. INEDIBLE BY-PRODUCTS  Inedible by-products are classified according to: a. species b. weight c. size d. placement of brand e. type of packer / producer / manufacturer
  22. MILK PROCESSING  The production of highly perishable commodity like MILK demands special consideration to ensure that it reaches the market in an acceptable condition  In the absence of cooling equipment, milk can be distributed only over short distances  One basic ELEMENT of dairying is PROCESSING which EXTENDS the range and duration of marketability
  23. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 1. Heat treatment Methods a. Pasteurization - heat treatment of an intensity combined with a specific holding time that destroys most of the psychotropic and pathogenic bacteria - but milk must be cooled to below 5ºC immediately after heat treatments
  24. - this is done to prevent surviving microorganism from multiplying and causing short shelf life of the pasteurized milk - pasteurization does NOT significantly affect the nutritional composition of milk except for the loss of light sensitive vitamins A and riboflavin - loss of ascorbic acid that is oxidized during storage if the package is NOT LIGHT tight.
  25. 3 HEAT TREATMENTS a.1. LTLT (low-temp-long-time) method - heats the milk at 63ºC for 30 minutes a.2. HTST (high-temp-short-time) method - heats the milk at 72ºC for 15 seconds a.3. UHT processing - heats the milk to about 142-145ºC for 2-3 seconds to bring the microorganism level to ZERO (sterilized the milk)
  26. 3 HEAT TREATMENTS a.3. UHT processing - UHT processed milk considerably loses its ascorbic acid, Vitamins B12 and B6 - only riboflavin remains stable due to the packaging which protects the milk against light NOTE: PROTEIN content in BOTH pasteurized & UHT-processed milk remains stable during treatment & storage
  27. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 2. Quick cooling methods - Cooling the milk 10ºC or lower 2 hours after milking or preferably immediately after milking - quick cooling stops the dev’t of microorganisms at an early stage in the lag-phase of the growth curve - quick cooling also extends the period that the bacteriostatic properties of the milk remain active
  28. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 3. Traditional processing methods - processing using salt and sugar treatments - adding this compounds at a level below saturation to raw milk will extend its shelf-life for few hours
  29. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 3. Traditional processing methods - limited milk use - salt-treated milk – can no longer be made into “pastillas de leche” - sugar-treated milk – can no longer be use in making “cheese”
  30. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 4. Clarification/Filtering Method - removal of extraneous matter from the milk - simplest way to remove impurities - however, this has the disadvantage that ALL milk has to pass through the dirt that accumulates on the filter
  31. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 5. Standardization Method - refers to the adjustment of milk and dairy products composition - i.e. butterfat (milk with 3.5% BF sold commercial) - if the butterfat is high, a portion of cream is removed - if the butterfat is low, a sufficient skim milk is added
  32. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 6.Cream separation method/Gravity Creaming - the separation of the milk fat globules (sg:0.63) and skim milk (sg:1.035) causes the globules to rise under gravity and slowly accumulated at the top forming a cream layer - Centrifugal creaming (5,000 times faster than cream separation method)
  33. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 7. Homogenization method - process involving the breaking up of the fat globules whose diameter is around 1-18µ into smaller size of <1µ - thus preventing the globules from rising during storage and forming a cream layer
  34. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 8. Reconstitution method - process involving the dissolving of milk powder in water - inferior quality of whole milk produced due to poor solubility of whole milk powder and oxidation of milk fat during storage
  35. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 9. Recombination method - process of standardizing reconstituted skim milk with butter oil - favored process due to better solubility of skim milk powder and better keeping quality of butter oil/fat when kept separately
  36. BASIC MILK PROCESSING TREATMENTS 10. Toning method - toned milk is obtained by blending locally produced milk containing high fat content (buffalo/sheep milk) with water and non-fat dry milk (skim milk powder) - good flavor is retained
  37. PROCESSED MILK PRODUCTS 1. Whole Milk or Full Cream Milk - milk from which milk fat has NOT been extracted - packaged for beverage (<3% milk fat and NOT <8.25% milk solid-non-fat (SNF)
  38. PROCESSED MILK PRODUCTS 2. Low-fat Milk - milk from which some or most milk fat has been removed - but must be maintained fat levels with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% and NOT <8.25% milk SNF
  39. PROCESSED MILK PRODUCTS 3. Skim Milk - milk from which sufficient milk fat has been removed to reduce its milk fat content to <0.5% and contains NOT <8.5% milk SNF.
  40. PROCESSED MILK PRODUCTS 4. Evaporated Milk - produced by pre-heating to stabilize proteins and remove about 60% of the water - it is sealed in a container and then heat-treated to sterilize its contents - milk fat and SNF of evaporated milk must be at least 7.5% and 25%, respectively
  41. PROCESSED MILK PRODUCTS 5. Condensed Milk - it has milk fat (7.5%) and SNF (25.5%) requirements - milk from which water has removed, but NOT subjected to further heat treatment - addition of enough sugar that acts as a natural preservative