2. Manipulation of cultural practices for reducing or
avoiding pest damage to crops is called cultural control. It is
also defined as ‘control of insect pests through adoption of
ordinary farm practices in appropriate time in such a way that
insects are either eliminated or reduced in population’.
3. The cultural practices may lead to the control of insect
pest either by directly affecting their growth and multiplication
or by minimizing the chance of their attack on plants. The
main purpose of cultural control is to make the environment
less favourable for the pest and more favourable for its
• Sound knowledge on pest ecology
• Large scale adoption
4. Cropping techniques Pests Checked
Ploughing Red hairy caterpillar, white grubs,
Racking and hoeing Fruit flies, pumpkin beetles
Pruning Rice mealybug
Pest free seed materials Potato tuber moth, sweet potato
weevil, banana rhizome weevil
High seed rate (25%) Sorghum shoot fly
Plant density rouge spacing Brown planthopper
Earthing up on 30 DAP Early shoot borer of sugarcane
Detrashing on 5th an d 7th months
Scale, whitefly of sugarcane
Destruction of weed hosts
Citrus fruit sucking moth
Destruction of alternate hosts
Cotton white fly
Intercropping: Cowpea in sorghum,
Sorghum stem borer
5. Cucumber in groundnut Groundnut leaf miner
Trap cropping: mustard in cabbage
(1:25) Caster as border crop
DBM in cabbage
Spodoptera litura in cotton
Mixed cropping: sunflower, maize,
onion, coriander, cowpea, &
marigold in cotton
Sucking pests and bollworms
Water management Caseworm, BHP in rice
Judicious application of fertilizer BPH, leaf folder in rice
Clipping off top in seedlings Rice stem borer
Mulching: trash mulching to a
thickness of 10 cm on 3-21 days
Early shoot borer of sugarcane
Timely harvesting Sweet potato weevil, pulse beetle
6. B. Community level practices
• Synchronized sowing -Dilution of pest
• Crop rotation -Breaks insect life cycle
• Crop sanitation -Destruction of insect infested
parts; Removal of fallen plant parts and crop residue
• No extra cost
• No costly inputs
• No special equipment
• Minimum cost of labor, if required
• Minimum chance for biotype selection
• No health hazards- ecologically sound
• No harmful effects on non-target organisms
• Good component in IPM
10. Agroecology- is the study of ecological processes that
operate in agricultural production systems.
- A scientific discipline that uses ecological theory to
study, design, manage and evaluate agricultural systems
that are productive but also resource conserving.
- An ecological approach to agriculture that views
agricultural areas as ecosystems and is concerned with the
ecological impact of agricultural practices.
11. - Is the science behind sustainable agriculture, from
the ground up. It encourages democratic, decentralized
decision-making by farmers and incorporates practical, low
cost and ecology-based technologies for productive farming.
- Agroecology provides the knowledge and
methodology necessary for developing an agriculture that is
on the one hand environmentally sound and on the other
hand highly productive, socially equitable and economically
viable. Through the application of agroecological principles,
the basic challenge for sustainable agriculture to make better
use of internal resources can be easily achieved by
minimizing the external inputs used, and preferably by
regenerating internal resources more effectively through
diversification strategies that enhance synergisms among key
components of the agroecosystem.
12. Goal of Agroecology- to develop and manage sustainable
An Ecological Definition of Sustainable
By Professor Stephen R. Gliessman
A whole-systems approach to food, feed, and fiber
production that balances environmental soundness, social
equity, and economic viability among all sectors of the public,
including international and intergenerational peoples.
Inherent in this definition is the idea that sustainability must
be extended not only globally but indefinitely in time, and to
all living organisms including humans.
13. Sustainable Agroecosystems:
• Maintain their natural resource base.
• Rely on minimum artificial inputs from outside the
• Manage pests and diseases through internal
• Recover from the disturbances caused by
cultivation and harvest.
14. Principles of Agroecology and Sustainability
Use Renewable Resources
• Use renewable sources of energy instead of non-
• Use biological nitrogen fixation.
• Use naturally-occurring materials instead of
synthetic, manufactured inputs.
• Use on-farm resources as much as possible.
• Recycle on-farm nutrients.
15. Minimize Toxics
• Reduce or eliminate the use of materials that have
the potential to harm the environment or the health of
farmers, farm workers, or consumers.
• Use farming practices that reduce or eliminate
environmental pollution with nitrates, toxic gases, or other
materials generated by burning or overloading
agroecosystems with nutrients.
16. Conserve Resources
• Sustain soil nutrient and organic matter stocks.
• Minimize erosion.
1. Use perennials
2. Use no-till or reduced tillage methods.
• Dry farm.
• Use efficient irrigation systems.
17. Conserve Energy
• Use energy efficient technologies.
Conserve genetic resources
• Save seed.
• Maintain local landraces.
• Use heirloom varieties.
• Keep bank debt to a minimum.
• Reduce expenditures.
18. Manage Ecological Relationships
• Reestablish ecological relationships that can occur
naturally on the farm instead of reducing and simplifying
• Manage pests, diseases, and weeds instead of
• Use intercropping and cover cropping
• Integrate Livestock
• Enhance beneficial biota
19. 1. In soils
o free-living nitrogen fixers
2. Beneficial insects
o Provide refugia for beneficials.
o Enhance benefial populations by breed and release
20. • Recycle Nutrients
1. Shift from throughflow nutrient management to
recycling of nutrients.
2. Return crop residues and manures to soils.
3. When outside inputs are necessary, sustain their
benefits by recycling them.
• Minimize Disturbance
1. Use reduced tillage or no-till methods.
2. Use mulches.
3. Use perennials
21. Adjust to Local Environments
• Match cropping patterns to the productive potential
and physical limitations of the farm landscape.
• Adapt Biota
• Adapt plants and animals to the ecological conditions
of the farm rather than modifying the farm to meet the
needs of the crops and animals.
1. Maintain undisturbed areas as buffer zones.
2. Use contour and strip tillage.
3. Maintain riparian buffer zones.
4. Use rotational grazing.
2. Rotate crops.
3. Use polyculture.
4. Integrate animals in system.
5. Use multiple species of crops and animals on farm.
6. Use multiple varieties and landraces of crops and
animals on farm.
23. • Economics
1. Avoid dependence on single crops/products.
2. Use alternative markets.
3. Organic markets.
4. Community Supported Agriculture
5. "Pick your own" marketing.
6. Add value to agricultural products.
7. Process foods before selling them.
8. Find alternative incomes.
10. Avoid dependence on external subsidies.
11. Use multiple crops to diversify seasonal timing of
production over the year.
24. Empower People
• Ensure that local people control their development
• Use indigenous knowledge
• Promote multi-directional transfer of knowledge, as
opposed to "top-down" knowledge transfer.
1. Teach experts and farmers to share knowledge,
not "impose" it.
• Engage in people-centric development.
• Increase farmer participation.
1. Link farmers with consumers
• Strengthen communities.
1. Encourage local partnerships between people
and development groups.
2. Ensure intergenerational fairness.
25. • Guarantee agricultural labor.
1. Ensure equitable labor relations for farm
• Teach principles of agroecology & sustainability.
Manage Whole Systems
• Use planning processes that recognize the different
scales of agroecosystems.
• Minimize impacts on neighboring ecosystems.
26. Maximize Long-Term Benefits
• Maximize intergenerational benefits, not just annual
• Maximize livelihoods and quality of life in rural areas.
• Facilitate generational transfers.
• Use long-term strategies.
• Develop plans that can be adjusted and reevaluated
• Incorporate long-term sustainability into overall
agroecosystem design and management.
• Build soil fertility over the long-term.
• Build soil organic matter.
27. Value Health
• Human Health
• Cultural Health
• Environmental Health
1. Value most highly the overall health of
agroecosystems rather than the outcome of a particular
crop system or season.
2. Eliminate environmental pollution by toxics
and surplus nutrients.
• Animal Health
• Plant Health
1. Enhance recycling of biomass and optimizing nutrient
availability and balancing nutrient flow.
2. Securing favorable soil conditions for plant growth,
particularly by managing organic matter and enhancing
soil biotic activity.
3. Minimizing losses due to flows of solar radiation, air and
water by way of microclimate management, water
harvesting and soil management through increased soil
4. Species and genetic diversification of the
agroecosystem in time and space.
5. Enhance beneficial biological interactions and
synergisms among agrobiodiversity components thus
resulting in the promotion of key ecological processes and